Estonian Land Forces

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Estonian Land Forces
Maavägi
Maavagi crest.svg
Estonian Land Forces emblem
Active 1918–present
Country  Estonia
Role Land defence
Equipment
Engagements War of Independence
Iraqi war (2003)
Afghanistan War (2001)
Commanders
Commander Colonel Artur Tiganik[1]

The Estonian Land Forces (Estonian: Maavägi), unofficially referred to as the Estonian Army, is the name of the unified ground forces among the Estonian Defence Forces where it has an offensive military formation role. It is currently also the largest military branch with the average size during the peacetime with around 6,000 soldiers, conscripts and officers.

The Maavägi development priorities are the capability to participate in missions outside the national territory and the capability to perform operations to protect the territory of Estonia, also in co-operation with the Allies. The Maavägi component of the operational structure consists of an infantry brigade and a homeland security structure. Deployable infantry battalion tactical group and some deployable CS, CSS units will developed in the Army structure in accordance with NATO Force Proposals requirements. Infantry brigade will act as a training and support frame for deployable units. Homeland security structure units will have the capability to carry out territorial military tasks and support civil structures.

The Land Forces are structured according to the principle of a reserve force which means that the main part of the defence forces of the state are units in a trained reserve. For a state with few human and economic resources, a reserve force based on the will of defence of the citizens is the only viable form of national defence.

In peacetime the reservists conduct normal lives and the state takes care of their training and the procurement of equipment and weapons. In wartime the reservists are mobilized into military units. The reserve units are formed on the territorial principle, i.e. conscripts from one area are called up at one time to one unit and after service they are sent to the reserve as one unit. The Estonian Army is always in constant defence readiness in co-operation with the other services.

Interwar history[edit]

The 1st and 2nd Divisions were created during the Estonian War of Independence, the 2nd Division in December 1918-January 1919. The Scouts Single Infantry Battalion was formed on 21 December 1918.

On 21 November 1928 eight 'Single Infantry Battalions' were created. The peacetime purpose of these battalions was to train conscripts. In wartime the battalion would reorganize itself into a regiment with a similar order of battle as the two initial reaction force regiments covering the eastern and southern borders. Each battalion's peacetime strength was a total 237 soldiers, in a regimental staff, a Signal Platoon, an Engineering Platoon, a Ski-Bicycle Platoon, a Building Platoon, and three infantry companies.

The war time order of battle would have transformed the battalion into a regiment size unit carrying the same unit number and would have included 3 infantry battalions, Signal Company, Engineering Company, Ski-Bicycle Company, Cavalry Company, Building Company, Commandant Commando and a CB Commando. In total of 3153 men.

The 2nd Single Infantry Battalion was located at Tartu; the 3rd Single Infantry Battalion was located at Valga; the 4th at Jõhvi; the 5th at Rakvere; the 6th Single Infantry Battalion was located at Pärnu; the 8th Single Infantry Battalion at Valga; the 9th at Pärnu; and the 10th Single Infantry Battalion was located at Tallinn.

A reorganisation took place on February 1, 1940 and four divisions were created. The 4th Division staff was based in Viljandi. The division was made up by the Pärnu-Viljandi Military District and Valga Military District. The division's last commander was Colonel Jaan Maide. The four divisions were active until the Soviet occupation of Estonia.

On August 17, 1940, after Estonia's accession to USSR, the 22nd Territorial Rifle Corps of the Red Army was formed at Tallinn. It was created as a territorial Estonian body on the basis of military units and institutions of the Estonian Army. All soldiers and officers kept the Estonian Army 1936 uniforms, on which were sewn Soviet insignia. The first commander of the 22nd Territorial Rifle Corps was a former major general of the Estonian Army, Gustav Yonson, who was later arrested by the NKVD and shot. Initially, most of the corps' officer posts were occupied by former officers of the Estonian army, but by the middle of June 1941 - even before the German invasion of the Soviet Union - most of them were arrested and replaced by newcomers from the Soviet Red Army officers.

