Ethiopian Jews in Israel

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Ethiopian Jews in Israel
אורי בן ברוך.jpeg
Baruch Tegegne Speaking.jpg
Shlomo Molla official.jpg
Abatte Barihun in performance (Tel Aviv - 29 03 2008).jpg
Zohar Zemiro - 2012 Olympic Marathon.jpg
פנינה תמנו שטה.jpg
Tahounia Rubel Tel Aviv.jpg
Hagit-yaso001.jpg
Total population
125,500[1] (2011)
1.75% of the Israeli population
Languages
Hebrew · Amharic · Tigrinya
Religion
Judaism (Haymanot · Rabbinism)
Related ethnic groups
Falash Mura · Beta Abraham

Ethiopian Jews in Israel refers to the immigrants and descendants of the immigrants of the Beta Israel communities of Ethiopia, who now reside in Israel.[2][3][4]

Most of the community made aliyah from Ethiopia to Israel in two waves of mass immigration assisted by the Israeli government: Operation Moses (1984) and Operation Solomon (1991).[5][6]Today Israel is home to the largest Beta Israel community in the world with about 125,500 citizens of Ethiopian descent in 2011,[1] who are mainly assembled in the smaller urban areas of central Israel.[7]

History[edit]

First wave (1934-1960)[edit]

The first Ethiopian Jews who settled in Palestine in the modern times came in 1934 along with the Yemenite Jews from Italian Eritrea.

Second wave: (1961–1975)[edit]

Minister of Education Yitzhak Navon visiting kindergarten class of Ethiopian immigrants


Between the years 1963 and 1975 a relatively small group of Beta Israel emigrated to Israel. The Beta Israel immigrants in that period were mainly very few men who have studied and came to Israel on a tourist visa and then remained in the country illegally.

Several of their supporters in Israel, who recognized their "Jewishness" decided to assist them. These supporters began organizing in associations, among others under the direction of Ovadia Hazzi, an Eritrean born Yemeni Jew and former sergeant in the Israeli army. Several of those illegal immigrants managed to get a regularization with the Israeli authorities through the assistance of these support associations. Some agreed to "convert" to Judaism, which helped them regulated their personal status and remain in Israel. People who get their regularization often brought their families to Israel as well.

In 1973, Ovadia Hazzi officially raised the question of the "Jewishness" of the Beta Israel to the Israeli Sephardi Rabbi Ovadia Yosef. The rabbi, who cited a rabbinic ruling from the 16th century David ben Solomon ibn Abi Zimra and asserted that the Beta Israel are descended from the lost tribe of Dan, and eventually acknowledged their "Jewishness" in February 1973. This ruling was initially rejected by the Ashkenazi Chief Rabbi Shlomo Goren, who eventually changed his opinion on the matter in 1974.

In April 1975, the Israeli government of Yitzhak Rabin officially accepted the Beta Israel as Jews, for the purpose of the Law of Return (An Israeli act which grants all the Jews in the world the right to immigrate to Israel).

Later on, Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin obtained clear rulings from Chief Sephardi Rabbi Ovadia Yosef that they were descendants of the Ten Lost Tribes. The Chief Rabbinate of Israel did however initially require them to undergo pro forma Jewish conversions, to remove any doubt as to their Jewish status.

Third Wave: (1975–1990)[edit]

Operation Brothers[edit]

