Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic

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Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic
Eesti Nõukogude Sotsialistlik Vabariik
Эстонская Советская Социалистическая Республика

1940–1991
Flag Coat of arms
Anthem
Anthem of the Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic
Location of the Estonian SSR (red) within the Soviet Union.
Capital Tallinn
Languages Estonian
Russian
Government Soviet Socialist Republic
Historical era World War II · Cold War
 -  Soviet occupation June 16, 1940
 -  SSR established July 21, 1940
 -  Illegally annexed by USSR, Estonia continued de jure August 9, 1940
 -  Nazi occupation 1941
 -  Soviet re-occupation
SSR re-established
1944
 -  Estonian Sovereignty Declaration November 16, 1988
 -  Singing Revolution 1988
 -  Disestablished August 20, 1991
 -  Recognized September 6, 1991
Area
 -  1989 45,227 km² (17,462 sq mi)
Population
 -  1989 est. 1,565,662 
     Density 34.6 /km²  (89.7 /sq mi)
Calling code +7 014

The Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic (Estonian: Eesti Nõukogude Sotsialistlik Vabariik, abbreviated as Eesti NSV or ENSV; Russian: Эстонская Советская Социалистическая Республика, Estonskaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika, abbreviated as ЭССР, ESSR), often abbreviated as Estonian SSR or ESSR, was a republic of the Soviet Union, administered by and a subordinate of the Government of the Soviet Union.[1][2] The ESSR was initially established on the territory of the Republic of Estonia on July 21, 1940, following the invasion of Soviet troops on June 17, 1940 and the installation of a puppet government[3] backed by the Soviet Union, which declared Estonia a Soviet state. The Estonian SSR was subsequently incorporated into the USSR on August 9, 1940.[4][5] This territory was also occupied by Nazi Germany from 1941 to 1944.

Most countries[6] did not recognise the incorporation of Estonia de jure and only recognised its Soviet government de facto or not at all.[7][8][9] A number of these countries continued to recognize Estonian diplomats and consuls who still functioned in the name of their former governments.[10] This policy of non-recognition gave rise to the principle of legal continuity, which held that de jure, Estonia remained an independent state under illegal occupation throughout the period 1940–91.[11]

The Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic was renamed back to "Republic of Estonia" on May 8, 1990 and the independence of the Republic of Estonia was reestablished on August 20, 1991.

History[edit]

In the aftermath of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, Estonia was left into the Soviet sphere of interest and incorporated into the Soviet Union as a Soviet Socialist Republic. The history of the Soviet Estonia formally begins with the establishment of the Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic in 1941.

Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact[edit]

The Secret Additional Protocol of the German–Soviet Nonaggression Pact signed on August 23, 1939 relegated the Republic of Estonia to the Soviet sphere of influence. On September 24, 1939 warships of the Soviet Navy appeared off Estonian ports and Soviet bombers began a threatening patrol over Tallinn and the nearby countryside.[12] Moscow demanded that Estonia allow the USSR to establish military bases and station 25,000 troops on Estonian soil for the duration of the European war.[13] The government of Estonia accepted the ultimatum signing the corresponding mutual assistance agreement on September 28, 1939.

On June 12, 1940, according to the director of the Russian State Archive of the Naval Department Pavel Petrov (C.Phil.), the order for total military blockade of Estonia was given to the Soviet Baltic Fleet.[14][15] On June 14, the Soviet military blockade of Estonia went into effect while the world’s attention was focused on the fall of Paris to Nazi Germany. Two Soviet bombers downed a Finnish passenger airplane "Kaleva" flying from Tallinn to Helsinki carrying three diplomatic pouches from the U.S. legations in Tallinn, Riga and Helsinki.[16] On June 16, Soviet NKVD troops raided border posts in Estonia (along with Lithuania and Latvia).[17][18] Soviet leader Joseph Stalin claimed that the 1939 mutual assistance treaties had been violated, and gave six hour ultimatums for new governments to be formed in each country, including lists of persons for cabinet posts provided by the Kremlin.[17] The Estonian government decided, according to the Kellogg–Briand Pact, to not respond to the Soviet ultimatums by military means. Given the overwhelming Soviet force both on the borders and inside the country, the order was given not to resist, to avoid bloodshed and open war.[19]

On June 17, the Red Army emerged from its military bases in Estonia and, aided by an additional 90,000 Soviet troops, took over the country, occupying the territories of the Republic of Estonia,[20][21] and organizing and supporting communist demonstrations all over the country.[22] Most of the Estonian Defence Forces and the Estonian Defence League surrendered according to the orders and were disarmed by the Red Army. Only the Estonian Independent Signal Battalion stationed at Raua Street in Tallinn showed resistance. As the Red Army brought in additional reinforcements supported by six armoured fighting vehicles, the battle lasted several hours until sundown. There was one dead, several wounded on the Estonian side and about 10 killed and more wounded on the Soviet side. Finally the military resistance was ended with negotiations and the Independent Signal Battalion surrendered and was disarmed.[23]

By June 18, military operations of the occupation of the Baltic States were complete.[24] Thereafter, state administrations were liquidated and replaced by Soviet cadres, followed by mass repression.[17] The Time Magazine reported on June 24, that "Half a million men and countless tanks" of the Soviet Red Army "moved to safeguard [Russia's] frontier against conquest-drunk Germany," one week before the Fall of France.[25]

On June 21, 1940, the Soviet occupation of the Republic of Estonia was complete.[26] That day, the President Konstantin Päts (deported to Ufa on July 30 and later arrested) was pressured into affirming the Andrei Zhdanov appointed puppet government of Johannes Vares, following the arrival of demonstrators accompanied by Red Army troops with armored vehicles to the Presidential palace. The Flag of Estonia was replaced with a Red flag on Pikk Hermann tower.

