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According to the Bible, Esther was a Jewish queen of the Persian king Ahasuerus. Ahasuerus is traditionally identified with Xerxes I during the time of the Achaemenid empire. Her story is the basis for the celebration of Purim in Jewish tradition. However, there have yet to be any non-biblical accounts to verify her existence.
In the Bible
King Ahasuerus held a 180-day feast in Susa (Shoushan). While in "high spirits" from the wine, he ordered his queen, Vashti, to appear before him and his guests to display her beauty. But when the attendants delivered the king's command to Queen Vashti, she refused to come. Furious at her refusal to obey, the king asked his wise men what should be done. One of them said that all the women in the empire would hear that "The King Ahasuerus commanded Vashti the queen to be brought in before him, but she came not." Then the women of the empire would despise their husbands. And this would cause many problems in the kingdom. Therefore it would be good to depose her.
To find a new queen suitable to the King, it was decreed that beautiful young virgins be gathered to the palace from every province of his kingdom. Each woman underwent twelve months of beautification in his harem, after which she would go to the king. When the woman's turn came, she was given anything she wanted to take with her from the harem to the king's palace. She would then go to the king in the evening, and in the morning go to the harem where the concubines stayed. She would not return to the king unless he was pleased enough with her to summon her again by name.
Esther 2:7: "And he brought up Hadassah, that is, Esther, his uncle's daughter: for she had neither father nor mother, and the maid was fair and beautiful; whom Mordecai, when her father and mother were dead, took for his own daughter." Esther was the daughter of a Benjamite, Abihail. When Cyrus gave permission for the exiles to return unto Jerusalem she stayed with Mordecai.
Shortly, when Mordecai was sitting at the king's gates, he overheard two of the king's officers guarding the gates plotting to assassinate the king. Mordecai let Esther know, and she warned the king about it, and Mordecai was given credit. The two conspirators were hanged on a gallows.
Soon after this, King Ahasuerus granted Haman the Agagite,[note 1] one of the most prominent princes of the realm, special honours. All the people were to bow down to Haman when he rode his horse through the streets. All complied except for Mordecai, a Jew, who would bow to no one but his God. This enraged Haman, who, with his wife and advisers, plotted against the Jews, making a plan to kill and extirpate all Jews throughout the Persian empire, selecting the date for this act by the drawing of lots (Esther 3:7). After laying charges of sedition against the Jews, Haman gained the king's approval to write a decree for their destruction; offering ten thousand silver talents to the king for approval of this plan (Esther 3:9-11).
Mordecai tore his robes and put ash on his head (signs of mourning or grieving) on hearing this news. When Esther was told of this, she was grieved and sent Mordecai fresh robes, since none could "enter into the king’s gate clothed with sackcloth." He refused and Esther sent "Hatach, one of the king’s chamberlains" appointed to wait on her, to ask Mordecai the cause of his mourning and why he refused the clothes. Mordecai sent back a reply explaining about Haman and the decree, sending her a copy of it, and the charge "that she should go in unto the king, to make supplication unto him, and to make request before him for her people." Esther replied that there was a law that anyone who came unto the king uncalled by him should be put to death, "except such to whom the king shall hold out the golden sceptre, that he may live: but I have not been called to come in unto the king these thirty days." (Esth. 4:11, KJV) Esther was terrified for her life if she did as Mordecai said.
Mordecai was told Esther's reply, and he sent back a message that Esther should not think that she would escape the genocide because she was in the king's house, any more than all the other Jews. And further, that, if she held her peace at this time, deliverance would arise from somewhere else, but she and her father's house would be destroyed. He ended his message with these consoling words: "Who knoweth whether thou art come to the kingdom for such a time as this?" (Esth. 4:13-14, KJV.) Upon hearing Mordecai's message, Esther exhibited her resolution by seeking spiritual strength for her before she went uncalled unto the king—that she might steadfast, whether to perhaps find favor in the king's sight and be the means of deliverance for their people, or else to die in the attempt—in returning to Mordecai this answer: "Go, gather together all the Jews that are present in Shushan, and fast ye for me, and neither eat nor drink three days, night or day: I also and my maidens will fast likewise; and so will I go in unto the king, which is not according to the law: and if I perish, I perish." (Esther 4:16 KJV.)