Migration map of Beta Israel
  • November 1979 – 1983: aliyah activists and Mossad agent operating in Sudan called Beta Israel to come to Sudan and from Sudan via Europe they will taken to Israel. While they were pose as Ethiopian refugees from the Ethiopian Civil War, Beta Israel began to arrive to the refugee camps in Sudan. Most Beta Israel came from Tigray and Wolqayt, regions that were controlled by the TPLF which often escorted them to the Sudanese border.[8]
  • 1983–March 28, 1985: this emigration wave was in part motivated by word to mouth reports on the success of the emigration of many Jewish refugees to Israel. In 1983 the governor of Gondar region, Major Melaku Teferra was ousted as governor and his successor removed restrictions on travel.[9] Beta Israel began to arrive in large numbers and the Mossa did not manage to evacuate them in time. Following the of poor conditions in camps, many refugees died of disease and hunger. Among these victims, it is estimated that between 2,000 to 5,000 were Beta Israel.[10] In late 1984, the Sudanese government, following the intervention of the United States, allowed the emigration of 7,200 Beta Israel refugees to Europe who immediately flew from there to Israel. There two immigration waves were: Operation Moses (original name "The Lion of Judah’s Cub") which took place between November 20, 1984, until January 20, 1985, during which 6,500 people emigrated to Israel. This operation was followed by the a few weeks later, which was conducted by the U.S. Air Force, in which the 494 Beta Israel refugees remaining in Sudan were evacuated to Israel. The second operation was mainly carried out due to the intervention and international pressure very important of the United States.

Fourth Wave (1990–1999)[edit]

  • 1991 (Operation Solomon): In 1991, the political and economic stability of Ethiopia deteriorated, as rebels mounted attacks against and eventually controlled the capital city of Addis Ababa. Worried about the fate of the Beta Israel during the transition period, the Israeli government along with several private groups prepared to continue covertly with the migration. Over the course of the next 36 hours, a total of 34 El Al passenger planes, with their seats removed to maximize passenger capacity, flew 14,325 Beta Israel non-stop to Israel. Again, the operation was mainly carried out due to the intervention and international pressure of the U.S. Dr. Rick Hodes, an American doctor who emigrated to Ethiopia, was the medical director for Operation Solomon. It was a difficult two days as he covertly arranged for a number of very ill people to be transported on these planes to Israel.
  • 1992–1999: During these years, the Qwara Beta Israel emigrated to Israel.

Falash Mura[edit]

  • 1993–present: From 1993 onwards, an irregular emigration began of Falash Mura, which was and still is mainly subjected to political developments in Israel.

Absorption in Israel[edit]

Beta Israel soldier in Nablus, 2006
The entrance to Mevaseret Zion Absorption Center, 2010

Ethiopian Beta Israel are gradually becoming part of the mainstream Israeli society in religious life, military service (with nearly all males doing national service), education, and politics. Similarly to other groups of immigrant Jews, who made aliyah to Israel, the Ethiopian Beta Israel have faced obstacles in their integration to Israeli society. The Ethiopian Beta Israel community's internal challenges have been complicated by racist attitudes on the part of some elements of Israeli society and the official establishment.[11]One study found that some social and cultural traditions have been treated as ‘problems’ that need to be overcome.[12]

Individual Ethiopian Beta Israel had lived in Eretz Yisrael prior to the establishment of the state. A youth group arrived in Israel in the 1950s to undergo training in Hebrew education and returned to Ethiopia to educate young Beta Israeli community members there. Also, Ethiopian Beta Israel had been trickling into Israel prior to the 1970s. The numbers of such Ethiopian immigrants grew after the Israeli government officially recognized them in 1973 as Jews, entitled to Israeli citizenship.[13]

To prepare for the absorption of tens of thousands of Ethiopian Beta Israel, the State of Israel prepared two `Master Plans’ (Ministry of Absorption, 1985, 1991). The first was prepared in 1985, a year after the arrival of the first wave of immigrants. The second updated the first in response to the second wave of immigration in 1991 from Ethiopia. The first Master Plan contained an elaborate and detailed program. It covered issues of housing, education, employment and practical organization, together with policy guidelines regarding specific groups, including women, youths, and single -parent families. Like earlier absorption policies, it adopted a procedural approach which assumed that the immigrants were broadly similar to the existing majority population of Israel. The Plans were, no doubt, created with good intentions and a firm belief in assimilation. As noted in this section, results have been disappointing and suggest that much greater attention needs to be paid to issues of ethnicity.[14]