On July 14–15 rigged, extraordinary, single-party parliamentary elections were held where all but pro-Communist candidates were outlawed. The goal of occupation authorities was to maximize turnout to legitimize the new system, which included stamping passports in voting facilities for future identification of voting, along with a threat running in Estonia's main daily paper, the Rahva Hääl, that "It would be extremely unwise to shirk elections.... Only people's enemies stay at home on election day."[27] Each ballot carried only the Soviet-assigned candidate's name, with the only way to register opposition being to strike out that name on the ballot.[27] According to official election results, the Communist "Union of the Estonian Working People" bloc won 92.8% of the votes with 84.1% of the population attending the elections.[28] Time Magazine reported that, following the elections, tribunals were set up to judge and punish "traitors to the people", which included opponents of Sovietization and those who did not vote for incorporation in the Soviet Union.[29] This election is considered illegal, since the amended electoral law--along with hundreds of other laws passed by the Vares government--had not been approved by the upper house of parliament, as required by the Estonian constitution.[30] The upper house had been dissolved soon after the Soviet occupation and was never reconvened.

Once the elections were concluded, authorities which had previously denied any intention of setting up a Soviet regime, then openly spoke of Sovietization and incorporation into the Soviet Union.[31] The newly elected parliament (Riigikogu) met on July 21. Its sole piece of business was a petition to join the Soviet Union. which passed unanimously. In response, the Estonian SSR was formally incorporated into the Soviet Union on August 9, 1940, and nominally became the 16th constituent republic of the USSR. (On July 16, 1956, the Karelo-Finnish SSR was demoted to the Karelian ASSR; from then on until 1991, the Estonian SSR was considered the 15th constituent republic.)

Soviet occupation of Estonia[edit]

On July 23, 1940, the Estonian SSR nationalized all land, banks and major industrial enterprises in Estonia. Peasants were only allotted small plots of land during the land reforms. Small businesses were also later nationalized. The occupation brought colonisation with it.[32] According to some Western scholars, relations between the Soviet Union and Estonian SSR were those of internal colonialism.[33][34]

  • the earlier economic structures constructed mostly in 1920–1940 were purposefully destroyed;
  • new production structures were constructed only to satisfy interests of the colonial power, assigning priorities according to an all-union production chain network;
  • local environmental resources were used in an extensive, robber-like manner;
  • the employment and migration policies were tailored towards assimilating the native population;
  • former economic ties of Estonia were cut off and Estonian economy was isolated from non-Soviet markets.

All banks and accounts were essentially nationalized; a lot of industrial machinery was disassembled and relocated to other Soviet territories.[35] Before retreating in 1941, Red Army, following the scorched earth policies, burnt most industrial constructions, destroying power plants, vehicles and cattle. Millions of dollars worth of goods[citation needed] were also moved from Estonia to Russia during the evacuation of 1941.

The Second World War[edit]

International reaction[edit]

Immediately following the June 1940 Estonian occupation by the Soviet Union[20][36][37][38] and forcible incorporation as a result of a Soviet-supported Communist coup d'état,[26] the only foreign powers to recognize the Soviet annexation were Nazi Germany and Sweden.[39]

The United States, United Kingdom and several other countries considered the annexation of Estonia by the USSR illegal following the Stimson Doctrine—a stance that made the doctrine an established precedent of international law.[40] Although the US, the UK, the other Allies of World War II recognized the occupation of the Baltic states by USSR at Yalta Conference in 1945 de facto, they retained diplomatic relations with the exiled representatives of the independent Republic of Estonia,[41] and never formally recognized the annexation of Estonia de jure.[41][42]

The Russian government and officials maintain that the Soviet annexation of Estonia was legitimate.[43]

Soviet historiography[edit]

Pre-Perestroika Soviet sources reflecting Soviet historiography described the events in 1939 and 1940 as follows: in a former province of the Russian Empire, the Province of Estonia (Russian: Эстляндская губерния), Soviet power was established in the end of October 1917. The Estonian Soviet Republic was proclaimed in Narva on November 29, 1918 but fell to counter-revolutionaries and the White Armies in 1919. In June 1940 Soviet power was restored in Estonia as workers overthrew the fascist dictatorship in the country.[44][45][46]

A propaganda poster from the Stalin era. The poster says: "The spirit of the great Lenin and his victorious banner encourage us now to the Patriotic War."

According to Soviet sources, pressure from the working people of Estonia forced its government to accept the 1939 proposal for a mutual assistance treaty by the Soviet Union. On September 28, 1939 the Pact of Mutual Assistance was signed[47] which allowed the USSR to station a limited number of Soviet Army units in Estonia. Economic difficulties, dissatisfaction with the Estonian government's policies "sabotaging fulfillment of the Pact and the Estonian government", and political orientation towards Nazi Germany lead to a revolutionary situation in June 1940. A note from the Soviet government to the Estonian Government suggested that they stuck strictly to the Pact of Mutual Assistance. To guarantee the fulfillment of the Pact, additional military units entered Estonia, welcomed by the Estonian workers who demanded the resignation of the Estonian government. On June 21 under the leadership of the Estonian Communist Party political demonstrations by workers were held in Tallinn, Tartu, Narva and other cities. On the same day the fascist government was overthrown, and the People's government led by Johannes Vares was formed. On July 14–15, 1940 elections for the Estonian Parliament, the State Assembly (Riigikogu) were held. The "Working People’s Union", created by an initiative of the Estonian Communist Party received with 84.1% turnout 92.8% of the votes.[48][49] On July 21, 1940 the State Assembly adopted the declaration of the restoration of Soviet power in Estonia and proclaimed the 'Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic'. On July 22 the declaration of Estonia's wish to join the USSR was ratified and the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union was petitioned accordingly. The request was approved by the Supreme Soviet of the USSR on August 6, 1940. On July 23 the State Assembly proclaimed all land to be people's property while banks and heavy industry were nationalized. On August 25 the State Assembly adopted the Constitution of the Estonian SSR, renamed itself the Supreme Soviet of the Estonian SSR and approved the Council of People's Commissars of the Estonian SSR.[49]

Hitler era: Nazi occupation 1941–1944[edit]

After Nazi Germany invaded the Soviet Union on June 22, 1941, the Wehrmacht reached Estonia in July 1941.

The Germans were perceived as liberators from the USSR and Communism in general. Thousands of Estonian men fought directly alongside the German army throughout the war.[50] An anti-communist guerrilla group called the Forest Brothers also assisted the Wehrmacht. [51] Estonia was incorporated into the German province of Ostland.

