Ethnic conflict in Nagaland

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Ethnic conflict in Nagaland
Part of Insurgency in North-East India
Nagaland locator map.svg
State of Nagaland
Date 1954-present
Location Nagaland
Result Conflict ongoing

India India

Burma Burma

Unofficial flag of Nagaland.svg NSCN-K
Unofficial flag of Nagaland.svg NSCN-IM
UNPC (until 2013)
Commanders and leaders
India Rajendra Prasad
India Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan
India Zakir Hussain
India Varahagiri Venkata Giri
India Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed
India Neelam Sanjiva Reddy
India Zail Singh
India R. Venkataraman
India Shankar Dayal Sharma
India K. R. Narayanan
India A. P. J. Abdul Kalam
India Pratibha Patil
India Pranab Mukherjee
India Vishnu Sahay
India Braj Kumar Nehru
India Lallan Prasad Singh
India Sayed Muzaffar Hussain Burney
India Kotikalapudi Venkata Krishna Rao
India Lokanath Misra
India Gopal Singh
India Madathilparampil Mammen Thomas
India V.K. Nayyar
India O.N. Shrivastava
India Om Prakash Sharma
India Shyamal Datta
India K. Wilson
India Kateekal Sankaranarayanan
India Gurbachan Jagat
India Nikhil Kumar
India Ashwani Kumar
India Padmanabha Acharya
Burma Ba U
Burma Win Maung
Burma Ne Win
Burma San Yu
Burma Saw Maung
Burma Thein Sein
Flag of Sagaing Division.svg Tha Aye
Angami Zapu Phizo
200,000[1] 4500 NSCN-IM
2000 NSCN-K[2][3]
Casualties and losses
Total casualties: 200,000[4]

The ethnic conflict in Nagaland, in northeastern India, is an ongoing conflict fought between the ethnic Nagas and Tangkhuls in the area, complicated by the support of some for rebel groups seeking independence for the state. It is located near Myanmar, where rebels regularly take cover.

The Tangkhuls wanted to defeat or drive away the Kukis, a Kuki people living in the Ukhrul district of Manipur, and having close links with other Naga tribes in Nagaland. The various groups involved in this conflict include several rebel groups, the "National Socialist Council of Nagaland (Isak-Muivah)," which purportedly wants a Christian religious state; the "National Socialist Council of Nagaland (Khaplang)", which wants an independent "greater Nagaland" to include territory now in Myanmar, based on ethnicity; and the "Naga National Council (Adino)".[citation needed]

The first insurgencies occurred in the early 1950s. They subsided gradually or were repressed in the early 1980s. In 1993, violence erupted again between the Nagas and the Kukis.

At least 34,000 died in the conflict between 1954 and 1975.[5]

Nagaland Rebels[edit]

Several rebel groups have operated in Nagaland since the mid-twentieth century, including the following:

  1. Naga National Council, a political organization active in the late 1940s and early 1950s, which became separatist under Angami Zapu Phizo.
  2. Naga National Council (Adino) – NNC (Adino): the oldest political Naga organisation, now led by the daughter of Naga rebel A.Z. Phizo.
  3. 'National Socialist Council of Nagaland (Isak-Muivah)': formed on January 31, 1980 by Isak Chishi Swu, Thuingaleng Muivah and S.S. Khaplang [1]. They want to establish a ‘Greater Nagaland’ (‘Nagalim’ or the People’s Republic of Nagaland) based on Mao Tse Tung’s model.
  4. 'National Socialist Council of Nagaland (Khaplang)': formed on April 30, 1988, its goal is to establish a ‘greater Nagaland’ based on ethnicity, comprising the Naga-dominated areas within India, and contiguous areas in Myanmar.
  5. Naga Federal Government- separatist movement active in Nagaland during the 1970s. After its leader was captured and the headquarters destroyed, NFG's activities decreased.[6]
  6. Naga Federal Army-separatist guerrilla organization active in the 1970s. Several hundred members of NFA reportedly have received training in China.[6]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Uppsala conflict data expansion. Non-state actor information. Codebook pp. 81-82
  2. ^ "National Socialist Council of Nagaland -Khaplang". SATP. Retrieved 30 March 2015. 
  3. ^ "National Socialist Council of Nagaland - Isak-Muivah". SATP. Retrieved 30 March 2015. 
  4. ^ "Overview: Insurgency & Peace Efforts in Manipur". CDPS. Summer 2004. Retrieved Summer 2004.  Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  5. ^ "Armed Conflict Events Timeline 1950-1954". Retrieved 2014-12-14. 
  6. ^ a b Schmid, A.P.; Jongman, A.J. (2005). Political Terrorism: A New Guide To Actors, Authors, Concepts, Data Bases, Theories, And Literature. Transaction Publishers. p. 572. ISBN 9781412804691. Retrieved 2014-12-14. 

External links[edit]