Minorities in Greece

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Minorities in Greece are small in size compared to Balkan regional standards, and the country is largely ethnically homogeneous.[1] This is mainly due to the population exchanges between Greece and neighboring Turkey (Convention of Lausanne) and Bulgaria (Treaty of Neuilly), which removed most Muslims (with the exception of the Muslims of Thrace) and those Christian Slavs who did not identify as Greeks, from Greek territory; the treaty also provided for the resettlement of ethnic Greeks from those countries, later to be followed by refugees. The 2001 census reported a population of 10,964,020 people.[2][verification needed]

The main officially recognized "minority" (μειονότητα, meionótita) is the Muslim minority (μουσουλμανική μειονότητα, mousoulmanikí meionótita) in Thrace, Northern Greece, which numbered 120,000 according to the 2001 census[3] and mainly consists of Western Thrace Turks, Pomaks (both mainly inhabiting Western Thrace), and also Romani, found particularly in central and Northern Greece. Other recognized minority groups are the Armenians numbering approximately 35,000,[4] and the Jews (Sephardim and Romaniotes) numbering approximately 5,500.[5]

Religious minorities

Main article: Religion in Greece

The Greek constitution defines the Eastern Orthodox Church as the "prevailing religion" in Greece, and over 95% of the population claim membership in it. Any other religion not explicitly defined by law (e.g. unlike Islam and Judaism, which are explicitly recognized) may acquire the status of a "known religion", a status which allows the religion's adherents to worship freely, and to have constitutional recognition. After a court ruling, the criteria for acquiring the status of a "known religion", were defined as being, a "religion or a dogma whose doctrine is open and not secret, is taught publicly and its rites of worship are also open to the public, irrespective of whether its adherents have religious authorities; such a religion or dogma needs not to be recognized or approved by an act of the State or Church". This covers most religious minorities such as Roman Catholics, Evangelicals, Pentecostals, Seventh-day Adventists, Methodists, and Jehovah's Witnesses. All known religions to be considered by the Greek state legal entities under private law must establish an association, or foundation, or charitable fund-raising committee pursuant to the Civil Code. The Roman Catholic Church refuses to be considered a legal person under private or public law and has requested recognition by its own canon law. In July 1999, following a parliamentary amendment, the legal entity status of all institutions of the Roman Catholic Church established before 1946 was reconfirmed. There is no formal mechanism that exists to gain recognition as a "known religion". There are also around two thousand Greeks who adhere to a reconstruction of the ancient Greek Religion.[6][7] A place of worship has been recognized as such by court.[8]

Muslim

There is a Muslim minority who are Greek citizens living in Thrace, concentrated in the Rhodope and Xanthi regional units. According to the 1991 census, there were 98,000 Muslims in western Thrace, 50% of them of Turkish ethnic origin, with 35% Pomaks and the remaining 15% Roma.[9][10] Other sources estimate the size of the Muslim minority at 0.95% of the population, or approximately 110,000.[11] Aside from the indigenous Muslim minority in Greece, the Muslim immigrant population in the rest of the country was estimated at 200,000 to 300,000, though these are recent migrants and generally not considered a minority.[12][not in citation given] Under Greek administration, the Muslim minority of Greece has adopted a moderate, non-political form of Islam.[13] The Lausanne Treaty, and as a result the Greek government, defines the rights of the Muslim communities in Western Thrace, both Turkish and Pomak, on the basis of religion instead of ethnicity.

Turks

A Turkish community currently live in Western Thrace, in the north-eastern part of Greece. According to the 1991 census, there were approximately 50,000 Turks, out of the approximately 98,000 Muslim minority of Greece[10] Other sources estimate the size of the minority between 120,000 and 130,000.[14][15] The Turks of Thrace descend from Turkish populations living in the area during the Ottoman period. Like the Greeks of Istanbul, Imbros and Tenedos, they were exempted from the 1923 population exchange.[16]

The Greek government continues to deliver Turkish-language public education, and there are two Islamic theological seminaries, one in Komotini and one in Echinos. The Turkish community of Greece enjoys full equality under the law, adopting Turkish names, publishing numerous Turkish-language newspapers, operating Turkish-language radio stations, converse freely in Turkish and use Turkish in Greek courts.[13] They are allowed to maintain their own Turkish-language schools, which catered to about 8,000 students in the 1999-2000 school year.[13] Since 1920, members of the Turkish minority participate in elections, electing representatives to Parliament.[13] The great majority of Turkic Muslims in Thrace espouse moderate political views and are ready to work and prosper as citizens of the Greek state, with the exception of a relatively small group of ethnocentric activists.[13]