Stalin era continues[edit]

The Soviet Union retook Estonia in 1944, thereafter occupying it for nearly another half century.[52] This began when the Red Army re-occupied Estonian Ingria, Narva, and eastern Vaivara Parish in the Battle of Narva, Southeast Estonia in the Tartu Offensive and the rest of the country in the Baltic Offensive. Faced with the country being re-occupied by the Soviet Army, 80,000 people fled from Estonia by sea to Finland and Sweden in 1944. 25,000 Estonians reached Sweden and a further 42,000 Germany. During the war about 8,000 Estonian Swedes and their family members had emigrated to Sweden. After the retreat of the Germans, about 30,000 partisans remained in hiding in the Estonian forests[citation needed], waging a guerrilla war until the early 1950s.

After re-occupation, the Soviet nationalization policy of 1940 was reimposed, as well as the collectivization of farms.[52] Over 900,000 hectares were expropriated in the few years following reoccupation, while much of that land was given to new settlers from Russia or other locations in the Soviet Union.[52] Rapid collectivization began in 1946, followed in 1947 by a crackdown against kulak farmers.[52] The kulak repression started as oppressive taxation, but eventually led to mass deportations.[52] Those who resisted collectivization were killed or deported.[52] More than 95% of farms were collectivized by 1951.[52]

The 1949 mass deportation of about 21,000 people broke the back of the partisan movement. 6,600 partisans gave themselves up in November 1949. Later on, the failure of the Hungarian uprising broke the morale of 700 men still remaining under cover. According to Soviet data, up until 1953 20,351 partisans were defeated. Of these, 1,510 perished in the battles. During that period, 1,728 members of the Red Army, NKVD and the militia were killed by the "forest brothers". August Sabbe, the last surviving "brother" in Estonia, committed suicide when the KGB tracked him down and attempted to arrest him in 1978. He drowned in a lake, when the KGB agent, disguised as a fisherman, was after him.[53][54]

Soviet prison doors on display in the Museum of Occupations, Tallinn, Estonia.

During the first post-war decade of Soviet rule, Estonia was governed by Moscow via Russian-born ethnic Estonian functionaries. Born into the families of native Estonians in Russia, the latter had obtained their education in the Soviet Union during the Stalin era. Many of them had fought in the Red Army (in the Estonian Rifle Corps), few of them had mastered the Estonian language.[55] For the latter reason they were known under a derogatory term "Yestonians", alluding to their Russian accent.

Although the United States and the United Kingdom, the allies of the USSR against Nazi Germany during World War II, recognized the occupation of the Republic of Estonia by USSR at Yalta Conference in 1945 de facto, the governments of the rest of the western democracies did not recognize it de jure according to the Sumner Welles' declaration of July 23, 1940[56][57] Some of these countries recognized Estonian diplomats who still functioned in many countries in the name of their former governments. These consuls persisted in this anomalous situation until the ultimate restoration of Estonia's independence in 1991.[10]

A special care was taken to change the ethnic structure of population,[58] especially in Ida-Viru County. For example, a policy of prioritising immigrants before returning war refugees in assigning dwelling quarters was adopted.[59]

Destruction of graveyards and war memorials[edit]

Estonian graveyards and monuments from the period of 1918–1944 were dismantled. Among others, in the Tallinn Military Cemetery the majority of gravestones from 1918 to 1944 were destroyed by the Soviet authorities. This graveyard was then re-used by the Red Army after World War II.[60]

Other cemeteries destroyed by the authorities during the Soviet era in Estonia include Baltic German cemeteries, Kopli cemetery (established in 1774), Mõigu cemetery and the oldest cemetery in Tallinn, the Kalamaja cemetery (from the 16th century). After the re-occupation of Estonia in 1944, the dismantling of monuments from the Republic of Estonia, which had survived or had been restored during the German occupation, continued. On April 15, 1945, in Pärnu, a monument by Amandus Adamson, erected to 87 persons who had fallen in the Estonian War of Independence, was demolished. The dismantling of war memorials continued for several years and occurred across all districts of the country. A comprehensive file concerning the monuments of the Estonian War of Independence, compiled by the Military Department of the EC(b)P Central Committee in April 1945, has been preserved in the Estonian State Archives. Monuments are listed by counties in this file and it specifies the amount of explosive and an evaluation concerning the transportation that were needed. An extract regarding Võrumaa reads:

"In order to carry out demolition works, 15 Party activists and 275 persons from the Destruction Battalion must be mobilised. 15 workers are needed for the execution of each demolition and 10 people are needed for protection.... In order to carry out demolition works, 225 kg of TNT, 150 metres of rope/fuse and 100 primers are needed, since there is no demolition material on the spot. 11 lorries, which are available but which lack petrol, are needed for carrying the ruins away."[61]

Post-Stalin[edit]

After Joseph Stalin's death, Party membership vastly expanded its social base to include more ethnic Estonians. By the mid-1960s, the percentage of ethnic Estonian membership stabilized near 50%.

Another positive aspect of the post-Stalin era in Estonia was the regranting of permission in the late 1950s for citizens to make contact with foreign countries. Ties were reactivated with Finland, and in the 1960s, a ferry connection was opened from Tallinn to Helsinki and Estonians began watching Finnish television. This electronic "window on the West" afforded Estonians more information on current affairs and more access to Western culture and thought than any other group in the Soviet Union. This heightened media environment was important in preparing Estonians for their vanguard role in extending perestroika during the Gorbachev era.

Late 20th century[edit]

Main article: Perestroika

In the late 1970s, Estonian society grew increasingly concerned about the threat of cultural Russification to the Estonian language and national identity. By 1981, Russian was taught in the first grade of Estonian-language schools and was also introduced into Estonian pre-school teaching.

By the beginning of the Gorbachev era, concern over the cultural survival of the Estonian people had reached a critical point. The ECP remained stable in the early perestroika years but waned in the late 1980s. Other political movements, groupings and parties moved to fill the power vacuum. The first and most important was the Estonian Popular Front, established in April 1988 with its own platform, leadership and broad constituency. The Greens and the dissident-led Estonian National Independence Party soon followed. By 1989 the political spectrum had widened, and new parties were formed and re-formed almost daily.

The republic's Supreme Soviet transformed into an authentic regional lawmaking body. This relatively conservative legislature passed an early declaration of sovereignty (November 16, 1988); a law on economic independence (May 1989) confirmed by the U.S.S.R. Supreme Soviet that November; a language law making Estonian the official language (January 1989); and local and republic election laws stipulating residency requirements for voting and candidacy (August, November 1989).