According to a November 17, 1999 BBC article, a report commissioned by Israel's Ministry of Immigrant Absorption stated that 75% of the 70,000 Ethiopian Beta Israel community, living in Israel in 1999 could not read or write Hebrew. More than half the population could not hold a simple conversation in the Hebrew language. Unlike Russian immigrants, many of whom arrive with job skills, Ethiopians came from a subsistence economy and were ill-prepared to work in an industrialized society. Since then much progress has been made. Through military service most Ethiopian Beta Israel have been able to increase their chances for better opportunities. [1]. Today most Ethiopian Beta Israel have been for the most part integrated into Israeli society, however a high drop out rate is a problem, although a higher number are now edging towards the higher areas of society.

In September, 2006, the Israeli government's proposed 2007 budget included reducing Ethiopian immigration from 600 persons per month to 150. On the eve of the Knesset vote, the Prime Minister's office announced that the plan had been dropped. Advocates for the Falash Mura noted that although the quota was set at 600 per month in March, 2005, actual immigration has remained at 300 per month.[15]

The official letter written in October 1908 in the Ge'ez script by the Beta Israel leadership, which was intended for the various Jewish communities worldwide.

The first contact with Israel generally led to a culture shock amongst many of the new immigrants. Many of the Beta Israel immigrants, especially those who came from remote villages in Ethiopia, had never used electricity, elevators or televisions. In addition, the adaptation to the Israeli food was difficult.

The breakup of many of the close and extended families after being brought to the various integration centers in Israel, as well as the initial integration with the Israeli society was very difficult for many of the new immigrants. Name changing also caused a symbolic break with the new immigrants' past. The Israeli authorities originally gave many of the new immigrants Hebrew given names, Hebrew names, and required them all to have family names, which did not exist in the Ethiopian society. These name changes created a two tier system, in which old and new names were used by the new immigrants. the immersion with the Hebrew language was not easy for the new immigrants, and the majority of the new immigrants never managed to master the language, even after living many years in Israel, resulting in a strong social marginalization. Finally, the questioning of their traditional religious practices by the Chief Rabbinate of Israel led to great confusion amongst the new immigrants.

Ethiopian women at the Kotel in Jerusalem during Hol HaMoed (the week of) Passover.

Shas's spiritual mentor, Rabbi Ovadia Yosef, enthusiastically embraced Ethiopians when they first began immigrating to Israel. Despite Rabbi Ovadia's halachic ruling, some refuse to marry Ethiopians without a conversion in accordance with official Chief Rabbinate policy. Only in cities and towns with rabbis that accept Ovadia's ruling or the ruling of Rabbi Shlomo Goren are Ethiopians married without immersion in a ritual bath (mikva) or, for men, hatafat dam, הטפת דם, see brit milah), the symbolic cut to produce a drop of blood instead of circumcision.[16]

Religious leadership[edit]

Regarding religious leadership, 60 Kessim (priests) of the Ethiopian immigrants in Israel are employed by the Ministry of Religious Services, and many of them conduct religious ceremonies in Israel. They are however not recognized as rabbis and do not have the authority to perform marriages. Nevertheless, a new generation of rabbis of Ethiopian origin trained in Israel are gradually taking over.[17]

Socioeconomic status[edit]

A Beta Israel protest in Israel over non-employment of Ethiopian academics.

The biggest challenge to the Israeli Ethiopian Beta Israel community probably lies in the very low level of formal education of the immigrants. With few exceptions, when they first arrived to Israel they had no useful training for a developed economy like that of Israel, and in addition to that they did not know Hebrew. Due to the oral nature of rural living in Ethiopia, illiteracy was very common (according to one estimate, 90% among adults aged 37 and above[18]), although young people were better educated and a minority group amongst the Beta Israel immigrants did attend secondary schools in Ethiopia. Regarding the recent immigration of Falash Mura, NGOs (such as the North American Conference on Ethiopian Jewry) have attempted to provide those who have been waiting for years in Ethiopia their immigration basic useful training for immigrants in Israel, as well as basic common concepts in Hebrew. Nevertheless, it is estimated that circa 80% of adult Falash Mura become unemployed in Israel.[19]

