Estonian language

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Estonian
eesti keel
Native to Estonia
Ethnicity Estonians
Native speakers
1.29 million  (date missing)[1]
Uralic
Latin (Estonian alphabet)
Estonian Braille
Official status
Official language in
 Estonia
 European Union
Regulated by Institute of the Estonian Language / Eesti Keele Instituut, Emakeele Selts (semi-official)
Language codes
ISO 639-1 et
ISO 639-2 est
ISO 639-3 estinclusive code
Individual codes:
ekk – Standard Estonian
vro – Võro
Glottolog esto1258[2]
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This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters.

Estonian (eesti keel pronounced [ˈeːsti ˈkeːl] ( )) is the official language of Estonia, spoken natively by about 1.1 million people in Estonia and tens of thousands in various migrant communities. It belongs to the Finnic branch of the Uralic language family.

One distinctive feature that has caused a great amount of interest among linguists is what is traditionally seen as three degrees of phonemic length: short, long, and "overlong", such that /sɑdɑ/, /sɑˑdɑ/ and /sɑːdɑ/ are distinct. In actuality, the distinction is not purely in the phonemic length, and the underlying phonological mechanism is still disputed.[citation needed]

History[edit]

The two different historical Estonian languages (sometimes considered dialects), the North and South Estonian languages, are based on the ancestors of modern Estonians' migration into the territory of Estonia in at least two different waves, both groups speaking considerably different Finnic vernaculars.[3] Modern standard Estonian has evolved on the basis of the dialects of Northern Estonia.

The domination of Estonia after the Northern Crusades, from the 13th century to 1918 by Denmark, Germany, Sweden, and Russia delayed indigenous literacy in Estonia.[citation needed]

Estonian grammar published in Reval in 1637 by Heinrich Stahl

The oldest written records of the Finnic languages of Estonia date from the 13th century. Originates Livoniae in Chronicle of Henry of Livonia contains Estonian place names, words and fragments of sentences.

Estonian literature[edit]

Main article: Estonian literature

The earliest extant samples of connected (north) Estonian are the so-called Kullamaa prayers dating from 1524 and 1528.[4] In 1525 the first book published in the Estonian language was printed. The book was a Lutheran manuscript, which never reached the reader and was destroyed immediately after publication.

The first extant Estonian book is a bilingual German-Estonian translation of the Lutheran catechism by S. Wanradt and J. Koell dating to 1535, during the Protestant Reformation period. An Estonian grammar book to be used by priests was printed in German in 1637.[5] The New Testament was translated into southern Estonian in 1686 (northern Estonian, 1715). The two languages were united based on northern Estonian by Anton thor Helle.

Writings in Estonian became more significant in the 19th century during the Estophile Enlightenment Period (1750–1840).

The birth of native Estonian literature was in 1810 to 1820 when the patriotic and philosophical poems by Kristjan Jaak Peterson were published. Peterson, who was the first student at the then German-language University of Dorpat to acknowledge his Estonian origin, is commonly regarded as a herald of Estonian national literature and considered the founder of modern Estonian poetry. His birthday on March 14 is celebrated in Estonia as the Mother Tongue Day.[6] A fragment from Peterson's poem "Kuu" expresses the claim reestablishing the birthright of the Estonian language:

Kas siis selle maa keel
Laulutuules ei või
Taevani tõustes üles
Igavikku omale otsida?

In English:

Can the language of this land
In the wind of incantation
Rising up to the heavens
Not seek for eternity?
Kristjan Jaak Peterson

From 1525 to 1917 14,503 titles were published in Estonian, as opposed to the 23,868 titles which were published between 1918 and 1940.[citation needed]

In modern times Jaan Kross[7] and Jaan Kaplinski[8] remain as two of Estonia's best known and most translated writers.

State language[edit]

Writings in Estonian became significant only in the 19th century with the spread of the ideas of the Age of Enlightenment, during the Estophile Enlightenment Period (1750–1840). Although Baltic Germans at large regarded the future of Estonians as being a fusion with themselves, the Estophile educated class admired the ancient culture of the Estonians and their era of freedom before the conquests by Danes and Germans in the 13th century.[9]

After the Estonian War of Independence in 1919, the Estonian language became the state language of the newly independent country. In 1945, 97.3% of Estonia considered itself ethnic Estonian[10] and spoke the language.