Many of the Estonian officers of the 22nd Territorial Rifle Corps body were arrested and died in 1941 - 1942 in camps in the Russian Federation; many were shot. The former commander of the 180th Rifle Division, 22nd Corps, Richard Tomberg, survived after dismissal only because since 1942 he has been claimed by the Frunze Military Academy as a teacher . He was arrested in February 1944 (he was released from the camp and rehabilitated in 1956.) Some officers of the 22nd Rifle Corps, among whom was Alfons Rebane, managed to escape from the authorities in the period between the dismissal of the army and the plan for their arrest. Someone managed to escape abroad, others came out of hiding only after the arrival of German troops in July - August 1941, some of them volunteered for the Estonian units that fought on the side of Nazi Germany, or to enlist in the Estonian organisations controlled by the German authorities.

The 22nd Territorial Rifle Corps was part of the 'operational army' during World War II from 22 June 1941 to 31 August 1941. On June 22, 1941 the corps headquarters was stationed in Rev.

Organization[edit]

The Estonian Land Forces actively uses seven sizes of military unit: the Lahingpaar (English: Fire and maneuver team), the Salk (English: Fireteam), the Jagu (English: Section), the Rühm (English: Platoon), the Kompanii (English: Company), the Pataljon (English: Battalion), and the Brigaad (English: Brigade). The Diviis or in (English: Division) is not in active use.

Peacetime structure[edit]

Estonian military units and bases
Source: Jane's World Armies Issue 23 - 2008
Tapa Garrison: is also for the HQ Northeastern Defence District and fields the 1st Artillery, Air Defence, and Engineer Battalions.
Note 2: Tallinn is HQ Northern Defence District, HQ Estonian Navy, and garrison for the Guard Battalion.

Wartime structure[edit]

The Maavägi is an army that is based on the principles of the Military reserve force both for practical and historical reasons. The relatively small peacetime Army will be reinforced during wartime by the military reservists of the Estonian Defence League (Estonian: Kaitseliit). Once fully mobilized the Maavägi can man and arm during the conflict the following wartime structure:

  • 4 infantry brigades
  • 3 air-defence battalions
  • 2 engineer battalions
  • 3 artillery battalions
  • 2 combat support service battalions
  • 2 scouts companies
  • 2 anti-tank companies
  • 2 signal companies

Personnel[edit]

Professional units[edit]

Currently there are two professional infantry battalions (Scouts Battalion and the Kalevs Battalion) in ground forces. There is also a Estonian Special Operations Force.

Training[edit]

Ranks[edit]

Equipment[edit]

Firearms[edit]

Name Origin Type Calibre Photo Notes
Pistols
Heckler & Koch USP  Germany Semi-automatic pistol 9 mm HKUSP.png Standard issue pistol.[2]
Makarov pistol  Soviet Union Semi-automatic pistol 9 mm Пистолет Макарова.png Standard issue pistol.[3]
Assault rifles and carbines
IMI Galil  Israel Assault rifle 5.56 mm Estonian soldier DA-SD-06-03436 c1.jpg Standard issue assault rifle. The army currently uses the following variants:

Galil AR (5.56 mm)[4]
Galil SAR (5.56 mm)[5]
Galil ARM (5.56 mm)[6]