Due to the lack of work qualifications high unemployment is widespread: In 2005 the unemployment rate was 65% amongst those over the age of 45.[20] The younger generations born or who have grown up in Israel are more successful in being absorbed into Israeli economy, especially due to receiving modern education, although the average rate of educated people amongst the Beta Israel community is still smaller than that of the general Jewish youth, and this factor delays the emergence of a larger middle class group of Ethiopian origin in the Israeli society. Despite that, in 2005, 3000 students graduated of higher education institutions, and 1,500 others graduated at the university.[20] Nevertheless, even the academic graduates often experience trouble finding a job.

Low educational attainment, modest standards of living, and the occasionally isolated habitat may explain the development of delinquency among the Beta Israel youth: in 2005 its rate was three times higher than the rate of the other Israeli youth.[20]

A study published in 2012 found that members of the Beta Israel community earn 30%-40% less than Arab citizens of Israel, who are themselves considered as an underprivileged group.[21]

Involvement in politics[edit]

The Atid Ekhad party sees itself as the political representative of the community, though other parties include Ethiopian members. In 2006, Shas, a party representing Haredi Jews of Sephardic and Middle Eastern background, included an Ethiopian rabbi from Beersheba, in its list for the Knesset in a conscious attempt to represent diverse geographic and ethnic groups. Shas was not the only party attempting to appeal to the Ethiopian vote. Herut and Kadima both had Ethiopians on their lists. Shlomo Mula, head of the Jewish Agency's Ethiopian absorption department, was ranked 33 on Kadima's list and Avraham was number three on Herut's list.

In 2012, Israel appointed the country's first Ethiopian-born ambassador, Beylanesh Zevadia. According to the foreign minister of Israel, this represents an important milestone in fighting racism and prejudice.[22]

Language[edit]

The main language used for communication among Israeli citizens and amongst the Ethiopian Beta Israel in Israel is Modern Hebrew. The majority of the Beta Israel immigrants continue to speak in Amharic (primarily) and Tigrinya at home with their family members and friends. The Amharic language and the Tigrinya language are written in the Ge'ez script, originally developed for the now-extinct Ge'ez language.

Relations with Ethiopia[edit]

Although some non-Jewish Ethiopians expressed bitterness towards the Beta Israel emigration out of Ethiopia,[23] The Ethiopian Jews have close tie with Ethiopian people and tradition. Achievements by the Ethiopian Jews like Hagit Yaso wining the Kokhav Nolad creates a sense of pride in Ethiopia. The Ethiopian government is also an important ally of Israel on the international stage. Israel often sends expertise assistance for development projects in Ethiopia. Strategically, Israel "has always aspired to protect itself by means of a non-Arab belt that has included at various times Iran, Turkey and Ethiopia."[24]

Demography[edit]

The following is a list of the 60 most significant Beta Israel population centers in Israel as of 2006:[25]