Mordecai followed her instructions. So she and her maid-servants and all the Jews present in Shushan, fasted earnestly for three days as part of a supplication to God on behalf of Esther. At the end of the three days, Esther dressed in her royal apparel (Esther 5:1) and bravely went before the king, standing in the inner court where he sat upon his throne. When the king saw "Esther the queen standing in the court," (Esth. 5:2 KJV), he was pleased with her and held out his scepter to her, thus saving her from death (Esth. 4:11) and indicating that he accepted her visit. She came forward and touched his scepter. The king then asked Esther her will, and what her petition and request of him was, promising to grant even up to half his kingdom should she ask it. Esther humbly requested that the king and Haman come to a banquet she had prepared for the king. No one else was invited, which filled Haman with pride. During the banquet, Queen Esther requested of the king another banquet with him and Haman on the following day.
After the banquet Haman ran into Mordecai sitting in the king's gate. Haman was so incensed with Mordecai for not deferring to him, that, on the advice of his wife and friends, he ordered a gallows constructed, 75 feet (23 m) high, on which to hang Mordecai the next day, after obtaining the king's consent. That night, the king couldn't sleep and so he had some histories read to him. From the reading the king remembered that Mordecai had saved him from an assassination attempt, and had received no reward in return. Early the next morning, Haman came to the king to ask permission to hang Mordecai, but before he could do so, the king asked him: "What should be done for the man whom the king delights to honor?" Haman thought the king meant himself, so he said that the man should wear a royal robe and be led on one of the king's horses through the city streets proclaiming before him, "This is what is done for the man the king delights to honor!" Pleased by this idea, the king startled Haman by commanding Haman to lead none other than Mordecai through the streets in this way, to honor him for previously telling the king of a plot against him. Haman obeyed then, while Mordecai returned to his spot by the king's gate, Haman rushed home, grieving, and told his wise men and wife everything. His wife said to him, "You will surely come to ruin!"
That evening during the banquet, King Ahasuerus again asked Esther what her petition was and made her the same promise as before. Esther asked that her life be spared and the lives of her people, the Jews of the Persian Empire, who were the people Haman had previously convinced the king must be massacred (Esth. 3). In doing so, she declared her ethnicity. Haman's treachery so inflamed the king that he left the banquet and went into the palace garden. Haman, seeing that his situation was precarious, pled with Esther to save his life, ending up on her couch beside her as he begged—which caused the king to jump to an obvious conclusion upon returning to the banquet from the garden. Seeing Haman thus, the king's wrath knew no bounds, thinking that Haman was about to molest Esther. He cried, "Will he force the queen also before me in the house?" (Esth. 5: 8, KJV.) Whereupon, the king's chamberlains seized Haman, and one of them told the king of the gallows Haman had constructed for Mordecai. The king told them: "Hang [Haman] thereon."
And so Haman was hung on the gallows he had built for Mordecai, and "the king's wrath pacified." (Esth. 7:10, KJV.) The king then appointed Mordecai as his prime minister, after which Esther went again before the king, and "fell down at his feet, and besought him with tears to put away the mischief of Haman." Then, as before, the king held out the scepter toward Esther and she stood and pled with him to "reverse the letters" of Haman against the Jews. In consequence, the king instructed Mordecai to issue a decree giving the Jews the right to defend themselves. The second edict allowed the Jews to arm themselves, and kill not only their enemies but also their enemies' wives and children, as well as partake of the plunder (Esther 8:11). This precipitated a series of reprisals by the Jews against their enemies. This fight began on the 13th of Adar, the date the Jews were originally slated to be exterminated. Altogether eight hundred were killed in Susa alone, 75,000 in the rest of the empire. The Jews took no plunder (Esther 9:10,9:15-16).
The Jews established an annual feast, the feast of Purim, in memory of their deliverance. According to traditional rabbinic dating, this took place about fifty-two years after the start of the Babylonian Exile.
Origin and meaning
According to Esther 2:7, Esther was originally named Hadassah. Hadassah means "myrtle" in Hebrew. It has been conjectured that the name Esther is derived from a reconstructed Median word astra meaning myrtle.
An alternative view is that Esther is derived from the theonym Ishtar. The Book of Daniel provides accounts of Jews in exile being assigned names relating to Babylonian gods and "Mordecai" is understood to mean servant of Marduk, a Babylonian god. "Esther" may have been a different Hebrew interpretation from the Proto-Semitic root "star/'morning/evening star'", which descended with the /th/ into the Ugaritic Athtiratu and Arabian Athtar. The derivation must then have been secondary for the initial ayin to be confused with an aleph (both represented by vowels in Akkadian), and the second consonant descended as a /s/ (like in the Aramaic asthr "bright star"), rather than a /sh/ as in Hebrew and most commonly in Akkadian.