AK 4  Sweden Battle rifle 7.62 mm Gun safety.jpg Standard issue assault rifle.[7] Currently used by conscripts and the Estonian Defence League (Kaitseliit).
Heckler & Koch G3  Germany Battle rifle 7.62 mm DCB Shooting G3 pictures.jpg Variants G3A3ZF and G3A4.[8]
HK417  Germany Battle rifle 7.62x51mm NATO Skarpskytter.jpg Used by special forces [9]
Heckler & Koch G36  Germany Assault rifle 5.56×45mm Domok g36.JPG Used by special forces [10]
M14  United States
 Estonia
Ceremonial rifle
Sharpshooter rifle
7.62 mm M14 afmil.jpg Around 35,000 units. Used as a ceremonial rifle by the Guard Battalion.[11]
Some converted by E-Arsenal to sharpshooter rifles Täpsuspüss M-14 TP2.[12]
Sniper rifles
Sako TRG-42  Finland Sniper rifle 8.6 mm Sako TRG folding stock + Zeiss 3-12x56 SSG P.JPG Used by special forces and reconnaissance units.
PGM Hécate II  France Sniper rifle 12.7 mm PGM Hecate.jpg
Galil Sniper  Israel Sniper rifle 7.62 mm GALIL SNIPER
Shotguns
Benelli M3T  Italy Semi-automatic shotgun 12 gauge Benelli M3 Super 90.jpg
Submachine guns
IMI Mini-UZI  Israel Submachine gun 9 mm Uzi 1.jpg
Heckler & Koch MP5A2  Germany Submachine gun 9 mm MIC-MP5-2 original.jpg
Carl Gustav m/45  Sweden Submachine gun 9 mm Carl Gustav M45-b.jpg
Machine guns
IMI Negev  Israel Light machine gun 5.56 mm IMI-Negev006a.jpg
Ksp 58  Sweden General-purpose machine gun 7.62 mm Ksp58.jpg Swedish made variant of the FN MAG.
Rheinmetall MG3  Germany General-purpose machine gun 7.62 mm MG3.jpg
Browning M2HB  United States Heavy machine gun 12.7 mm Machine gun M2 1.jpg Some mounted on vehicles, such as Patria Pasi and Bv 206, but the tripod version is also in use.
Grenade launchers
Brügger & Thomet GL-06   Switzerland Grenade launcher 40 mm Brügger & Thomet GL-06
Heckler & Koch GLM  Germany Grenade launcher 40 mm
Heckler & Koch 79N  Germany Grenade launcher 40 mm HK69A1.jpg
Milkor MGL  South Africa Grenade launcher 40 mm M-32 Grenade Launcher.jpg Limited numbers for evaluation purposes.[13]

Grenades[edit]

Name Origin Type Detonation Photo Notes
Grenades
F-1  Soviet Union Hand grenade Fuse F1 grenade travmatik com 02 by-sa.jpg
RGD-5  Soviet Union Hand grenade Fuse Rgd 5 hand grenade.jpeg
m/56  Sweden Hand grenade Fuse

Anti-tank and anti-structure weapons[edit]

Name Origin Type Calibre Photo Notes
Anti-tank missiles
MILAN 2  France Anti-tank guided missile 115 mm MILAN 2
MAPATS  Israel Anti-tank guided missile 148 mm mapats
B-300  Israel Shoulder-fired missile 82 mm Shoulder-launched Multipurpose Assault Weapon.jpg
FGM-148 Javelin  United States Fire-and-forget anti-tank missile 127 mm FGM-148 Javelin - ID DM-SD-04-07567.JPEG 350 Javelin Guided Missiles, 120 Command Launch Units (CLU) to be purchased from the United States.[14]
AT4  Sweden Shoulder-fired missile 84 mm AT-4Launcher.jpeg
Instalaza C90-CR  Spain Shoulder-fired missile 90 mm C-90.jpg Used by the 1st Infantry Brigade and conscripts.[15]
Type 69 RPG  China Shoulder-fired missile 85 mm type 69 rpg Withdrawn from service.
Recoilless rifles
Carl Gustav  Sweden Recoilless rifle 84 mm Carl Gustav recoilless rifle.jpg Variants M2 and M3.[16]
Pvpj 1110  Sweden Recoilless rifle 90 mm LT PV1110.jpg 130 units.[17]
M40A1  United States Recoilless rifle 106 mm Rcl106lat2.jpg 30 units.[17]

Air-defence[edit]