Netanya is home to the largest Beta Israel community in Israel.
Ethiopian Beta Israel Synagogue in Netivot.
The official memorial site to the memory of Ethiopian Beta Israel (Ethiopian Jews), who died in their way to Israel on Mount Herzl.
Rank City Total population
Beta Israel population
 % of City Pop
1 Netanya 173,000 10,200 5.9
2 Beersheba 185,443 6,216 3.4
3 Ashdod 204,153 6,191 3.0
4 Rehovot 104,545 6,179 5.9
5 Haifa 266,280 5,484 2.1
6 Ashkelon 107,759 5,132 4.8
7 Rishon LeZion 222,041 5,004 2.3
8 Hadera 76,332 4,828 6.3
9 Jerusalem 733,329 4,526 0.6
10 Petah Tikva 184,196 4,041 2.2
11 Kiryat Malakhi 19,519 3,372 17.3
12 Ramla 64,172 3,297 5.1
13 Lod 66,776 3,176 4.8
14 Afula 39,274 3,123 8.0
15 Kiryat Gat 47,794 3,062 6.4
16 Beit Shemesh 69,482 2,470 3.6
17 Yavne 31,884 2,102 6.6
18 Kiryat Yam 37,201 1,672 4.5
19 Bat Yam 129,437 1,502 1.2
20 Safed 28,094 1,439 5.1
21 Gedera 15,462 1,380 8.9
22 Pardes Hanna-Karkur 29,835 1,333 4.5
23 Netivot 24,919 1,217 4.9
24 Be'er Ya'akov 9,356 1,039 11.1
25 Ness Ziona 30,951 986 3.2
26 Tel Aviv 384,399 970 0.3
27 Or Yehuda 31,255 903 2.9
28 Migdal HaEmek 24,705 882 3.6
29 Holon 167,080 825 0.5
30 Yokneam 18,453 772 4.2
31 Kiryat Motzkin 39,707 769 1.9
32 Kiryat Ekron 9,900 735 7.4
34 Karmiel 44,108 667 1.5
35 Kfar Saba 81,265 665 0.8
36 Tirat Carmel 18,734 635 3.4
37 Arad 23,323 602 2.6
38 Ofakim 24,447 598 2.4
39 Nazareth Illit 43,577 596 1.4
40 Kiryat Bialik 36,497 524 1.4
41 Sderot 19,841 522 2.6
42 Ma'ale Adumim 31,754 506 1.6
43 Gan Yavne 15,826 501 3.2
44 Tiberias 39,996 483 1.2
45 Bnei Brak 147,940 461 0.3
46 Rosh HaAyin 37,453 424 1.1
47 Kfar Yona 14,118 413 2.9
48 Ra'anana 72,832 385 0.5
49 Kiryat Ata 49,466 350 0.7
50 Eilat 46,349 331 0.7
51 Nahariya 50,439 309 0.6
52 Herzliya 84,129 271 0.3
53 Beit She'an 16,432 230 1.4
54 Hod HaSharon 44,567 210 0.5
55 Yehud-Monosson 25,464 172 0.7
56 Nesher 21,246 166 0.8
57 Even Yehuda 9,711 163 1.7
58 Ofra 2,531 131 5.2
59 Kedumim 3,208 104 3.2
60 Ramat Gan 129,658 101 0.1

The City of Kiryat Malakhi has a large concentration of Ethiopian Beta Israel, with 17.3% of the towns population being members of the Beta Israel.

Controversy[edit]

Discrimination[edit]

Men attending a demonstration against racism and discrimination, 2012

The absorption of Ethiopians in Israeli society represents an ambitious attempt to deny the significance of race.[26] Israeli authorities, aware of the situation of most African diaspora communities in other Western countries, hosted programs to avoid setting in patterns of discrimination.[26] The Ethiopian Beta Israel community's internal challenges have been complicated by perceived racist attitudes in some sectors of Israeli society and the establishment.[11]

In 2004, racism was alleged regarding delays in admitting Ethiopian Beta Israel to Israel under the Law of return.[26] However, the delay may be attributed to religious motivations rather than racism, since there was debate whether or not Beta Israel people were indeed Jewish.[27][28]

In 2005, racism was alleged when the mayor of Or Yehuda refused to accept a large increase in Ethiopian immigrants due to fear of having the property of the town decrease in value or having an increase in crime.[29]

A survey published by the Jerusalem Post in 2005 found that 43% of Israelis would not marry an Ethiopian and would not want their children to marry a member of the community.[30]

In 2009, schoolchildren of Ethiopian ancestry were denied admission into three semi-private Haredi schools in Petah Tikva. An Israeli government official criticized the Petah Tikva Municipality and the schools. Shas spiritual leader Ovadia Yosef threatened to fire any school principal from Shas's school system who refused to receive Ethiopian students. The Israeli Education Ministry decided to pull funding from the Lamerhav, Da'at Mevinim and Darkei Noam schools, which refused to accept the students. Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu spoke out against the rejection of Ethiopian children, calling it "a moral terror attack."[31][32]