Although the majority of Estonia's large Russian-speaking diaspora of Soviet-era immigrants did not support full independence, they were divided in their goals for the republic. In March 1990 some 18% of Russian speakers supported the idea of a fully independent Estonia, up from 7% the previous autumn, and by early 1990 only a small minority of ethnic Estonians were opposed to full independence.

Restoration of the Republic[edit]

The first freely elected parliament during the Soviet era in Estonia had passed Estonian Sovereignty Declaration on November 16, 1988,[62] independence resolutions on May 8, 1990, and renamed the Estonian SSR the Republic of Estonia. On August 20, 1991 the Estonian parliament issued a Declaration of Independence from the Soviet Union. On September 6, 1991, Supreme Soviet of the USSR recognized the independence of Estonia.,[63] immediately followed by the international recognitions of the Republic of Estonia.

On February 23, 1989 The flag of the Estonian SSR was lowered on Pikk Hermann, and replaced with the blue-black-white flag of Estonia on February 24, 1989. In 1992, Heinrich Mark, the Prime Minister of the Republic of Estonia in Exile, [64] presented his credentials to the newly elected President of Estonia Lennart Meri. The last Russian troops withdrew from Estonia in August 1994.[65] The Russian Federation officially ended its military presence in Estonia after it relinquished control of the nuclear reactor facilities in Paldiski in September 1995. Estonia joined the European Union and NATO in 2004.

Geography[edit]

Territorial changes[edit]

Border changes of Estonia after World War II.

In the aftermath of the Estonian War of Independence, Estonia established control also over Ivangorod, in January 1919, a move which was recognized by Soviet Russia in the 1920 Treaty of Tartu. In January 1945, the Narva River was defined as the border between the Estonian SSR and Russian SFSR, and as a result administration of Ivangorod was transferred from Narva to the Leningrad Oblast which having grown in population received the official status of town in 1954.

In 1945 the Petseri County was annexed and ceded to the Russian SFSR where it became one the districts of Pskov Oblast. After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, Estonia raised the question of a return to the borders under the Treaty of Tartu. Estonia dropped this claim in November 1995.[66] Estonia and Russia signed and ratified the Estonian-Russian Border Treaty, and it went into effect May 18, 2005: the preamble noted that the international border had partly changed, in accordance with Article 122 of the Estonian Constitution.[67]

After the restoration of Estonian independence in 1991, there have been some disputes about the Estonian-Russian border in the Narva area, as the new constitution of Estonia (adopted in 1992) recognizes the 1920 Treaty of Tartu border to be currently legal. The Russian Federation, however, considers Estonia to be a successor of the Estonian SSR and recognizes the 1945 border between two former national republics. Officially, Estonia has no territorial claims in the area,[68][69] which is also reflected in the new Estonian-Russian border treaty, according to which Ivangorod remains part of Russia. Although the treaty was signed in 2005 by the foreign ministers of Estonia and Russia, Russia took its signature back, after Estonian parliament added a reference to Tartu Peace Treaty in the preamble of the law ratifying the border treaty. A new treaty was signed by the foreign ministers in 2014.

Politics[edit]

Government[edit]

The legislative body of the Estonian SSR was the Supreme Soviet that represented the highest body of state power accordance with the Constitution.

The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet was the permanent body of the Supreme Council. It consisted of an Chairman of the Presidium, two Vice-Chairmen, Secretary and 9 members. Was elected to the Presidium of the 25th for the first time August 1940th The Presidium of the law and the decisions adopted. Between sessions of the Supreme Council met in some of its functions: changes to the legislation of the Estonian SSR, Soviet ministries and state committees and to the abolition of the SSR Council of Ministers and the persons appointment and removal of the Supreme Council for approval by relevant laws.

Military[edit]

The Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic did not have armed forces of its own. Because of the strategic geographical location, Estonia was considered as a strategic zone for the Soviet Armed Forces. The territory was therefore heavily militarized and added to the Soviet Baltic Military District which included a strong presence of the Soviet Air Defence, Navy and also the Strategic Rocket Forces. The Baltic Military District included the following units:

  • Ground units:

144th Guards Motor Rifle Division, (Tallinn); 182nd Guard Motorized Rifle Regiment, (Klooga)
188th Guard Motorized Rifle Regiment, (Klooga); 254th Guard Motorized Rifle Regiment, (Tallinn)
148th Independent Recon-Battalion, (Klooga); 295th Independent Engineer-Battalion, (Klooga)
228th Tank Regiment, (Keila); 450th Artillery Regiment, (Klooga)

  • Air units:

170th Naval Shturmovik Aviation Regiment, (Ämari); 321st Naval Shturmovik Aviation Regiment, (Ämari)
366th Interceptor Aviation Regiment, (Pärnu); 384th Interceptor Aircraft Regiment, (Tallinn)
425th Interceptor Aviation Regiment, (Haapsalu); 655th Interceptor Aviation Regiment, (Pärnu)
656th Interceptor Aviation Regiment, (Tapa); 66th Soviet Attack Air Regiment, (Kunda)
192nd Military Transport Aviation Regiment, (Tartu); 196th Military Transport Aviation Regiment, (Tartu)
132nd Heavy Bomber Aviation Regiment, (Tartu); 2nd Air-Defence Army

  • Naval units:

Red-Banner Baltic Fleet; (Tallinn)-(Paldiski)

Economy[edit]

Women building radios in the Estonian SSR.