Name Origin Type Number Photo Notes
Anti-aircraft missiles
Mistral  France Surface-to-air missile 25
?
54RA-IMG 9142.jpg First batch of 25 launchers. Additional units have been purchased since.[18]
Anti-aircraft artillery
ZU-23-2  Soviet Union Twin-barreled autocannon 98 Zu-23 30 M1-3 - InnovationDay2013part1-40.jpg
Air defence radar
GIRAFFE AMB  Sweden Early-warning radar 5 Giraffe AFB-radar.jpg
Ground Master 403  France Early-warning radar 2

Artillery[edit]

Name Origin Type Number Photo Notes
Mortars
M252  United States Mortar 80 M252 mortar usmc.jpg M252 is a 81 mm medium mortar which is operated by a three man team.[19]
B455  Israel Mortar 41 B455 is a 81 mm medium mortar.[20]
NM 95 (L-16A1)  United Kingdom Mortar 10 81mmMORT L16.png L-16A1, also known as NM 95, is a 81 mm medium mortar which is operated by a three man team.[20]
m/41D  Sweden Mortar 165 LT M41D.jpg m/41D is a 120 mm heavy mortar which is operated by a five man team.[20]
2B11  Soviet Union Mortar 14 LT 2B11.jpg 2B11 is a 120 mm heavy mortar which is operated by a five man team.[20]
Howitzers
FH-70  Germany Towed howitzer 24 Howitzer FH70 01.jpg FH-70 is a 155 mm towed howitzer.[20]
H63 (D-30)  Soviet Union Towed howitzer 42 Хаубица Д-30 122мм.jpg D-30 is a 122 mm towed howitzer. Estonian army uses the H63 variant purchased from Finland.[20]

Armoured vehicles[edit]

Name Origin Type Number Photo Notes
Armoured combat vehicles
CV9035NL  Sweden Infantry fighting vehicle 44 CV9035 NL with add-on armor.jpg Estonian government has agreed to buy 44 CV9035NL from the Netherlands.[21][22]
Sisu Pasi  Finland Armoured personnel carrier 139 XA-180EST in Afghanistan.jpg XA-180: 60 units purchased from Finland.
XA-188: 81 units purchased from the Netherlands. Deliveries will be completed by 2015.[20]
Bandvagn 206  Sweden All Terrain Tracked Vehicle 100 Hagglunds Bv206 25th US Marines 2.jpg
BTR-80  Soviet Union Armoured personnel carrier 20 BTR-80A (3).jpg Being phased out.
Handed over to the Estonian Defence League.[20]
BTR-70  Soviet Union Armoured personnel carrier 2 BTR70 002.jpg Being phased out. Used as training vehicles.[20]
Mamba Alvis-4  South Africa Armoured personnel carrier 6 RG-31.JPG
Biber  Germany Armoured vehicle-launched bridge 2 Panzerschnellbruecke Biber auf Brueckenleger.jpg Estonian government has agreed to buy 2 Biber Armoured vehicle-launched bridges from the Netherlands.[23]
Bergepanzer  Germany Armoured Recovery Vehicle 2 Bergepanzer2.jpg Estonian government has agreed to buy 2 Bergepanzer Armoured recovery vehicles from the Netherlands.[24]
Pionierpanzer  Germany Armoured engineer vehicle 2 Pionierpanzer Dachs right Side.jpg Estonian government has agreed to buy 2 Pionierpanzer Armoured engineer vehicles from the Netherlands.[25]

General-purpose vehicles[edit]