When Estonia was invaded and occupied by the Soviet Union in World War II, the status of the Estonian language changed to the first of two official languages (Russian being the other one).[11] As with Latvia many immigrants entered Estonia under Soviet encouragement.[10] In the second half of the 1970s, the pressure of bilingualism (for Estonians) intensified, resulting in widespread knowledge of Russian throughout the country. The Russian language was termed as ‘the language of friendship of nations’ and was taught to Estonian children, sometimes as early as in kindergarten. Although teaching Estonian to non-Estonians in schools was compulsory, in practice learning the language was often considered unnecessary.[10][12]

During the Perestroika era, The Law on the Status of the Estonian Language was adopted in January 1989. The collapse of the Soviet Union led to the restoration of Republic of Estonia's independence. Estonian went back to being the only state language in Estonia which in practice meant that use of Estonian was promoted while the use of Russian was discouraged.[13]

The return of Soviet immigrants to their countries of origin has brought the proportion of Estonians in Estonia back above 70%. And again as in Latvia, today many of the remnant non-Estonians in Estonia have adopted the Estonian language; about 40% at the 2000 census.[10]

Classification[edit]

Estonian belongs to the Finnic branch of the Uralic languages, along with Finnish, Karelian, and other nearby languages. The Uralic languages do not belong to the Indo-European languages. Estonian is distantly related to Hungarian and to the Sami languages.

Estonian has been influenced by Swedish, German (initially Middle Low German, which was the lingua franca of the Hanseatic League and spoken natively in the territories of what is today known as Estonia by a sizeable burgher community of Baltic Germans, later Estonian was also influenced by standard German), and Russian, though it is not related to them genetically.

Like Finnish and Hungarian, Estonian is a somewhat agglutinative language, but unlike them, it has lost vowel harmony, the front vowels occurring exclusively on the first or stressed syllable, although in older texts the vowel harmony can still be recognized. Furthermore, the apocope of word-final sounds is extensive and has contributed to a shift from a purely agglutinative to a fusional language.[citation needed] The basic word order is subject–verb–object.

Dialects[edit]

An 1885 ABC-book in Võro written by Johann Hurt: "Wastne Võro keeli ABD raamat"

The Estonian dialects[14][15] are divided into two groups – the northern and southern dialects, historically associated with the cities of Tallinn in the north and Tartu in the south, in addition to a distinct kirderanniku dialect, that of the northeastern coast of Estonia.

The northern group consists of the keskmurre or central dialect that is also the basis for the standard language, the läänemurre or western dialect, roughly corresponding to Läänemaa and Pärnumaa, the saarte murre (islands') dialect of Saaremaa and Hiiumaa and the idamurre or eastern dialect on the northwestern shore of Lake Peipsi.

The southern group (South Estonian language) consists of the Tartu, Mulgi, Võru (Võro) and Setu (Seto) dialects. These are sometimes considered either variants of a South Estonian language, or separate languages altogether.[16] Also, Seto and Võro distinguish themselves from each other less by language and more by their culture and their respective Christian confession.[10][17]

Writing system[edit]

Main article: Estonian orthography

Alphabet[edit]

Like Finnish, Estonian employs the Latin script as the basis for its alphabet, which adds the letters ä, ö, ü, and õ, plus the later additions š and ž. The letters c, q, w, x and y are limited to proper names of foreign origin, and f, z, š, and ž appear in loanwords and foreign names only. Ö and ü are pronounced similarly to their equivalents in Swedish and German. Unlike in standard German but like Finnish and Swedish (when followed by 'r'), Ä is pronounced [æ], as in English mat. The vowels Ä, Ö and Ü are clearly separate phonemes and inherent in Estonian, although the letter shapes come from German. The letter õ denotes /ɤ/, unrounded /o/, or a close-mid back unrounded vowel. It is almost identical to the Bulgarian ъ /ɤ̞/ and the Vietnamese ơ, and is used to transcribe the Russian ы.

