Tishrei

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See Tišritum for the Babylonian month.
Elul       Tishrei (תִּשְׁרֵי)       Marcheshvan
Yom Kippur

The second holiest day of the Jewish calendar,
Yom Kippur, the Day of Atonement, takes place
on the 10th of Tishrei.
Month Number: 7
Number of Days: 30
Season: Autumn
Gregorian Equivalent: September–October

Tishrei or Tishri (/ˈtɪʃr/ or /ˈtɪʃr/; Hebrew: תִּשְׁרֵי or תִּשְׁרִי‎; from Akkadian tašrītu "Beginning", from šurrû "To begin") is the first month of the civil year (which starts on 1 Tishrei) and the seventh month of the ecclesiastical year (which starts on 1 Nisan) in the Hebrew calendar. The name of the month is Babylonian. It is an autumn month of 30 days. Tishrei usually occurs in September–October on the Gregorian calendar.

In the Hebrew Bible, before the Babylonian Exile, the month is called Ethanim (Hebrew: אֵתָנִים‎ - 1 Kings 8:2).

Edwin R. Thiele has concluded, in The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings, that the ancient Kingdom of Judah counted years using the civil year starting in Tishrei, while the Kingdom of Israel counted years using the ecclesiastical new year starting in Nisan. Tishrei is the month used for the counting of the epoch year - i.e., the count of the year is incremented on 1 Tishrei.

Holidays in Tishrei[edit]

1-2 Tishrei - Rosh Hashanah

3 Tishrei - Tzom Gedaliah – (Fast Day) - On Tishrei 4 when Tishrei 3 is Shabbat

10 Tishrei - Yom Kippur – (Fast Day)

15–21 Tishrei - Sukkot/Sukkos

21 Tishrei - Hoshanah Rabbah

22 Tishrei (and 23 outside of Israel) - Shemini Atzeret/Atzeres & Simchat Torah/Simchas Torah

Tishrei in Jewish history[edit]

1 Tishrei - (3760 BCE (gregorian calendar), 2 AM (Hebrew Calendar)) Adam & Eve were created

  • On Tishrei 1, which corresponds to the sixth day of creation -- "Elohim said: 'Let us make Man in Our image, after Our likeness; and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the birds of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth...'" (Genesis 1:26).

1 Tishrei - (1923 AD, 5684 AM) - Daf Yomi

  • The "Daf Yomi" a daily regimen of Talmud study (in which the participant studies one folio a day to complete the entire Talmud in seven years) initiated by Rabbi Meir Shapiro of Lublin, was launched on Rosh Hashanah of 1923.

2 Tishrei - (1659 AD, 5420 AM) - The kedoshim, HaRav Tuvya and HaRav Yisroel, were murdered in a blood libel in Razino, Hy"d. 3 Tishrei - (582 BCE, 3180 AM) - Assassination of Gedaliah (Fast of Gedalia)

  • 3rd Tishrei is a fast day which mourns the assassination of the Jewish Royal Gedaliah ben Achikam, governor of the Land of Israel for a short period following the destruction of the First Temple. Gedaliah's killing spelled the end of the small remnant of the Jewish community that remained in Israel after its destruction, which then subsequently fled to Egypt. (According to many opinions, the assassination actually occurred on Rosh Hashanah, but the commemoration of the event is postponed to the day after the festival).

4 Tishrei - (1683 AD) - King Louis XIV expelled the Jews from all French territories in America. 5 Tishrei - (134 AD, 3795 AM) - Rabbi Akiva martyred

  • The great Talmudic sage, Rabbi Akiva, was taken captive by the Romans on the 5th of Tishrei, of the year 3894 from creation (134 CE). His subsequent torture and execution ("martyrdom") is recalled in the Eleh Ezkerah poem of the Yom Kippur service.

6 Tishrei - (1939 AD, 5700 AM) - The Wehrmacht murdered 100 Jews in Lukov, Poland, Hy"d. 7 Tishrei - (1313 BCE, 2449 AM) - Taanit tzaddikim (Orach Chaim 5580:2) commemorating Hashem's decree that the Dor Hamidbar die in the wilderness because of the sin of the Eigel HaZahav / Golden Calf (according to some, (Kol-bo and others), the event took place one day earlier, on 6 Tishrei). 8 Tishrei - (826 BCE, 2936 AM) - Temple dedicated

  • The 14-day dedication festivities, which celebrated the completion of the Holy Temple in Jerusalem built by King Solomon, started on the 8th of Tishrei of the Hebrew year, 2935 (826 BCE). The First Temple served as the centre of Jewish national and spiritual life for 410 years, until it was destroyed by the Babylonians in 423 BCE.

9 Tishrei - (123 AD, 3884 AM) - Yahrtzeit of the Tanna R' Elazar ben Rab' Shimon. 10 Tishrei - (1313 BCE, 2449 AM) - 2nd Tablets; Day of Forgiveness (Yom Kippur)

  • On the 10th of Tishrei of the Hebrew year, 2449, (which was 82 days after the Hebrew Bible states that the people of Israel betrayed their new covenant with God by worshipping a Golden Calf and after Moses twice spent 40 days atop Mount Sinai pleading on their behalf), "God restored His goodwill with the Israelite people gladly and wholeheartedly, saying to Moses 'I have forgiven, as you ask', and gave him the Second Tablets", which established that as a day of atonement, forgiveness and teshuvah for them and all future generations.

11 Tishrei - The Baal Shem Tov writes that the day after Yom Kippur, is an even greater holiday than Yom Kippur itself, a day called "Bshem HaShem" or in Yiddish "Gott's Nomen", literally "The Name of G-d". 16 Tishrei - (1349 AD) - The Jewish population of Krems, Germany, was massacred in the Black Death riots. In the Middle Ages, people were unaware that lack of hygiene caused the spread of bacteria, and the bubonic plague ("Black Death") spread quickly -- killing 25 million people, half the population of Europe. Rumors spread that Jews were poisoning the well water, and riots broke out across Europe. In some cities, Jews were burned alive. Hy"d 25 Tishrei - (1809 CE, 5570 AM) - Death of Rabbi Levi Yitzchok of Berditchev


Other uses[edit]

  • Tishrīn (Arabic: تشرين‎) is the name of two Gregorian months in the Levant:
    • Tishrīn al-Awwal (Arabic: تشرين الأول, literally "First Tishrin"): October. The 1973 Yom Kippur War is generally known by the name Ḥarb Tishrīn ("October War") in Syria and Lebanon, and among the Palestinians, following the Arab custom of naming the Arab-Israeli wars by months or years.
    • Tishrīn al-Thāni (Arabic: تشرين الثاني, literally "Second Tishrin"): November.

References[edit]