In the Soviet system, all local proceeds were initially appropriated into the federal budget at Moscow, and some of them were then invested back in the local economies. The figures for those investments were made available to the public, thus promoting a positive impression of the Soviet Federal Centre's contributions to the periphery, the Baltic states included. Investment figures alone, however, do not represent actual income; rather, they resemble the spending side of the national budget.[70] In Estonian SSR by 1947, the private sector had entirely disappeared, accompanied by a rapid industrialization that occurred soon after Soviet reoccupation.[52] Soviet planners expanded oil shale mining and processing in the late 1940s, taking over that industry in northeast section of Estonia.[52] In the 1970s, the Soviet economy experienced stagnation, exacerbated by the growth of a shadow economy.[52]

National income per capita was higher in Estonia than elsewhere in the USSR (44% above the Soviet average in 1968),[71] however, the income levels exceeded those of the USSR in independent Estonia as well.[72] Official Estonian sources maintain that Soviet rule had significantly slowed Estonia's economic growth, resulting in a wide wealth gap in comparison with its neighboring countries (e.g., Finland, Sweden).[73] For example, Estonian economy and standard of living were similar to that in Finland prior to World War II.[74] Despite Soviet and Russian claims of improvements in standards, even three decades after World War II Estonia was rife with housing and food shortages and fell far behind Finland not only in levels of income, but in average life span.[75][76] Eastern Bloc economies experienced an inefficiency of systems without competition or market-clearing prices that became costly and unsustainable and they lagged significantly behind their western European counterparts in terms of per capita Gross Domestic Product.[77] Estonia's 1990 per capita GDP was $10,733 compared[78] to $26,100 for Finland.[77] Estonian sources estimate the economic damage directly attributable to the second Soviet occupation (from 1945 to 1991) to lie in the range of hundreds of billions of dollars.[79] Similarly, the damage to Estonian ecology were estimated at around 4 billion USD.

Resources[edit]

On May 21, 1947, the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) authorized collectivization of Estonian agriculture. Initially it was implemented with great difficulties in the Baltic republics but it was facilitated by mass deportations of dissident farmers, termed 'kulaks'. As a result, by the end of April 1949, half of the remaining individual farmers in Estonia had joined kolkhozes.[80][81][82] 99.3% of farms had been collectivised by 1957[83]

Industry and environment[edit]

A number of large-volume capital investments were undertaken by the Soviet central power to exploit resources on Estonian territory of Oil shale, lumber and, later, uranium ore, as part of the postwar reconstruction program.[58][84] The first Five Year Plan of the occupation, called the fourth Five Year Plan, prescribed a total of 3.5 billion roubles of investments for enterprises in Estonia.

One of the important goals in this reformation of Estonia's economy was providing economic support to Leningrad. To this end, 40% of the total capital investments of the fourth Five Year Plan to be spent in Estonia were intended for investments in oil shale mining infrastructure. Gas-rich oil shale was delivered to Leningrad via a specially built pipeline starting from 1948; gas from this very same source did not reach Tallinn until 1953. In 1961, 62.5% of the gas produced was still delivered to Leningrad.

By the end of 1954, 227,000 apartments in Leningrad were supplied with gas using the output of Kohtla-Järve; only about three percent of that, or 6,041 apartments, had been supplied in Tallinn.[85]

Demographics[edit]

Soviet deportations and repressions[edit]

Mass deportations of ethnic Estonians during the Soviet era together with migration into Estonia from other parts of the Soviet Union resulted in the proportion of ethnic Estonians in the country decreasing from 88% in 1934 to 62% in 1989.[86] While the Baltic republics had the highest living standard in the Soviet Union and high rates of industrialisation, the ethnic Estonians in Estonian SSR (similarly to Latvians in Latvian SSR, but unlike Lithuanians in Lithuanian SSR) suffered a sharp decline of their proportion in the total population due to the large-scale immigration, mostly of Russians. While in 1934 the Estonians comprised 88 percent of the total population of Estonia, by 1959 and 1970 their number had decreased to 75 and 68 percent, respectively (and to 61.5% by 1989).[87]

This decline in percentage was especially severe among the urban and young populations. Within 11 years between 1959 and 1970 the proportion of Estonians in Tallinn declined by as much as 4%, from 60% to 56% of the total population.[88] Population growth throughout the existence of the Estonian SSR was mainly due to immigration from other regions of the Soviet Union.[89] Although the percentage of Estonians in the total population of the Estonian SSR declined due to Soviet migration policies, the total number of ethnic Estonians increased over the Soviet period as a whole.[90] This was due to a positive natural growth rate of some 1 or 2 thousand per year. As an example, in 1970, the number of live births of Estonians was 14,429 and the number of deaths was 12,356, giving natural increase of 2,073 ethnic Estonians.[90]

In 1940–1941 and 1944–1951 during the Soviet deportations from Estonia tens of thousands of Estonian citizens were forcibly resettled to Siberia.[91] During the first year of occupation, 1940–1941, alone, an estimated 43,900 lives were irrecoverably lost, not counting refugees.[92] The following three-year Nazi occupation brought with it a loss of 32,740 lives, again not counting refugees. Another 16,000 deaths were caused through Soviet repressions in the years following 1944. During the first year of Soviet occupation (1940–1941) over 8,000 people, including most of the country's leading politicians and military officers, were arrested. About 2,200 of the arrested were executed in Estonia, while most others were moved to prison camps in Russia, from where very few were later able to return.

On July 19, 1940, the Commander-in-chief of the Estonian Army Johan Laidoner was captured by the NKVD and deported together with his wife to Penza, RSFSR. Laidoner died in the Vladimir Prison Camp, Russia on March 13, 1953.[93] The President of Estonia, Konstantin Päts was arrested and deported to Ufa on July 30. He died in a psychiatric hospital in Kalinin (currently Tver) in Russia in 1956.

800 Estonian officers, about half of the total, were executed, arrested or starved to death in prison camps.[citation needed]

A total of 59,732 people is estimated to have been deported from Estonia during the period between July 1940 and June 1941.[94] This included 8 former heads of state and 38 ministers from Estonia, 3 former heads of state and 15 ministers from Latvia, and the then president, 5 prime ministers and 24 other ministers from Lithuania.[95]

The Soviet 1940 occupation of Estonia decimated the local economy, as Moscow began nationalizing private industries and collectivizing smallholding farms.[52] Most of the larger businesses and half of Estonia's housing were nationalized.[52] Savings were destroyed with an imposed artificially low exchange rate for the Estonian kroon to the Soviet ruble.[52]

Repressions against ethnic Russians[edit]

According to Sergei Isakov, almost all societies, newspapers, organizations of ethnic Russians in Estonia were closed and their activists persecuted.[96]