Orthography[edit]

Although the Estonian orthography is generally guided by phonemic principles, with each grapheme corresponding to one phoneme, there are some historical and morphological deviations from this: for example the initial letter 'h' in words[clarification needed], preservation of the morpheme in declension of the word (writing b, g, d in places where p, k, t is pronounced) and in the use of 'i' and 'j'.[clarification needed] Where it is very impractical or impossible to type š and ž, they are substituted with sh and zh in some written texts, although this is considered incorrect. Otherwise, the h in sh represents a voiceless glottal fricative, as in Pasha (pas-ha); this also applies to some foreign names.

Modern Estonian orthography is based on the Newer Orthography created by Eduard Ahrens in the second half of the 19th century based on Finnish orthography. The Older Orthography it replaced was created in the 17th century by Bengt Gottfried Forselius and Johann Hornung based on standard German orthography. Earlier writing in Estonian had by and large used an ad hoc orthography based on Latin and Middle Low German orthography. Some influences of the standard German orthography — for example, writing 'W'/'w' instead of 'V'/'v' persisted well into the 1930s.

It should be noted that Estonian words and names quoted in international publications from Soviet sources are often back-transliterations from the Russian transliteration. Examples are the use of "ya" for "ä" (e.g. Pyarnu instead of Pärnu), "y" instead of "õ" (e.g., Pylva instead of Põlva) and "yu" instead of "ü" (e.g., Pyussi instead of Püssi). Even in the Encyclopædia Britannica one can find "ostrov Khiuma", where "ostrov" means "island" in Russian and "Khiuma" is back-transliteration from Russian instead of "Hiiumaa" (Hiiumaa > Хийума(а) > Khiuma).

Phonology[edit]

Vowels[edit]

There are 9 vowels and 36 diphthongs, 28 of which are native to Estonian.[18] All nine vowels can appear as the first component of a diphthong, but only /ɑ e i o u/ occur as the second component. A vowel characteristic of Estonian is the unrounded back vowel /ɤ/, which may be mid back, close back, or mid central.[19]

Estonian vowel phonemes[20]
Front Back
Unrounded Rounded Unrounded Rounded
Close i y u
Mid e ø ɤ o
Open æ ɑ
Estonian diphthongs[21]
Vowel ɑ e i o u
ɑ ɑe̯ ɑi̯ ɑo̯ ɑu̯
e eɑ̯ ei̯ eo̯ (eu̯)
i (iɑ̯) (ie̯) (io̯) iu̯
o oɑ̯ oe̯ oi̯ ou̯
u (uɑ̯) (ue̯) ui̯ uo̯
ɤ ɤɑ̯ ɤe̯ ɤi̯ ɤo̯ ɤu̯
æ æe̯ æi̯ æo̯ æu̯
ø øɑ̯ øe̯ øi̯
y yɑ̯ (ye̯) yi̯ (yo̯)

There are very few instances of vowel allophony: /æ/ may have pronunciations [æ] and [ɛ], and long /y/ is pronounced as the diphthong [yi] in certain environments.

Simple vowels can be inherently short or long, written with single and double vowel letters respectively. Diphthongs are always inherently long. Furthermore, long vowels and diphthongs have two suprasegmental lengths. This is described under "prosody" further below.

Consonants[edit]

Consonant phonemes of Estonian[22]
Labial Alveolar Post-
alveolar
Palatal Velar Glottal
plain palatalized
Nasal m n (ŋ)1
Plosive p t k
Fricative f2  v s ʃ2 h
Approximant l j
Trill r

Notes:

  1. [ŋ] only appears as an allophone of /n/ before /k/ (e.g. panga /pɑnkɑ/ [pɑŋkɑ] 'bank [gen.sg.]').[20]
  2. /f/ and /ʃ/ are considered foreign sounds and they only appear in loanwords. /ʃ/ may be pronounced as [s] by some speakers.[20]

Like the vowels, simple consonants can be inherently short or long. Inherently short consonants are written with a single letter, which can be a voiced b d g or voiceless p t k letter in the case of plosives. Inherently long consonants are written with a double letter, or sometimes with a single voiceless letter in the case of plosives. Consonant clusters are always inherently long for prosodic purposes. In addition, long consonants and clusters also have two suprasegmental lengths, like the vowels. This is described under "prosody" further below.