In 2010 Barry Rubin, the editor of the Middle East Review of International Affairs (MERIA) Journal, said that while there have been some incidents in reaction to the arrival of Beta Israel from Ethiopia, these have been few and universally rejected.[33][full citation needed]

Racism directed at Ethiopain Jews does remain a real problem, however, with many within the Ethiopian Jewish community feeling that they have been the victims of racism while in Israel.[34] [35]

Blood donations[edit]

On January 24, 1996, Ma'ariv newspaper revealed a Magen David Adom policy that drew heavy criticism in Israel and worldwide.[36][37][38] According to the policy, which was not brought to the attention of the Israeli Ministry of Health or donors, blood donations received from Ethiopian immigrants and their offspring were secretly disposed of. A later public inquiry traced this back to a misinterpretation of an 1984 instruction to mark blood donations from Ethiopian immigrants due to a relatively high prevalence of HBsAg, indicative of Hepatitis B infections, in blood samples taken from this population.

A few days after the expose, ten thousand Beta Israel demonstrated in front the Office of the Prime Minister. The police force was surprised and unprepared for the violence that erupted, leading to policemen being injured by stones, sticks and steel rods. The police repelled the demonstrators with rubber bullets, water cannons and tear gas. 41 policemen and 20 demonstrators were injured, and 200 cars belonging to the employees of the Prime Minister's Office were damaged.

Tests conducted on 650 Ethiopian immigrants who immigrated to Israel in 1984–1990 and 5,200 Ethiopian immigrants who immigrated in 1990–1992 revealed no HIV carriers before July 1990.Nevertheless, among the 5,200 Ethiopian immigrants who immigrated during "Operation Solomon" there were 118 HIV carriers, who made up 2.3 percent of the test population.‏‏[39][40][41][42][43]

The public outcry led to his dismissal of the CEO of MDA and the establishment of a commission of inquiry headed by former Israeli president Yitzhak Navon. After several months, the committee published its conclusions, calling for a change in policy. The Committee did not find evidence of racism, although some researchers have contested this.[36][44]‏‏[45]

On November 6, 2006, hundreds of Ethiopians clashed with police when protesters attempted to block the entrance to Jerusalem in the wake of the Israeli Health Ministry's decision to continue the MDA policy of disposing of donations from high risk groups.[46]

To date, the MDA prohibits the use of blood donations from natives of sub-Saharan Africa, except South Africa, natives of Southeast Asia, natives of the Caribbean and natives of countries which have been widely affected by the AIDS epidemic, including donations from the natives of Ethiopia. Since 1991 all immigrants from Ethiopia undergo mandatory HIV screenings, regardless of their intention to donate blood.[47][48][49]

Birth control[edit]

According to a TV program in 2012, female Ethiopian immigrants may have been given the Depo-Provera birth control drug without full explanation of its effects,[50] although the Israeli health ministry has instructed all health maintenance organizations not to use the treatment unless patients understand the ramifications. Ethiopian Jewish women awaiting aliyah were given birth control while in transit camps. The drug has existed for around thirty years but only about five percent of women elect to use this method of birth control in the US.[51] The effects of Depo-Provera last for three months.

The practice was first reported in 2010 by Isha le'Isha, an Israeli women’s rights organization. Hedva Eyal, the author of the report, stated: "We believe it is a method of reducing the number of births in a community that is black and mostly poor." [52]Haaretz criticized the coverage,[53] alleging that there was no plan to deliberately reduce the birth rates of Ethiopian Jews, and there was no evidence for coercion.