Other ethnic Russians in Estonia arrested and executed by different Soviet War Tribunals in 1940–1941: Ivan Salnikov, Pavel Mironov, Mihhail Arhipov, Vassili Belugin, Vladimir Strekoytov, Vasili Zhilin, Vladimir Utekhin, Sergei Samennikov, Ivan Meitsev, Ivan Yeremeyev, Konstatin Bushuyev, Yegor Andreyev, Nikolai Sausailov, Aleksandr Serpukhov, Konstatin Nosov, Aleksandr Nekrasov, Nikolai Vasilev-Muroman, Aleksei Sinelshikov, Pyotr Molonenkov, Grigory Varlamov, Stepan Pylnikov, Ivan Lishayev, Pavel Belousev, Nikolai Gusev, Leonid Sakharov, Aleksander Chuganov, Fyodor Dobrovidov, Lev Dobek, Andrei Leontev, Ivan Sokolov, Ivan Svetlov, Vladimir Semyonov, Valentin Semenov-Vasilev, Vasili Kamelkov, Georgi Lokhov, Aleksei Forlov, Ivan Ivanov, Vasili Karamsin, Aleksandr Krasilnikov, Aleksandr Zhukov, etc. Full list at:[98]

Urbanization[edit]

Map of the Estonian SSR

Immediately after the war, major immigration projects were undertaken, labeled "brotherly aid under Stalinist nationality policies". For postwar reconstruction, hundreds of thousands of Russophones were relocated into Estonia, mainly the cities. During the years 1945–1950, the total urban population count grew from 267,000 to 516,000; over 90% of the increase being fresh immigrants.[99]

Society[edit]

In the year 1950, the major problems meriting medical research were declared to be tuberculosis, traumatism, occupational diseases and dysentery. In comparison to the war years, birth rate had increased, mortality (including infant mortality) decreased, and the birth rate again exceeded the death rate.[100] Despite the immense needs for research, the Faculty of Medicine at the Tartu State University (now University of Tartu) suffered from major purges, culminating after March 1950. Altogether, 56 staff of the university were purged; in the Faculty of Medicine, 12 professors of 17 were removed from their positions. They were replaced with less skilled but politically reliable staff.

Culture[edit]

Sports[edit]

Tallinn was selected as host of the sailing events of the 1980 Olympics which led to controversy[citation needed] since Western countries had not de jure recognized ESSR as part of USSR. During preparations to the Olympics, sports buildings were built in Tallinn, along with other general infrastructure and broadcasting facilities. This wave of investment included Tallinn TV Tower, Pirita Yachting Centre, Linnahall, hotel "Olümpia" and the new Main Post Office building.

Controversies[edit]

While views diverge on history of Estonia, the core of the controversy lies in the varying interpretation of historical events and agreements during and after World War II.

During the time of glasnost and the reassessment of Soviet history in the USSR, the USSR condemned the 1939 secret protocol between Nazi Germany and itself that had led to the invasion and occupation of the three Baltic countries.[101] The collapse of the Soviet Union led to the restoration of the Republic of Estonia's sovereignty. (See History of Estonia: Regaining independence).

Plaque on Stenbock House, the seat of the Government of Estonia, commemorating government members killed by Soviet forces.

According to the European Court of Human Rights,[102] Government of Estonia,[103] European Union,[104] United States[105] Estonia remained occupied by the Soviet Union until restoration of its independence in 1991 and the 48 years of Soviet occupation and annexation is not rendered legal by most international governments.

The Wall Street Journal article claims that Russian reconsideration of the Soviet annexation of the Baltic states raised concerns among "some historians" that "Kremlin is -- quite literally -- trying to rewrite history in a way that risks breeding ultranationalism and whitewashing the darkest chapters of Russia's past."[106]