Name Origin Type Number Photo Notes
Trucks and transporters
Mercedes-Benz Unimog  Germany General-purpose truck Unimog 1300L.jpg Mostly Unimog 416 and 435/1300 series models.
MAN mil gl  Germany Military logistics vehicle Bundeswehr MAN 5to.gl.jpg MAN 4520, 4620 and 4640 series models. Also used as artillery tractors.
Mercedes-Benz 1017A  Germany General-purpose truck MB 1017.jpg
DAF YA 4440  Netherlands General-purpose truck YA-4440 pic1.JPG
Saurer 2DM   Switzerland General-purpose truck 1967 Saurer military vehicle.jpg Being phased out.
Light vehicles
Mercedes-Benz 250 GD  Germany Light utility vehicle MB250GD Wolf.jpg
Chevrolet CUCV  United States Light utility vehicle Lithuanian M1008 CUCV.jpg M1008, M1009 and M1010 series models.
Volvo Tgb  Sweden High-mobility utility vehicle Pansarvärnspjästerrängbil 1111 Revinge 2012.jpg Volvo Tgb 11, 13 and 20 series models.
Logistics vehicles
Mercedes-Benz 4150  Germany Military recovery vehicle
Sisu E13TP  Finland Military logistics vehicle 2 Sisu E13.jpg Used as Ground Master 403 radar carriers.[26]
Motorcycles
Husqvarna 258A MT  Sweden Motorcycle Motorcycles are used for a variety of liaison and reconnaissance tasks.


Weapons[edit]

Although the defence force employs various individual weapons to provide light firepower at short ranges, the standard weapons used by the ground force are the domestically upgraded variants of the 7.62mm AK4 and 5.56mm Galil-AR assault rifles,[27] as well as the 9mm variant of the MP5 submachine gun for special operations force.[28] The primary sidearms are the 9mm PM and USP semi-automatic pistols.[29] Some units are supplemented with a variety of specialized weapons, including the Galil-ARM and Negev light machine gun, to provide suppressive fire at the fire-team level.[30] Indirect fire is provided by the M-69 and CG M3 grenade launchers.[31] The 18.53mm Benelli-M3T dual-mode shotgun is used for door breaching and close-quarters combat.[32] The domestically produced modification of the 7.62mm M14 selective fire automatic rifle TP2 and Galil-S are used by the snipers,[33] along with the 8.6mm Sako TRG and 12.7mm Hecate II heavy sniper rifles are used long-range marksmen.[34] Hand grenades, fragmentation and smoke grenades along with the grenade launcher systems, such as the HK-GLM and HK-79N,[35] are also used.

The defence force also employs various crew-served weapons to provide medium and heavy firepower at ranges exceeding that of individual weapons. The 7.62mm MG-3 and KSP-58 are the ground force standard medium machine guns. The 12.7mm Browning M2HB heavy machine gun is generally used as a vehicle-mounted machine gun used by motorised infantry. The ground force uses two types of mortar for indirect fire support when heavier artillery may not be appropriate or available. The smallest of these are the 81mm M252,[36] B455 and L16A1 mortars that normally assigned at the infantry company level.[37] At higher echelon, infantry battalions are supported by a section of 120mm M-41D and 2B11 mortars,[37] which are usually employed by motorized units. Fire support for infantry units is provided by towed howitzers, including the lighter 122mm D-30H63 and heavier 155mm FH-70 field howitzers.[37]

The ground force utilizes a variety of shoulder fired missiles, recoilless rifles and anti-tank guided missiles to provide infantry and mechanized units with an anti-armor capability. The 82mm B-300 is a reusable man-portable anti-tank shoulder-fired missile system.[37] The 84mm AT4 is an unguided projectile that can destroy armor and bunkers at ranges up to 500 meters. The 90mm C90-CR is a disposable, shoulder-fired and one-man operated grenade launcher. Some motorized units are supported by the Pvpj 1110 and M40-A1 recoilless rifles that are mounted on high-mobility utility vehicles.[37] The 115mm MILAN-2 with the night-firing ability and 148mm MAPATS laser-beam riding anti-tank guided missiles are the ground forces main anti-tank weapon systems. The purchase of the 127mm FGM-148 Javelin fire-and-forget anti-tank missiles will increase the ground forces anti-armor units capabilities.[38] The 90mm Mistral is an infrared homing surface-to-air missile,[39] which along with the 23mm ZU-23-2 twin-barreled anti-aircraft cannons mounted on trucks make up the backbone of the defence forces air defence.

