5,600 (by ancestry, 2006)
5,633 (by birth, 2006).
|Regions with significant populations|
|Various languages of Ethiopia, English|
|Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, Islam, Pentecostalism|
Ethiopian Australian is a term which may be used to refer to immigrants from Ethiopia to Australia and their descendants. However, as Ethiopia is a multi-ethnic country with significant inter-ethnic tensions, not all immigrants from Ethiopia accept the label "Ethiopian", instead preferring to identify by their ethnic group. In particular, various Oromo groups use the term Oromo Australian instead.
Ethiopian refugees who would eventually settle in Australia began flowing out of their home country as early as the 1970s, when the Derg came to power. They lived in refugee camps in neighbouring countries, mainly Sudan and Kenya, some for as long as 20 years before they found a country willing to resettle them. More left as refugees after Eritrea gained independence in 1993. The United States, rather than Australia, was the first-choice destination for most refugees; as a result, the Ethiopians in Australia tend to have less educational background and occupational skills than the Ethiopian populations elsewhere.
The peak of Ethiopian refugee resettlement to Australia came in 2003, when 700 came to the country. Late in the following year, 350 more Ethiopians from the Abu Rakham camp in Sudan, largely single or widowed mothers and their families, were resettled in Australia. These were mostly Christians of Amhara and Tigray descent. In total, about 3,000 Ethiopians settled in Australia between 2000 and 2005.
Numbers and distribution
According to the 2006 Australian census 5,633 Australians were born in Ethiopia while 5,600 claimed Ethiopian ancestry, either alone or with another ancestry. The similar figures for ancestry and place of birth are indicative of the very recent immigration of this group.
Australia's 2001 census found about 3,600 residents of the country who reported their place of birth as Ethiopia. This made them the 15th-largest group of Ethiopian-born people in a country outside of Ethiopia, ahead of the United Arab Emirates and behind Norway. About 85% of those lived in Melbourne, alongside communities of immigrants from other countries in the Horn of Africa, mainly Eritrea and Somalia; they are primarily settled in Footscray and neighbouring suburbs such as Ascot Vale, Braybrook, Flemington, Kensington, and Sunshine. Other community of immigrants from Ethiopia can be found in New South Wales and Tasmania.
Education and employment
Most Ethiopian refugees have 3–4 years of school attendance or less. Many are not literate; even those who are may only be familiar with the Ge'ez script and not the Latin script. The majority are either employed in unskilled positions, especially as cleaners and cooks, or have no work at all; their unemployment rate was measured at 45% in 1996. In Footscray, some have set up ethnic-oriented businesses, such as hair salons, clothing shops, and restaurants; most of their customer base is Ethiopian.
Religious divisions among migrants from Ethiopia follow ethnic lines. The Amhara and Tigray are largely members of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church while the Gurage are almost evenly divided between members of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church and followers of Islam. Most Oromo are Muslim or members of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church or various Protestant denominations, including evangelical churches, and the Harari and Afar are almost all Muslims. There were two Ethiopian Pentecostal churches in the Melbourne area as of 2001, as well as an Ethiopian Orthodox church in Maribyrnong. However, there were no mosques specifically devoted to Muslims from Ethiopia; instead, they worship alongside believers from other countries.
- ABS 2006b, Ancestry
- ABS 2006a, Country of Birth
- Gow 2001
- Events, Melbourne: Oromo Community Association, retrieved 2008-11-30
- "Oromo-Australian woman participates in international diplomacy training", Oromia Online, 2000-07-31, retrieved 2008-11-30
- DIMA 2006
- Matteo Terrazas 2007
- "Ethiopian community receives fire safety lesson", ABC News, 2006-11-26, retrieved 2008-11-30
- Gow, Greg (2001), "Ethiopians", in Jupp, James, The Australian People: An Encyclopedia of the Nation, Its People and Their Origins, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-80789-0
- Ethiopian Community Profile, Canberra, Australia: Department of Immigration and Multicultural Affairs, August 2006, retrieved 2008-11-30
- 20680-Country of Birth of Person (full classification list) by Sex - Australia (Microsoft Excel), 2006 Census, Australian Bureau of Statistics, retrieved 2008-06-02. Total count of persons: 19,855,288.
- 20680-Ancestry (full classification list) by Sex - Australia (Microsoft Excel), 2006 Census, Australian Bureau of Statistics, retrieved 2008-06-02. Total responses: 25,451,383 for total count of persons: 19,855,288.
- Matteo Terrazas, Aaron (June 2007), "Beyond Regional Circularity: The Emergence of an Ethiopian Diaspora", Migration Information Source, retrieved 2008-11-30
- Debela, Nega Worku (1995), Minority language education with special reference to the cultural adaption of the Ethiopian community in South Australia, Ph.D. thesis, Department of Philosophy, University of Adelaide, OCLC 222269742, retrieved 2008-11-30
- Jackson, Andra (2007-11-23), "Bandleader dreams of African voices in Australian harmony", The Age, retrieved 2008-11-30