The Russian government maintains that the Soviet annexation of the Baltic states was legitimate[107] and that the Soviet Union annexed those countries due to the Nazi threat at that time.[108][109] It is commonly stated[citation needed] that the Soviet troops had entered the Baltics in 1940 following the agreements and with the consent of the then governments of the Baltic republics. They state that the USSR was not in a state of war and was not waging any combat activities on the territory of the three Baltic states against them, and the word 'occupation' cannot be used.[110][111] "The assertions about [the] 'occupation' by the Soviet Union and the related claims ignore all legal, historical and political realities, and are therefore utterly groundless." (Russian Foreign Ministry)[112]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Hough, Jerry F (1997). Democratization and revolution in the USSR, 1985–1991. Brookings Institution Press. ISBN 0-8157-3749-1. 
  2. ^ "Republic, definition 3". Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Merriam-Webster Online. 2009. Retrieved 2009-06-09. 
  3. ^ Ronen, Yaël (2011). Transition from Illegal Regimes Under International Law. Cambridge University Press. p. 17. ISBN 978-0-521-19777-9. 
  4. ^ The Baltic States: Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania (Postcommunist States and Nations) David J. Smith from Front Matter ISBN 0-415-28580-1
  5. ^ Estonia: Identity and Independence: Jean-Jacques Subrenat, David Cousins, Alexander Harding, Richard C. Waterhouse on Page 246. ISBN 90-420-0890-3
  6. ^ Mälksoo, Lauri (2003). Illegal annexation and state continuity: the case of the incorporation of the Baltic states by the USSR. M. Nijhoff Publishers,. p. 76. ISBN 978-90-411-2177-6. "incorporation into the Soviet Union in 1940 took place against the will of the population, and was never recognized de jure by most countries" 
  7. ^ Hiden, John; Vahur Made; David J. Smith (2008). The Baltic question during the Cold War. Routledge. p. 209. ISBN 0-415-37100-7. 
  8. ^ Talmon, Stefan (2001). Recognition of Governments in International Law. Oxford University Press. p. 103. ISBN 978-0-19-826573-3. 
  9. ^ Aust, Anthony (2005). Handbook of International Law. Cambridge University Press,. p. 26. ISBN 0-521-82349-8. 
  10. ^ a b Diplomats Without a Country: Baltic Diplomacy, International Law, and the Cold War by James T. McHugh , James S. Pacy, Page 2. ISBN 0-313-31878-6
  11. ^ David James Smith, Estonia: independence and European integration, Routledge, 2001, ISBN 0-415-26728-5, pXIX
  12. ^ Moscow's Week at Time Magazine on Monday, October 9, 1939
  13. ^ The Baltic States: Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania by David J. Smith, Page 24, ISBN 0-415-28580-1
  14. ^ (Finnish) Pavel Petrov at Finnish Defence Forces home page
  15. ^ documents published from the State Archive of the Russian Navy[dead link]
  16. ^ The Last Flight from Tallinn at American Foreign Service Association
  17. ^ a b c Wettig 2008, p. 20
  18. ^ Senn, Alfred Erich, Lithuania 1940 : revolution from above, Amsterdam, New York, Rodopi, 2007 ISBN 978-90-420-2225-6
  19. ^ The Baltic States: Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania by David J. Smith, p. 19 ISBN 0-415-28580-1
  20. ^ a b The World Book Encyclopedia ISBN 0-7166-0103-6
  21. ^ The History of the Baltic States by Kevin O'Connor ISBN 0-313-32355-0
  22. ^ Estonia: Identity and Independence by Jean-Jacques Subrenat, David Cousins, Alexander Harding, Richard C. Waterhouse ISBN 90-420-0890-3
  23. ^ (Estonian)51 years from the Raua Street Battle at Estonian Defence Forces Home Page
  24. ^ Misiunas & Taagepera 1993, p. 20
  25. ^ Germany Over All, Time (magazine), June 24, 1940
  26. ^ a b Estonia: Identity and Independence by Jean-Jacques Subrenat, David Cousins, Alexander Harding, Richard C. Waterhouse ISBN 90-420-0890-3
  27. ^ a b Misiunas & Taagepera 1993, p. 27
  28. ^ Estonian newspaper «Communist», issue of July 18, 1940.
  29. ^ Justice in The Baltic at Time magazine on Monday, August 19, 1940
  30. ^ Marek, Krystyna (1968). Identity and Continuity of States in Public International Law. Librairie Droz. p. p386. ISBN 9782600040440. 
  31. ^ Misiunas & Taagepera 1993, p. 20 & 28
  32. ^ The White Book: Losses inflicted on the Estonian nation by occupation regimes, pp. 143–144.
  33. ^ Mettam, Collin W. and Stephen Wyn Williams (2001). A colonial perspective on population migration in Soviet Estonia. Journal of Baltic Studies 27 (1), 133–150.
  34. ^ Mettam, Colin W. and Stephen Wyn Williams (1998). Internal colonialism and cultural division of labour in the Soviet Republic of Estonia. Nations and Nationalism 4 (3), 363–388.
  35. ^ Valge raamat, page 129; The White Book: Losses inflicted on the Estonian nation by occupation regimes, p. 145
  36. ^ Soviet occupation of Estonia at Time Magazine on Monday, July 1, 1940
  37. ^ The History of the Baltic States by Kevin O'Connor ISBN 0-313-32355-0
  38. ^ Estonian Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Molotovi-Ribbentropi pakt ja selle tagajärjed
  39. ^ Misiunas & Taagepera 1993, p. 126
  40. ^ Vitas, Robert A. (1990). The United States and Lithuania. The Stimson Doctrine of Nonrecognition. N.Y.: Praeger. ISBN 0-275-93412-8.
  41. ^ a b Mälksoo, Lauri (2000). Professor Uluots, the Estonian Government in Exile and the Continuity of the Republic of Estonia in International Law. Nordic Journal of International Law 69.3, 289–316.
  42. ^ European Parliament (January 13, 1983). "Resolution on the situation in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania". Official Journal of the European Communities. C 42/78.  "whereas the Soviet annexias of the three Baltic States still has not been formally recognized by most European States and the USA, Canada, the United Kingdom, Australia and the Vatican still adhere to the concept of the Baltic States".
  43. ^ "Russia denies Baltic 'occupation'" by BBC News
  44. ^ (Russian) State Symbols - Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic
  45. ^ Endel Vanatoa, Estonian SSR, a Reference Book, Perioodika Publisher, 1985, p. 11, available at Google Print
  46. ^ Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd edition, entry on "СССР. Население", available online here
  47. ^ (Russian) 1939 USSR-Estonia Mutual Aid Pact (full text)
  48. ^ POLITICS, MIGRATION AND MINORITIES IN ESTONIA, 1918–1998, pdf, p. 79
  49. ^ a b Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd ed., entry on "Эстонская Советская Социалистическая Республика", available online
  50. ^ Thomas, Nigel (2012). Germany's Eastern Front Allies (2): Baltic Forces. Osprey Publishing. p. 15.
  51. ^ Buttar, Prit (2013). Between Giants, the Battle for the Baltics in World War II. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 9781780961637.