Vehicles[edit]

The ground force currently does not operate any main battle tanks although some types were in service of the ground force till the Soviet occupation in 1940. In recent years the Estonian MoD has indicated a need to obtain main battle tanks by 2020 according to the national defense development plan.[40] As 2014, the infantry fighting vehicle CV9035 is the ground force's main battle and front troop carrier vehicle which is fitted with a 35mm autocannon turret and carry up to 8 fully equipped soldiers.[41] The ground force's most common armoured vehicles are the Pasi series armoured personnel carriers of which some have been fitted into ambulance and command post vehicles roles. The Pasi 180 and Pasi 188 armoured personnel carriers which are the standard troop carrier vehicles of the ground force and have also been used by the defence forces expeditionary units on peacekeeping operations in Central Asia and Africa.[42] In recent years BTR-80 amphibious armoured personnel carriers have been used as training vehicles and are now being phased out.[43]

Although the ground force currently does not operate any self-propelled howitzers or multiple launch rocket systems the Estonian MoD has also indicated a need to obtain self-propelled howitzers for the 1st Infantry Brigade which will be transformed into a mechanized brigade.[44] While the ground force does not have any utility helicopters, attack helicopters or aircraft of its own, it does operate several types of unmanned aerial vehicles and rotorcrafts.[45] Currently there are no operational armed drones in service of the ground force. In 2014, the Estonian MoD announced that Estonia, along with 12 other NATO members, plans to purchase Global Hawk drone to increase its military reconnaissance capabilities.[46]

The defence force's most common vehicles are the Unimog and DAF series general-purpose trucks and light utility vehicles such as Unimog 416, Unimog 435, DAF YA4440 and MB 250GD. There are also variety of different MAN and Sisu built military logistics vehicles, such as MAN 4520, 4620, 4640, KAT1 and Sisu E13TP, in use of the ground force, which are capable of serving as a cargo/troop carrier, artillery tractors, weapons platform and ambulance, among other roles.

Uniforms[edit]

The ESTDCU, is the Estonian version of the digital camouflage uniform and it various models are designed for use in woodland, desert, urban and winter warfare environments.[47]

Defense development plan[edit]

Based on a long-term defense development plan, the Land Forces are currently undergoing a modernization program. By the year 2018 the Land Forces are likely to be equipped with modern infantry fighting vehicles, along with the additional armored personnel carriers.[48] The artillery capabilities were greatly increased in 2008 with the purchase of 122mm field howitzers from Finland.[49] The Land Forces are also planning to create tactical air surveillance.

What follows is a partial list of planned equipment purchases for the Defence Forces :

An Estonian XA-180 in Afghanistan.


Armoured vehicles
Anti-tank systems
Anti-air systems
  • Medium-range surface-to air missile lunchers