In 1922, Turks owned 84% of the land in Western Thrace, but now the minority estimates this figure to be between 20–40%. This stems from various practices of the Greek administration whereby ethnic Greeks are encouraged to purchase Turkish land with soft loans granted by the state.[17][18] The Greek government refers to the Turkish community as Greek Muslims or Hellenic Muslims, and does not recognise a Turkish minority in Western Thrace.[14] Greek courts have also outlawed the use of the word 'Turkish' to describe the Turkish community.[19][20] In 1988, the Greek High Court affirmed a 1986 decision of the Court of Appeals of Thrace in which the Union of Turkish Associations of Western Thrace was ordered closed. The court held that the use of the word 'Turkish' referred to citizens of Turkey, and could not be used to describe citizens of Greece; the use of the word 'Turkish' to describe 'Greek Muslims' was held to endanger public order.[20] Greece continued this stance in the beginning 21st century when Greek courts ruled to dissolve or prohibit formation of Turkish associations.[19][21][22][unreliable source?]

Apart from Thrace, a small minority of Turks exists in the Dodecanese islands of Rhodes and Kos. They were not included in the 1923 population exchange as the Dodecanese were annexed from Italy in 1947 after World War II. After annexation of islands, their Muslim inhabitants, Greek and Turkish speakers, were granted Greek citizenship. Today, about 5,000 Turks[23] live in the Dodecanese islands of Rhodes numbering 3,000 and Kos numbering 2,000 and use Turkish in every day life. In Rhodes and Kos, the teaching of the Turkish language was de facto abolished in the early 1970s.[24]

Pomak

Main article: Pomaks

The Muslim Bulgarian-speaking minority are known as Pomaks (Greek: Πομάκοι, Pomakoi, Bulgarian: Помаци, Pomatsi), they reside mainly in villages in the Rhodope Mountains in Thrace, in Evros, Xanthi and Rhodope regional units of Greece. According to the 2001 Greek census it is estimated that in total there are 36,000 Pomaks, of whom, 23,000 live in Xanthi regional unit, 11,000 live in Rhodope regional unit and 2,000 live in Evros regional unit.[25]

The language they speak is generally classified as a dialect of Bulgarian, and more specifically is the "Central Rhodope dialect" or Smolyan dialect.[26] Despite their mother language, many Pomaks also self-identify themselves as Turks[27] This Turkification has a number of reasons, including the fact that Turks and Pomaks were part of the same millet during the years when their homeland was part of the Ottoman Empire.

Under Greek law, the Muslim minority (including the Pomaks) has a right to education in its own language. In practice however, only Turkish is used.[27] This is due to the Turkish self-identification of the Pomaks, and the fact that this trend was promoted until recently by the Greek authorities (who from 1968 until the 1980s even officially recognized the Pomaks as Turks)[28] in order to distance them from the Bulgarians.[27] There have been Greek-Pomak dictionaries published and a language primer in the Bulgarian language (in Greek script) has been published for use in Pomak schools.[29] Recently, news have begun to be broadcast in the native language of the Pomaks.[30]

Most Pomaks are fluent in their Pomak dialects (spoken amongst themselves), Turkish (their language of education, and the main language of the Muslim minority), Greek (the official language of the Greek state), and may know some Arabic (the language of the Qur'an).[27]

Other minorities

Armenians

Main article: Armenians in Greece

There are approximately 35,000 Armenians in Greece[4] out of which approximately 20,000 can speak the Armenian language.[31] The community's main political representative is the Armenian National Committee of Greece; its headquarters are in Athens with branches all over Greece. The community also manages its own educational institutions. Approximately 95% of Armenians in Greece are Armenian Orthodox, with the rest being Armenian Catholics or Evangelicals.[4]

Jews

Population of Thessaloniki[32]

Year Total Pop. Jewish Pop. Jewish %
1842 70,000 36,000 51%
1870 90,000 50,000 56%
1882/84 85,000 48,000 56%
1902 126,000 62,000 49%
1913 157,889 61,439 39%
1943 53,000
2001 363,987[33] 1,000 0.3%

The interaction between Greece and the Jews dates back to ancient times. Alexander the Great reached ancient Judea and was welcomed by the Jews. Following his death, war erupted between the Hellenized Jews and Greeks and the Jewish conservatives Maccabees that embittered relations between Greeks and Jews for centuries.