  52. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Frucht 2005, p. 102
  53. ^ Laar, Mart. War in the Woods: Estonia's Struggle for Survival, 1944–1956. ISBN 0-929590-08-2
  54. ^ Republic of Estonia 90 Estonian Institute 2008
  55. ^ Biographical Research in Eastern Europe: Altered Lives and Broken Biographies. Humphrey, Miller, Zdravomyslova ISBN 0-7546-1657-6
  56. ^ The Baltic States and their Region: New Europe or Old? by David J. Smith on Page 48 ISBN 90-420-1666-3
  57. ^ Post-Cold War Identity Politics: Northern and Baltic Experiences by Marko Lehti on Page 272: Soviet occupation in Baltic countries - a position supported by the fact that an overwhelming majority of states never recognized the 1940 incorporation de jure. ISBN 0-7146-8351-5
  58. ^ a b (Estonian) Estonian Museum of Occupations: Majandus: Teise maailmasõja ja Nõukogude okupatsiooni aastad (1940–1991)
  59. ^ "Narvskij rabochij" April 25, 1950, quoted in Valge raamat, page 132 and The White Book: Losses inflicted on the Estonian nation by occupation regimes, pp. 149–150.
  60. ^ Linda Soomre Memorial Plaque at britishembassy.gov.uk
  61. ^ Report by the Chairman of the EC(b)P Võrumaa Committee, Tamm, No. 101/s to the EC(b)P CC 1st secretary Nikolai Karotamm. 06.04.1945. ERAF Archives depot 1, ref. 3, depository unit 501. L. 37.
  62. ^ Frankowski, Stanisław; Paul B. Stephan (1995). Legal reform in post-communist Europe. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. p. 84. ISBN 0-7923-3218-0. 
  63. ^ The Rise and Fall of the Soviet Union: 1917–1991 (Sources in History) Richard Sakwa Page 248, ISBN 0-415-12290-2
  64. ^ Heinrich Mark at president.ee
  65. ^ Baltic Military District globalsecurity.org
  66. ^ A Political and Economic Dictionary of Eastern Europe, p. 443, ISBN 1-85743-063-8
  67. ^ Estonian Parliament ratifies Estonian-Russian border treaties
  68. ^ Berg, Eiki. "Milleks meile idapiir ja ilma lepinguta?". Eesti Päevaleht (in Estonian). Retrieved 2009-09-27. 
  69. ^ "Enn Eesmaa: väide Petseri-soovist on ennekõike provokatiivne". Eesti Päevaleht. Retrieved 2009-09-27. 
  70. ^ Izvestija, "Опубликованы расчеты СССР с прибалтийскими республиками" 9 октября 2012, 14:56
  71. ^ Misiunas, Romuald J.; Rein Taagepera (1993). The Baltic States, years of dependence, 1940–1990. University of California Press. p. 185. ISBN 978-0-520-08228-1. 
  72. ^ Measurement Before and After Colin Clark Australian Economic History Review; Angus Madisson. 2004, page 33
  73. ^ Valge raamat, pages 125, 148
  74. ^ [ ESTONIA AND FINLAND - A RETROSPECTIVE SOCIOECONOMIC COMPARISON. Edited by Olev Lugus and Pentti Vartia. ETLA (The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy), TAMI (Institute of Economics of Estonian Academy of Science), VATT (Government Institute of Economic Research, Finland)], Helsinki, 1993, pages 302-313
  75. ^ Taagepera, Rein.Estonia, Return to Independence. Westview Series on the Post-Soviet Republics. Westview Press in cooperation with the Harriman Institute. 1993.
  76. ^ Государственная комиссия по расследованию репрессивной политики оккупационных сил. Белая Книга о потерях причиненных народу Эстонии оккупациями 1940-1991., page 47
  77. ^ a b Hardt & Kaufman 1995, p. 1 and 17
  78. ^ Madison 2006, p. 185
  79. ^ Valge raamat, page 20
  80. ^ Taagepera, Rein (1980). Soviet Collectivization of Estonian Agriculture: The Deportation Phase. Soviet Studies 32 (3), 379–397.
  81. ^ Jaska, Elmar (1952). The Results of Collectivization of Estonian Agriculture. Land Economics 28 (3), 212–217.
  82. ^ Eesti nõukogude entsüklopeedia (Estonian Soviet Encyclopedia). Tallinn: Valgus, 1972. P. 221.
  83. ^ The White Book: Losses inflicted on the Estonian nation by occupation regimes, P. 155.
  84. ^ Valge raamat, page 130; The White Book: Losses inflicted on the Estonian nation by occupation regimes, pp. 146–147.
  85. ^ Valge raamat, page 132; The White Book: Losses inflicted on the Estonian nation by occupation regimes, p. 149.
  86. ^ Background Note: Estonia AT U.S Department of State
  87. ^ The White Book: Losses inflicted on the Estonian nation by occupation regimes, P. 21.
  88. ^ Parming, Tõnu (1980). Population Processes and the Nationality Issue in the Soviet Baltic. Soviet Studies 32 (3), 398–414.
  89. ^ The White Book: Losses inflicted on the Estonian nation by occupation regimes, P. 21, 147, 150.
  90. ^ a b BIRTHS, DEATHS AND NATURAL INCREASE. ESTONIANS
  91. ^ Parming, Tõnu (1972). Population changes in Estonia, 1935–1970. Population Studies 26 (1), 53–78.
  92. ^ Valge raamat, page 42
  93. ^ General Johan Laidoner at The Estonian War Museum
  94. ^ Dunsdorfs, Edgars. The Baltic Dilemma. Speller & Sons, New York. 1975
  95. ^ Küng, Andres. Communism and Crimes against Humanity in the Baltic States, 1999
  96. ^ (Russian) С. Г. Исаков, Очерки истории русской культуры в Эстонии, Изд. : Aleksandra, Таллинн 2005, С. 21
  97. ^ fate of individuals arrested at EIHC
  98. ^ Individuals executed at EIHC
  99. ^ Valge raamat, page 129; The White Book: Losses inflicted on the Estonian nation by occupation regimes, p. 147
  100. ^ Valge raamat, page 48
  101. ^ The Forty-Third Session of the UN Sub-Commission at Google Scholar
  102. ^ European Court of Human Rights cases on Occupation of Baltic States
  103. ^ Estonia says Soviet occupation justifies it staying away from Moscow celebrations - Pravda.Ru
  104. ^ Motion for a resolution on the Situation in Estonia by the EU
  105. ^ U.S.-Baltic Relations: Celebrating 85 Years of Friendship at state.gov
  106. ^ A Do-Over for Russian History? at wsj
  107. ^ "Russia denies Baltic 'occupation'". BBC News. May 5, 2005. Retrieved March 9, 2007. 
  108. ^ "Bush denounces Soviet domination". BBC News. May 7, 2005. Retrieved March 9, 2007. 
  109. ^ http://www.lfpr.lt/uploads/File/Current/Jurgeleviciute.pdf.
  110. ^ Russia denies it illegally annexed the Baltic republics in 1940 - Pravda.Ru
  111. ^ Presidential aide: the term "occupation" inapplicable for Baltic States - Pravda.Ru
  112. ^ RIA Novosti - Russia - Russia's rejection of Lithuania occupation claims final - ministry

References[edit]

  • Frucht, Richard (2005). Eastern Europe: An Introduction to the People, Lands, and Culture. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-57607-800-6. 
  • Hardt, John Pearce; Kaufman, Richard F. (1995). East-Central European Economies in Transition. M.E. Sharpe. ISBN 1-56324-612-0. 
  • Maddison, Angus (2006). The world economy. OECD Publishing. ISBN 92-64-02261-9. 
  • Misiunas, Romuald J.; Taagepera, Rein (1993). The Baltic States, years of dependence, 1940–1990. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-08228-1. 
  • Wettig, Gerhard (2008). Stalin and the Cold War in Europe. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 0-7425-5542-9. 

External links[edit]

Further reading[edit]