When inherently short, the plosives /p t tʲ k/ are articulated as lax voiceless [b̥ d̥ d̥ʲ ɡ̊] or as fully voiced [b d dʲ g] when they occur between voiced sounds (vowels or sonorants). For example kabi 'hoof' [kɑb̥i] ~ [kɑbi]).[22]

Non-phonemic palatalization generally occurs before front vowels. In addition, about 0.15% of the vocabulary features fully phonemic palatalization, where palatalization occurs without the front vowel. A front vowel did historically occur there, but was lost, leaving the palatalization as its only trace (a form of cheshirization). It mostly occurs word-finally, but in some cases it may also occur word-medially. Thus, palatalization does not necessarily need a front vowel, and palatalized vs. plain continuants can be articulated. Palatalization is not indicated in the standard orthography.

Prosody[edit]

The stress in Estonian is usually on the first syllable, as was the case in Proto-Finnic. There are a few exceptions with the stress on the second syllable: aitäh "thanks", sõbranna "female friend". In loanwords, the original stress can be borrowed as well: ideaal "ideal", professor "professor". The stress is weak, and as length levels already control an aspect of "articulation intensity", most words appear evenly stressed.

Syllables can be divided into short and long. Syllables ending in a short vowel are short, while syllables ending in a long vowel, diphthong or consonant are long. The length of vowels, consonants and thus syllables is "inherent" in the sense that it's tied to a particular word, although plosives can alternate between inherently short and inherently long due to consonant gradation (see below).

All long syllables can possess a suprasegmental length feature. When a syllable has this feature, any long vowel or diphthong in the syllable is lengthened further, as is any long consonant or consonant cluster at the end of that syllable. A long syllable without suprasegmental length is termed "long", "half-long", "light" or "length II" and is denoted in IPA as /ˑ/ or /ː/. A long syllable with suprasegmental length is termed "overlong", "long", "heavy" or "length III", denoted in IPA as /ː/ or /ːː/. For consistency, this article employs the terms "long" and "overlong" and uses /ː/ and /ːː/ respectively to denote them.

Both the regular short-long distinction and the suprasegmental length are phonemic, so that Estonian effectively has three distinctive vowel and consonant lengths, the distinction between the second and third length levels being at the syllable level rather than the phoneme level. The suprasegmental length is not indicated in the standard orthography, although regular length is (by doubling, and sometimes devoicing in the case of inherently short plosives). There are many minimal pairs and also some minimal triplets which differ only by length, such as vere /vere/ 'blood [gen.sg.]' (short) vs. veere /veːre/ 'edge [gen.sg.]' (long) vs. veere /veːːre/ 'roll [imp. 2nd sg.]' (overlong) or lina /linɑ/ 'sheet' (short) vs. linna /linːɑ/ 'town [gen. sg.]' (long) vs. linna /linːːɑ/ 'town [ine. sg.]' (overlong).[19]

Like palatalization, the extra length is traceable to the loss of vowels, usually at the end of a word. Once the vowels were lost, the preceding syllable received compensatory lengthening. Word-final vowels were always lost after long syllables, but were retained after short ones. This is why only long syllables can have the suprasegmental length. Furthermore, single-syllable words with a long syllable always have suprasegmental lengthening.

Alternations[edit]

In Estonian, sounds often alternate. This is generally between various grades of sound length and sound quality in different grammatical forms of a word; see also vowel gradation, consonant gradation, lenition.

The following alternations can be found:

  • Presence vs. absence of suprasegmental length
  • Long vs. short consonant
  • Nasal + plosive vs. long nasal
  • Sonorant + /t/ vs. long sonorant
  • Plosive vs. fricative or approximant
  • Presence vs. absence of a short plosive, possibly with lowering of the vowels next to it
  • /s/ vs. /t/

Grammar[edit]

Main article: Estonian grammar

Typologically, Estonian represents a transitional form from an agglutinating language to a fusional language. The canonical word order is SVO (subject–verb–object).[23]

In Estonian nouns and pronouns do not have grammatical gender, but nouns and adjectives decline in fourteen cases: nominative, genitive, partitive, illative, inessive, elative, allative, adessive, ablative, translative, terminative, essive, abessive, and comitative, with the case and number of the adjective(s) always agreeing with that of the noun (except in the terminative, essive, abessive and comitative, where there is agreement only for the number, the adjective being in the genitive form). Thus the illative for kollane maja ("a yellow house") is kollasesse majja ("into a yellow house"), but the terminative is kollase majani ("as far as a yellow house"). With respect to the Proto-Finnic language, elision has occurred; thus, the actual case marker may be absent, but the stem is changed, cf. maja – majja and the Pohjanmaa dialect of Finnish maja – majahan.