Ethiopian Heritage Museum[edit]

In 2005, plans were announced for the establishment of a museum highlighting the culture and heritage of the Ethiopian Beta Israel community in Rehovot. The museum, planned as a research, interpretive and spiritual center, is the initiative of Tomer, an association of veteran Ethiopian immigrants and former Mossad agents who participated in the first operations to bring Ethiopians to Israel. The museum, expected to cost some $4.5 million, will include a model Ethiopian village, an herb garden, an artificial stream, an amphitheater, classrooms, and a memorial to Ethiopians who died in Sudan on their way to Israel and Ethiopian Zionist activists. The city has set aside 6 dunams (6,000 m²) of land for the museum complex. One of the museum's founders was Baruch Tegegne, who pioneered escape routes from Ethiopia via Sudan and fought for the right of the Beta Israel community to emigrate to Israel. Other founders include veteran Ethiopian rights activist Babu Yaakov, a former member of the Ramle City Council, and Shetu Barehon, who worked in the transit camps in Sudan to bring Ethiopian Beta Israel to Israel.

Bar-Yuda's association with the Ethiopian community began in 1958. The Jewish Agency asked him to go to Ethiopia to look for Jews in remote villages. His report, together with a 16th Century ruling by Rabbi David B. Zimra, known as the Radbaz, was the basis for chief Sephardic rabbi Ovadia Yosef's determination in 1973 that the Beta Israel of Ethiopia were Jews according to halakha (Jewish religious law).[54]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Israel Central Bureau of Statistics: The Ethiopian Community in Israel
  2. ^ The Ethiopian Jews of Israel - Personal Stories of Life in the Promised Land - By Len Lyons, PhD; - Photographs by Ilan Ossendryver - Foreword by Alan Dershowitz
  3. ^ Ethiopian Jews in Israel still await the promised land - Telegraph
  4. ^ http://www.ynet.co.il/home/0,7340,L-3070,00.html
  5. ^ Weil, Shalva 2011 "Operation Solomon 20 Years On", International Relations and Security Network (ISN). http://www.isn.ethz.ch/isn/Current-Affairs/ISN-Insights/Detail?ord538=grp1&ots591=eb06339b-2726-928e-0216-1b3f15392dd8&lng=en&id=129480&contextid734=129480&contextid735=129244&tabid=129244
  6. ^ Weil, Shalva 2007 Operation Solomon by Stephen Spector, reviewed in Studies in Contemporary Jewry, an Annual, New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press 22: 341-343.
  7. ^ Oz Almog, "Residential patterns among olim from Ethiopia, Published in 2008 (Hebrew)
  8. ^ Gerrit Jan Abbink, The Falashas In Ethiopia And Israel: The Problem of Ethnic Assimilation, Nijmegen, Institute for Cultural and Social Anthropology, 1984, p. 114
  9. ^ Mitchell G. Bard, From Tragedy to Triumph: The Politics Behind the Rescue of Ethiopian Jewry, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2002, p. 137
  10. ^ Bard, From Tragedy to Triumph, p. 139
  11. ^ a b Onolemhemhen Durrenda Nash, The Black Jews of Ethiopia, Scarecrow Press; Reprint edition 2002, page 40
  12. ^ Tovi Fenter, "Ethnicity, Citizenship, Planning and Gender: the case of Ethiopian immigrant women in Israel", Gender, Place and Culture, Vol. 5, No. 2, p. 179, 1998
  13. ^ Fenter, "Ethnicity", page 181.
  14. ^ http://www.tau.ac.il/~tobiws/ethiopian.pdf#search='Ethiopian%20women%20in%20Israel'
  15. ^ Heilman, Urile (2006-11-17). "Falash Mura supporters hail vote to keep monthly immigration steady". Connecticut Jewish Ledger. pp. 22, 26. Retrieved 2006-11-17. 
