Ethanolic extract of mango peel

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The ethanolic extract of mango peel (EEMP) is a product obtained from mango peel. Mango, or Mangifera indica, is a tropical and subtropical grown fruit popular for its vibrant color, unique taste, and nutrient content.[1] Mango peel is 15-20% of the overall mass of mango fruit.[2]

Phytochemicals and research[edit]

Mango peel contains numerous phytochemicals, consisting of more polyphenols than does mango flesh.[3][4] Upon extraction of raw and ripened mango peel, compounds displayed significant antioxidant[5] and antiproliferative activities associated with its total phenolic and flavonoid composition.[6] Extracts having antioxidant properties in vitro were polyphenols, anthocyanins and carotenoids.[7][6][8] EEMP also contains quercetin 3-O-galactoside, mangiferin gallate, isomangiferin gallate, quercetin-3-O-arabinopyranoside, and mangiferin as well as unsaturated fatty acids oleic acid, linoleic acid, and ethyl linoleate according to studies using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.[2]

In other laboratory tests, mango peel extracts produced apoptosis of human cervical malignant HeLa cells.[2] When the same concentration of the extracts were applied to healthy lung fibroblasts, no apoptotic effects were seen.[6] Mango flesh was also tested for the same properties with lower effects shown.[2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Kim, Youngmok; Brecht, Jeffrey K.; Talcott, Stephen T. (2007). "Antioxidant phytochemical and fruit quality changes in mango (Mangifera indica L.) following hot water immersion and controlled atmosphere storage". Food Chemistry 105 (4): 1327. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.03.050. 
  2. ^ a b c d Kim, Hyeonji; Kim, Hana; Mosaddik, Ashik; Gyawali, Rajendra; Ahn, Kwang Seok; Cho, Somi Kim (2012). "Induction of apoptosis by ethanolic extract of mango peel and comparative analysis of the chemical constitutes of mango peel and flesh". Food Chemistry 133 (2): 416. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.01.053. 
  3. ^ Ajila, C.M.; Bhat, S.G.; Prasada Rao, U.J.S. (2007). "Valuable components of raw and ripe peels from two Indian mango varieties". Food Chemistry 102 (4): 1006. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.06.036. 
  4. ^ Ajila, C.M.; Rao, L.; Rao, U.J.S. (2010). "Characterization of bioactive compounds from raw and ripe Mangifera indica L. Peel extracts". Food and Chemical Toxicology 48 (12): 3406–11. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2010.09.012. PMID 20851730. 
  5. ^ Ling, Lai Teng; Yap, Su-Ann; Radhakrishnan, Ammu K.; Subramaniam, Thavamanithevi; Cheng, Hwee Ming; Palanisamy, Uma D. (2009). "Standardised Mangifera indica extract is an ideal antioxidant". Food Chemistry 113 (4): 1154. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.09.004. 
  6. ^ a b c Kim, Hana; Moon, Jeong Yong; Kim, Hyeonji; Lee, Dong-Sun; Cho, Moonjae; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon; Kim, Young Suk; Mosaddik, Ashik; Cho, Somi Kim (2010). "Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of mango (Mangifera indica L.) flesh and peel". Food Chemistry 121 (2): 429. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.12.060. 
  7. ^ Ajila, C; Naidu, K; Bhat, S; Rao, U (2007). "Bioactive compounds and antioxidant potential of mango peel extract". Food Chemistry 105 (3): 982–988. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.04.052. ISSN 0308-8146. 
  8. ^ Ma, Xiaowei; Wu, Hongxia; Liu, Liqin; Yao, Quansheng; Wang, Songbiao; Zhan, Rulin; Xing, Shanshan; Zhou, Yigang (2011). "Polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant properties in mango fruits". Scientia Horticulturae 129 (1): 102–107. doi:10.1016/j.scienta.2011.03.015. ISSN 0304-4238.