Ethnic conflict in Nagaland
The ethnic conflict in Nagaland, in northeastern India, is an ongoing conflict fought between the ethnic Nagas and Tangkhuls in the area, complicated by the support of some for rebel groups seeking independence for the state. It is located near Myanmar, where rebels regularly take cover.
The Tangkhuls wanted to defeat or drive away the Kukis, a Kuki people living in the Ukhrul district of Manipur, and having close links with other Naga tribes in Nagaland. The various groups involved in this conflict include several rebel groups, the "National Socialist Council of Nagaland (Isak-Muivah)," which purportedly wants a Christian religious state; the "National Socialist Council of Nagaland (Khaplang)", which wants an independent "greater Nagaland" to include territory now in Myanmar, based on ethnicity; and the "Naga National Council (Adino)".
The first insurgencies occurred in the early 1950s. They subsided gradually or were repressed in the early 1980s. In 1993, violence erupted again between the Nagas and the Kukis.
At least 34,000 died in the conflict between 1954 and 1975.
Several rebel groups have operated in Nagaland since the mid-twentieth century, including the following:
- Naga National Council, a political organization active in the late 1940s and early 1950s, which became separatist under Angami Zapu Phizo.
- Naga National Council (Adino) – NNC (Adino): the oldest political Naga organisation, now led by the daughter of Naga rebel A.Z. Phizo.
- 'National Socialist Council of Nagaland (Isak-Muivah)': formed on January 31, 1980 by Isak Chishi Swu, Thuingaleng Muivah and S.S. Khaplang . They want to establish a ‘Greater Nagaland’ (‘Nagalim’ or the People’s Republic of Nagaland) based on Mao Tse Tung’s model.
- 'National Socialist Council of Nagaland (Khaplang)': formed on April 30, 1988, its goal is to establish a ‘greater Nagaland’ based on ethnicity, comprising the Naga-dominated areas within India, and contiguous areas in Myanmar.
- Naga Federal Government- separatist movement active in Nagaland during the 1970s. After its leader was captured and the headquarters destroyed, NFG's activities decreased.
- Naga Federal Army-separatist guerrilla organization active in the 1970s. Several hundred members of NFA reportedly have received training in China.
- Uppsala conflict data expansion. Non-state actor information. Codebook pp. 81-82
- "National Socialist Council of Nagaland -Khaplang". SATP. Retrieved 30 March 2015.
- "National Socialist Council of Nagaland - Isak-Muivah". SATP. Retrieved 30 March 2015.
- "Overview: Insurgency & Peace Efforts in Manipur". CDPS. Summer 2004. Retrieved Summer 2004. Check date values in:
- "Armed Conflict Events Timeline 1950-1954". onwar.com. Retrieved 2014-12-14.
- Schmid, A.P.; Jongman, A.J. (2005). Political Terrorism: A New Guide To Actors, Authors, Concepts, Data Bases, Theories, And Literature. Transaction Publishers. p. 572. ISBN 9781412804691. Retrieved 2014-12-14.
- Baptist Agenda for Peace in Nagalim, India
- "A remote land of jungle, Jesus - and religious war", Daily Herald, 5 May 2003
- "Peace talks an insult to Nagas", The Week, 9 Feb 2003.
- "Religious Fervor May Dominate Emerging Indian State of Nagalim", The Washington Diplomat, October 2003
- "The most Baptist state in the world—Nagaland—is vying to become a powerhouse for cross-cultural missions", Christianity Today, February 20.
- "We want t penetrate China, Cambodia, Burma, Vietnam and Laos and Nepal with the Gospel", Christian Today (India), 29 August 2003.
- "Nagas want solution, not election", Baptist Peace Fellowship of North America, February 1998
- "Church Backs Terrorism in the North-East", Ind Pride
- "Role of the Church – Charity or...?", Vanvasi Kalyan Parishad
- http://www.onwar.com/aced/data/november/nagaland1954.htm "Nagaland 1954"], On War