  16. ^ Israel News | Online Israeli News Covering Israel & The Jewish World - JPost
  17. ^ Weil, Shalva 1995 'Representations of Leadership among Ethiopian Jews' in Steven Kaplan, Tudor Parfitt and Emanuela Trevisan Semi (eds) Between Africa & Zion, Proceedings of the first International Conference of SOSTEJE, Venice, 1993, pp. 230-239.
  18. ^ "Among those thirty-seven years of age or older, more than 90 percent were illiterate; very few females were literate. Among those younger than twenty-five, about 37 percent had at least six years of some kind of formal education" Citation from For our soul: Ethiopian Jews in Israel by Teshome G. Wagaw, p. 74.
  19. ^ According Shlomo Molla, head of the Jewish Agency's Ethiopian Division, quoted from an article by Amiram Barkat: "Ethiopian immigrants not being prepared for new life in Israel", Haaretz 29/05/2006.
  20. ^ a b c Haaretz, Breaking the glass ceiling, 05/06/2005. View Article.
  21. ^ Hila Weisberg (2012-03-05). "Ethiopian immigrants earning 30%-40% less than Arabs". The Marker - Haaretz. Retrieved 2012-03-05. 
  22. ^ J’lem appoints first Ethiopian-born ambassador. Jerusalem Post, 02/28/2012
  23. ^ Ethiopian Jews and Israel
  24. ^ Zvi Bar'el, Why we need Turkey, Ha'aretz, February 22, 2009
  25. ^ Oz Almog, "Residential patterns among olim from Ethiopia, Published in 2008 (Hebrew)
  26. ^ a b c Rebhun, Uzi, Jews in Israel: contemporary social and cultural patterns, UPNE, 2004, p. 139-140
  27. ^ . JSTOR 2784774.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  28. ^ Kemp, Adriana, Israelis in conflict: hegemonies, identities and challenges, Sussex Academic Press, 2004, p 155
  29. ^ Yuval Azoulay and Yulie Khromchenko (2005-09-04). "Ethiopian children cannot go to school in Or Yehuda while politicians argue". Haaretz. Retrieved 2012-03-04. 
  30. ^ Racism alive and well in Israeli society, Jerusalem Post, 22 Mars 2005.
  31. ^ "Deal reached on Petah Tikva Ethiopian olim", Jerusalem Post, Aug 31, 2009. http://www.jpost.com/Home/Article.aspx?id=153392
  32. ^ Olmert: Ethiopian Jews are right to feel discriminated against
  33. ^ Barry Rubin, An All-Purpose Paradigm: The West’s Absurd Claims of Israeli Racism, August 5, 2010
  34. ^ The tribulations of being an Ethiopian Jew, http://www.irinnews.org/report/94819/israel-the-tribulations-of-being-an-ethiopian-jew
  35. ^ Ethiopian Jews Find Israel To Be A Racist State, http://www.rense.com/general25/rct.htm
  36. ^ a b Seeman D., "One people, one blood": public health, political violence, and HIV in an Ethiopian-Israeli setting, Cult Med Psychiatry. 1999 Jun;23(2):159-95, PMID 10451801
  37. ^ Edward H. Kaplan, Israel’s ban on use of Ethiopians’ blood: how many infectious donations were prevented?, Lancet. 1998 Apr 11;351(9109):1127-8. PMID 9660600
  38. ^ Edward H. Kaplan, Implicit Valuation of a Blood-exclusion Decision, Med Decis Making. 1999 Apr–Jun;19(2):207-13. PMID 10231084
  39. ^ ‏Alkan ML, Maayan S, Belmaker I, Arbeli Y, Mani N, Ben-Yshai F, Serological markers for hepatitis B and treponemal infection among HIV carriers from Ethiopia, Isr J Med Sci. 1993 Jun–Jul;29(6–7):390-2 PMID 8349459
  40. ^ http://www.snunit.k12.il/heb_journals/chimia/55004.html
  41. ^ ‏Pollack S, Ben-Porath E, Fuad B, Raz R, Etzioni A., Epidemiological and serological studies in HIV-infected Ethiopian immigrants to Israel, Acta Paediatr Suppl. 1994 Aug;400:19–21. PMID 7833553
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