The direct object of the verb appears either in the accusative (for total objects) or in the partitive (for partial objects). The accusative coincides with the genitive in the singular and with nominative in the plural. Accusative vs. partitive case opposition of the object used with transitive verbs creates a telicity contrast, just as in Finnish. This is a rough equivalent of the perfective vs. imperfective aspect opposition.

The verbal system lacks a distinctive future tense (the present tense serves here) and features special forms to express an action performed by an undetermined subject (the "impersonal").

Vocabulary[edit]

Main article: Estonian vocabulary

Although the Estonian and Germanic languages are of very different origins, one can identify many similar words in Estonian and English, for example. This is primarily because the Estonian language has borrowed nearly one third of its vocabulary from Germanic languages, mainly from Low Saxon (Middle Low German) during the period of German rule, and High German (including standard German). The percentage of Low Saxon and High German loanwords can be estimated at 22–25 percent, with Low Saxon making up about 15 percent.[citation needed]

Often 'b' & 'p' are interchangeable, for example 'baggage' becomes 'pagas', 'lob' (to throw) becomes 'loopima'. Initial letter 's' is often dropped, for example 'skool' becomes 'kool', 'stool' becomes 'tool'.

Ex nihilo lexical enrichment[edit]

Estonian language planners such as Ado Grenzstein (a journalist active in Estonia in the 1870s–90s) tried to use formation ex nihilo, Urschöpfung;[24] i.e. they created new words out of nothing.

The most famous reformer of Estonian, Johannes Aavik (1880–1973), used creations ex nihilo (cf. ‘free constructions’, Tauli 1977), along with other sources of lexical enrichment such as derivations, compositions and loanwords (often from Finnish; cf. Saareste and Raun 1965: 76). In Aavik’s dictionary (1921), which lists approximately 4000 words, there are many words which were (allegedly) created ex nihilo, many of which are in common use today. Examples are

  • ese ‘object’,
  • kolp ‘skull’,
  • liibuma ‘to cling’,
  • naasma ‘to return, come back’,
  • nõme 'stupid, dull.'[24]

Many of the coinages that have been considered (often by Aavik himself) as words concocted ex nihilo could well have been influenced by foreign lexical items, for example words from Russian, German, French, Finnish, English and Swedish. Aavik had a broad classical education and knew Ancient Greek, Latin and French. Consider roim ‘crime’ versus English crime or taunima ‘to condemn, disapprove’ versus Finnish tuomita ‘to condemn, to judge’ (these Aavikisms appear in Aavik’s 1921 dictionary). These words might be better regarded as a peculiar manifestation of morpho-phonemic adaptation of a foreign lexical item.[25]

Language example[edit]

Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in Estonian:

Kõik inimesed sünnivad vabadena ja võrdsetena oma väärikuselt ja õigustelt. Neile on antud mõistus ja südametunnistus ja nende suhtumist üksteisesse peab kandma vendluse vaim.

(All people are born free and equal in their dignity and rights. They are given reason and conscience and they shall create their relationships to one another according to the spirit of brotherhood.)

Important words and phrases[edit]