Main bases of Estonian Land Forces[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Commanding Officers of the 3 branches of the EDF
  2. ^ "Püstol H&K USP" (in Estonian). Estonian Defence Forces. 
  3. ^ "Püstol PM" (in Estonian). Estonian Defence Forces. 
  4. ^ "Automaat Galil AR" (in Estonian). Estonian Defence Forces. 
  5. ^ "Automaat Galil SAR" (in Estonian). Estonian Defence Forces. 
  6. ^ "Automaat Galil ARM" (in Estonian). Estonian Defence Forces. 
  7. ^ "Automaat AK-4" (in Estonian). Estonian Defence Forces. 
  8. ^ "Automaat HK G3A3ZF/G3A4" (in Estonian). Estonian Defence Forces. 
  9. ^ http://issuu.com/sodur/docs/sodur0613/1?e=7387729/6173960.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  10. ^ http://issuu.com/sodur/docs/sodur0613/1?e=7387729/6173960.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  11. ^ "Poolautomaatne vintpüss M-14" (in Estonian). Estonian Defence Forces. 
  12. ^ "Täpsuspüss M-14 TP2" (in Estonian). Estonian Defence Forces. 
  13. ^ http://www.postimees.ee/2840821/kaitsevagi-lav-ist-ostetud-granaadiheitjad-peavad-eestis-hasti-vastu
  14. ^ http://www.postimees.ee/2817722/eesti-kavatseb-usa-lt-osta-tankitorjesusteemi
  15. ^ "Kaitsevägi saab Hispaania granaadiheitjad" (in Estonian). ERR. 
  16. ^ "Granaadiheitja Carl-Gustav M2" (in Estonian). Estonian Defence Forces. 
  17. ^ a b "Estonia Land Forces military equipment and vehicles Estonian Army". Armyrecognition.com. 
  18. ^ "Kaitseministeerium hankis Soomest õhutõrjerelvastust". Estonian MoD. 
  19. ^ "Eesti saab USA-lt 80 uut miinipildujat" (in Estonian). Postimees. 
  20. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Estonia 2008". United Nations. 
  21. ^ http://uudised.err.ee/v/eesti/e71bc50a-7cc4-4024-886c-4ccaadc80989
  22. ^ http://epl.delfi.ee/news/eesti/scoutspataljon-valmistub-umber-relvastuma.d?id=68387437
  23. ^ http://aviationweek.com/blog/netherlands-and-estonia-go-dutch-cv90
  24. ^ http://aviationweek.com/blog/netherlands-and-estonia-go-dutch-cv90
  25. ^ http://aviationweek.com/blog/netherlands-and-estonia-go-dutch-cv90
  26. ^ "Estonian Air Force receives first Sisu 8x8 truck". Army-technology.com. 
  27. ^ Military assault rifles. EDF military equipment
  28. ^ Light arms of the Estonian Ground Force Journal "Kaitse Kodu", Vol. 6, 2009.
  29. ^ Military equipment of the Estonian Ground Force: individual and crew served weapons. Kaitseväe Võru Lahingukool, Sõduri Käsiraamat, Võru, 2013.
  30. ^ EDF weapons: light machine guns. EDF military equipment
  31. ^ EDF weapons: grenade launchers. EDF military equipment
  32. ^ EDF weapons: combat shotguns. EDF military equipment
  33. ^ EDF weapons: sniper rifles. EDF military equipment
  34. ^ EDF weapons: heavy sniper rifles. EDF military equipment
  35. ^ EDF weapons: grenade launcher modules. EDF military equipment
  36. ^ "Eesti saab USA-lt 80 uut miinipildujat" (in Estonian). Postimees. 
  37. ^ a b c d e "Estonian Defence Forces equipment". United Nations. 
  38. ^ Estonia to Purchase Javelin Anti-Tank Missiles. Estonian Public Broadcasting, 2014
  39. ^ "Kaitseministeerium hankis Soomest õhutõrjerelvastust". Estonian MoD. 
  40. ^ Eesti hakkab üles ehitama tankiväge, Forte: Delfi, 2010.
  41. ^ Defense Ministry Proposes to Purchase 44 Combat Vehicles, Estonian Public Broadcasting Service, 2014.
  42. ^ Kaitsevägi võtab Aafrika missioonile kaasa neli soomukit, Postimees, 2014.
  43. ^ Lääne maleva kaitseliitlane taastas vana soomuki, Postimees, 2014.
  44. ^ Military's New Development Plan Receives Government Approval, Estonian Public Broadcasting Service, 2013.
  45. ^ Eesti õhuruumis hakkavad lendama droonid, Reporter, 2014.
  46. ^ Estonia plans to purchase Global Hawk drone to increase its military reconnaissance capabilities., Defence & Security News - Estonia, 2014.
  47. ^ Kaitseväe varustus, Riigikogu, 2007.
  48. ^ The Long-Term Defence Development Plan
  49. ^ Estonia purchasing howitzers from Finland
  50. ^ Defence Forces seeking to purchase new rocket launchers from Spain

External links[edit]