Wilson, who identified Ahasuerus with Xerxes I and Vashti with Amestris, suggested that both "Amestris" and "Esther" derived from Akkadian Ammi-Ishtar or Ummi-Ishtar. Hoschander alternatively suggested Ishtar-udda-sha ("Ishtar is her light") as the origin with the possibility of -udda-sha being connected with the similarly sounding Hebrew name Hadassah. These names however remain unattested in sources, and come from the original Babylonian Empire from 2000 BCE, not the Chaldean Empire or Persian Empire of the Book of Esther.
The Targum connects the name with the Persian word for "star", ستاره setareh, explaining that Esther was so named for being as beautiful as the Morning Star. In the Talmud (Tractate Yoma 29a), Esther is compared to the "morning star", and is considered the subject of Psalm 22, because its introduction is a "song for the morning star".
Abraham Kuyper notes some "disagreeable aspects" to her character — that she should not have agreed to take Vashti's place, that she refrained from saving her nation until her own life was threatened, and that she carries out bloodthirsty vengeance.
Esther as rhetorical theory
Esther, because she used only rhetoric to convince the king to save her people, has been interpreted as a model for a successful rhetoric of marginalized groups persuading those who have power over them. According to Susan Zaeske, the story of Esther is a "rhetoric of exile and empowerment that, for millennia, has notably shaped the discourse of marginalized peoples such as Jews, women, African Americans, and lesbians.” Zaeske argues that Esther speaks not only for women but for a multi-gender oppressed group and does it in such a way that “depicts rhetorical dynamics, not only of Jews living in a foreign court, but also of women coping in a society intensely hostile to their gender.” In this way, Esther’s rhetoric has been interpreted not as strictly feminist rhetoric or strictly Jewish rhetoric but rhetoric of intersectional exiled or marginalized groups.
Given the great historical link between Persian and Jewish history, modern day Persian Jews are called "Esther's Children". A building known as the Tomb of Esther and Mordecai is located in Hamadan, Iran, although the village of Kfar Bar'am in northern Israel also claims to be the burial place of Queen Esther.
- The Italian Renaissance poet Lucrezia Tornabuoni chose Esther as one of biblical figures on which she wrote poetry.
- In 1689, Jean Baptiste Racine wrote Esther, a tragedy, at the request of Louis XIV's wife, Françoise d'Aubigné, marquise de Maintenon.
- In 1718, Handel wrote the oratorio Esther based on Racine's play.
- In 1958, a book entitled Behold Your Queen! was written by Gladys Malvern and illustrated by her sister, Corinne Malvern. It was chosen as a selection of the Junior Literary Guild.
- The play entitled Esther (1960), written by Welsh dramatist Saunders Lewis, is a retelling of the story in Welsh.
- A movie about the story, Esther and the King
- A 1978 miniseries entitled The Greatest Heroes of the Bible starred Victoria Principal as Esther, Robert Mandan as Xerxes, and Michael Ansara as Haman.
- Episode 25 of the 1981 anime series Superbook involves this story.
- The 1983 musical entitled Swan Esther was written by J. Edward Oliver and Nick Munns and released as a concept album with Stephanie Lawrence and Denis Quilley. Swan Esther has been performed by the Young Vic, a national tour produced by Bill Kenwright and some amateur groups.
- A 1986 Israeli film directed by Amos Gitai entitled Esther.
- The novel Hadassah by J. Francis Hudson (Lion Publishing, 1996) integrates the Biblical narrative with ancient Greek accounts of the reign of Xerxes (Ahasuerus).
- A 1999 TV movie from the Bible Collection that follows the biblical account very closely, Esther, starred Louise Lombard in the title role and F. Murray Abraham as Mordecai.
- In 2000, VeggieTales released "Esther... The Girl Who Became Queen."
- In May 2005 the musical Luv Esther was first shown. It is written by Ray Goudie.
- Esther is the titled heroine in Ginger Garrett's novel Chosen: The Lost Diaries of Queen Esther
- A 2006 movie about Esther and Ahasuerus, entitled One Night with the King, stars Tiffany Dupont and Luke Goss. It was based on the novel Hadassah: One Night with the King by Tommy Tenney and Mark Andrew Olsen.
- In the 2006 Melbourne Fringe Festival, The Backyard Bard toured a Biblical Storytelling production of 'Esther', featuring four women storytellers telling the story word-for-word from the Biblical account.
- In the anime Trinity Blood Esther is the main character, a nun with a star on her side. She is prophesied to be "the morning star" who will lead the people to peace.
- In the 2008 HBO television movie Recount, Florida Secretary of State Katherine Harris (portrayed by Laura Dern) compares herself to Queen Esther, of whom she says "was willing to sacrifice herself to save the lovely Jewish people."