  • jah – yes
  • ei – no
  • palun – please; you're welcome
  • aitäh – thanks
  • tänan – thank you
  • tänan väga – thank you very much
  • tere – hi; hello
  • tervist – hello
  • tere tulemast – welcome
  • tere hommikust – good morning
  • tere päevast – good afternoon
  • tere õhtust – good evening
  • head ööd – goodnight
  • head aega – goodbye
  • nägemist – bye; see you!
  • ilusat päeva – have a nice day!
  • vabanda – excuse me (familiar)
  • vabandage – excuse me (polite)
  • vabandust – sorry
  • pole viga – no problem
  • kas sa räägid inglise keelt? – do you speak English? (familiar)
  • kas te räägite inglise keelt? – do you speak English? (polite)
  • ma ei räägi eesti keelt – I don't speak Estonian
  • ma ei räägi palju eesti keelt – I don't speak much Estonian
  • ma räägin natuke eesti keelt – I speak a little Estonian
  • ma saan aru – I understand
  • ma ei saa aru – I don't understand
  • ma tean – I know
  • ma ei tea – I don't know
  • ma olen – I am
  • mis on teie nimi? – what's your name?
  • minu nimi on Indrek – My name is Indrek
  • kuidas sinul läheb? – how are you? (familiar)
  • kuidas teil läheb? – how are you? (polite)
  • tänan, hästi – I'm fine, thanks
  • normaalselt – I'm ok
  • halvasti – bad
  • meeldiv teiega tuttavaks saada – a pleasure to meet you
  • üks – one
  • kaks – two
  • kolm – three
  • neli – four
  • viis – five
  • kuus – six
  • seitse – seven
  • kaheksa – eight
  • üheksa – nine
  • kümme – ten
  • üksteist – eleven
  • kaksteist – twelve
  • kakskümmend – twenty
  • kolmkümmend – thirty
  • sada – one hundred
  • tuhat – one thousand
  • miljon – one million
  • miljard – one billion
  • esmaspäev – Monday
  • teisipäev – Tuesday
  • kolmapäev – Wednesday
  • neljapäev – Thursday
  • reede – Friday
  • laupäev – Saturday
  • pühapäev – Sunday
  • kevad – spring
  • suvi – summer
  • sügis – autumn
  • talv – winter
  • Eesti – Estonia
  • Soome - Finland
  • Läti – Latvia
  • Leedu – Lithuania
  • Rootsi –Sweden
  • Taani –Denmark
  • Saksamaa – Germany
  • Venemaa – Russia[26]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Estonian reference at Ethnologue (16th ed., 2009)
    Standard Estonian reference at Ethnologue (16th ed., 2009)
    Võro reference at Ethnologue (16th ed., 2009)
  2. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Estonian". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  3. ^ Rannut, Mart (2004). "Language Policy in Estonia". Noves SL. Revista de Sociolingüística. Retrieved 2009-02-27. 
  4. ^ Aspects of Altaic Civilization By Denis Sinor ISBN 0-7007-0380-2
  5. ^ Dictionary of Languages By Andrew Dalby; p. 182 ISBN 0-231-11569-5
  6. ^ Culture and Customs of the Baltic States By Kevin O'Connor; P.126 ISBN 0-313-33125-1
  7. ^ Jaan Kross at google.books
  8. ^ Jaan Kaplinski at google.books
  9. ^ Subrenat, Jean-Jacques (2004-01-01). Estonia:Identity and Independence. Rodopi. p. 84. ISBN 90-420-0890-3. Retrieved 2014-08-23. 
  10. ^ a b c d e Mart Rannut (2004). "Language Policy in Estonia". Noves SL. Revista de Sociolingüística. 
  11. ^ Encyclopedia of Bilingualism and Bilingual Education By Sylvia Prys Jones, Colin Baker ISBN 1-85359-362-1
  12. ^ Russification at estonica.org
  13. ^ Jacques Leclerc. "Estonie". Tlfq.ulaval.ca. Retrieved 2014-08-23. 
  14. ^ "Map of Estonian Dialects, Tartu University’s Estonian Dialect Corpus". Retrieved 2014-08-23. 
  15. ^ "Tartu University’s Estonian Dialect Corpus". Murre.ut.ee. 2013-03-28. Retrieved 2014-08-23. 
  16. ^ "Culture Tourism in South Estonia and Võru county". Siksali. Retrieved 2 July 2013. 
  17. ^ "Estonian Dialects, The Institute of the Estonian Language". Portaal.eki.ee. Retrieved 2014-08-23. 
  18. ^ Ross & Lehiste (2001:40)
  19. ^ a b Asu & Teras (2009:369)
  20. ^ a b c Asu & Teras (2009:368)
  21. ^ From Asu & Teras (2009:370)
  22. ^ a b Asu & Teras (2009:367)
  23. ^ "Beltranslations.com/". Beltranslations.com/. Retrieved 2014-08-23. 
  24. ^ a b Zuckermann (2003:149)
  25. ^ Zuckermann (2003:150)
  26. ^ "Speak Estonian! — Learn Estonian online". Speakestonian.co.uk. Retrieved 2014-08-23. 

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]