- Esther is one of the five heroines of the Order of the Eastern Star.
- Esther (opera) was composed by Hugo Weisgall.
- Debra Spark's 2009 novel Good for the Jews is a modern day retelling of Esther set in Madison, Wisconsin.
- On March 8, 2011, the Maccabeats released a music video called "Purim Song".
- "A Reluctant Queen" by Joan Wolf is a fictionalized re-telling of Esther's story.
- The Book of Esther is a 2013 movie starring Jen Lilley as Queen Esther and Joel Smallbone as King Xerxes.
Canonicity in Christianity
The status of Esther as a canonical book of the Bible has historically been under dispute. For example, in the first several centuries of Christianity, Esther does not appear in the lists of books produced by Melito, Athanasius, Cyril, Gregory of Nazianzus, and others. Additionally, no copies of Esther were found at Qumran in the contents of the Dead Sea Scrolls. Nevertheless, by the fourth century CE, the majority of Western churches accepted Esther as a part of their Bibles.
- Esther 1:16-20
- Esther 2:14
- Esther 2:7
- Barton, John; John Muddiman (2001-09-06). "Esther". The Oxford Bible Commentary. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780198755005.
- Huehnergard, John (2008-04-10). "Appendix 1: Afro-Asiatic". In Woodard, Roger D. The Ancient Languages of Syria-Palestine and Arabia. Cambridge University Press. pp. 225–246. ISBN 9781139469340.
- Rahmouni, Aïcha; Ford, J. N. (2008). "Section 1, The Near and Middle East". Divine Epithets in the Ugaritic Alphabetic Texts. Brill. p. 86. ISBN 9004157697.
- Offord, Joseph (April 1915). "The Deity of the Crescent Venus in Ancient Western Asia". Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland: 198. JSTOR 25189307.
- NeXtBible Study Dictionary, entry "Ahasbai"
- Targum to Esther 2:7
- Tidball, Dianne (2001). Esther, a True First Lady: A Post-Feminist Icon in a Secular World. Christian Focus Publications. ISBN 9781857926712.
- Kuyper, Abraham (2010-10-05). Women of the Old Testament. Zondervan. pp. 175–176. ISBN 9780310864875.
- Zaeske, Susan (2003). "Unveiling Esther as a Pragmatic Radical Rhetoric". Philosophy and Rhetoric 33 (3): 194.
- Zaeske, Susan (2003). "Unveiling Esther as a Pragmatic Radical Rhetoric". Philosophy and Rhetoric 33 (3): 197.
- Zaeske, Susan (2003). "Unveiling Esther as a Pragmatic Radical Rhetoric". Philosophy and Rhetoric 33 (3): 199.
- Vahidmanesh, Parvaneh (5 May 2010). "Sad Fate of Iran's Jews".
- Schaalje, Jacqueline (June 2001). "Ancient synagogues in Bar'am and Capernaum". Jewish Magazine.
- Robin, Larsen and Levin. Encyclopedia of women in the Renaissance: Italy, France, and England. p. 368.
- "The Maccabeats - Purim Song". YouTube. Retrieved 2011-08-09.
- McDonald, Lee Martin (2006-11-01). The Biblical Canon: Its Origin, Transmission, and Authority. Baker Academic. pp. 56, 109, 128, 131. ISBN 9780801047107.
- Beal, Timothy K. (1997-12-11). The Book of Hiding: Gender, Ethnicity, Annihilation, and Esther (1st ed.). London ; New York: Routledge. ISBN 9780415167802.. Postmodern theoretical apparatus, e.g., Jacques Derrida, Emmanuel Levinas
- Fox, Michael V. (2010-04-01). Character and Ideology in the Book of Esther: Second Edition with a New Postscript on A Decade of Esther Scholarship (2nd ed.). Eugene, OR: Wipf & Stock. ISBN 9781608994953.
- Sasson, Jack M. (1990). "Esther". In Alter, Robert; Kermode, Frank. The Literary Guide to the Bible. Harvard University Press. pp. 335–341. ISBN 9780674875319.
- Kahr, Madlyn Millner (1968). The Book of Esther in Seventeenth-century Dutch Art. New York University.
- Webberley, Helen (Feb 2008). "Rembrandt and The Purim Story". The Jewish Magazine.
- White, Sidnie Ann (1989-01-01). "Esther: A Feminine Model for Jewish Diaspora". In Day, Peggy Lynne. Gender and Difference in Ancient Israel. Fortress Press. ISBN 9781451415766.
- Grossman, Jonathan (2011). Esther: The Outer Narrative and the Hidden Reading. Eisenbrauns. ISBN 9781575062211.
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