During the Ottoman Empire, Jews like all other non-Muslims had a degree of autonomy under the Millet system which classified populations according to religion rather than ethnicity or language. Thessaloniki in particular had a large Jewish population, mostly consisting of Sephardim, who settled in Ottoman lands after the 1492 expulsion of the Jews from Spain. Sephardim used to speak Ladino until well into the 20th century. The Romaniotes, on the other hand, are Jews who lived in the territory of today's Greece and neighboring areas for more than 2,000 years. Their language is Greek (and a Greek dialect called Yevanic language); they derive their name from the Byzantine name for the Greeks, "Rhomaioi".

Since independence in 1821, Greece continued to have a significant and active Jewish community with a long and rich cultural heritage.

The Jewish population of Greece increased markedly after the Greco-Turkish War (1919–1922) when Thessaloniki became part of Greek Kingdom, though the 1923 population exchange between Greece and Turkey diluted the Jewish population of Thessaloniki.

During the Holocaust, 86% of Greek Jews, especially those in the areas occupied by Nazi Germany and Bulgaria, were killed, despite efforts by the Greek Orthodox Church hierarchy, the EAM resistance movement and individual Greeks (both Christian and Communist) to shelter Jews. These efforts were particularly notable in Zakynthos, where not a single local Jew was killed in the Holocaust.

Macedonians (of Slavic origin)

The Greek government does not officially recognize a Macedonian minority of Slavic origin in Greece. Nevertheless, the Greek Helsinki Monitor issued a report in September 1999, with which it claims that there are about 10,000-30,000 ethnic Macedonians, living in Greece,[34] but because of the absence of an official census it is impossible to determine the exact number. A political party called “Rainbow” promotes this line and claims minority rights of what they describe as the "Macedonian minority in Greece". In the 2009 European Parliament election, Rainbow tallied a countrywide total of 4,530 votes, or 0.09% percentage.[35] However, also nearly three millions of ethnic Greeks identify themselves as Macedonians, unrelated to the Slavic people who are associated with the Republic of Macedonia. Greece objects to the use of the term "Macedonian" for the neighboring country's largest ethnic group and its language".[36]

In 2008 an United Nations independent expert on minority issues, Gay McDougall, personally visited Greece to check the current situation regarding the minorities. As the report published on the UN Human Rights Council web site[37] says: "The Independent Expert met numerous individuals identifying as ethnic Macedonian." Moreover she urges: "the Government of Greece to withdraw from the dispute over whether there is a Macedonian or a Turkish minority in Greece and focus on protecting the rights to self-identification, freedom of expression and freedom of association of those communities."

Linguistic and cultural communities

In addition to the above minorities, there are various ethnolinguistic communities in Greece with a distinct ethnic identity and language, but whose members largely identify nationally as Greeks and do not consider themselves a "minority".

Regions with a traditional presence of languages other than Greek. Greek is today spoken as the dominant language throughout the country.[38]

Statistics

Ethnic groups in Greece, 1961 estimates[39]
Ethnic group Number
(in thousand)
Percentage
Greeks 7,960 94.91
Macedonians 150 1.79
Turks 115 1.37
Aromanians 50 0.60
Albanians 50 0.60
Bulgarians 20 0.24
Gypsies 10 0.12
Jews 7 0.08
Armenians 5 0.06
Others or unknown 20 0.24
Total 8,387 100.00

Albanian-speaking

Albanian economic migrants are not to be confused with the Greek Orthodox Arvanites, a group who traditionally speak a form of Tosk Albanian in addition to Greek and self-identify as Greeks,[40] having played a significant role in the Greek War of Independence and Greek culture in general.

The Chams were an ethnic Albanian community that formerly inhabited the area of Thesprotia, part of the Greek region of Epirus. Most of them fled to Albania at the end of World War II after a large part of them collaborated with the Nazi occupation forces.[41][42][43][44]

There are other Albanian speaking communities found across other regions of Greece. In the Florina region Albanian speakers can be found in the villages of Flampouro, Drosopigi, Idroussa and Tripotamos. [45] Furthermore, an estimated 39 homogenous and mixed Albanian speaking villages can be found in Western Thrace and Central Macedonia.[46]

After 1991, with the collapse of communism in Albania, a huge number of Albanian immigrants live and work in Greece. In the 2001 census, 274,390 ethnic Albanians are residing in Greece,[47][48] mostly economic migrants. Albanians constitute 63.7% of the total documented migrant population in Greece, followed by Bulgarians, Georgians, Romanians, Russians, and Ukrainians.[49]

Aromanian-speaking

Main article: Aromanians in Greece

In Greece, the Aromanians are called Vlachs (Greek: Βλάχοι, Vlahoi). There are numerous festivals celebrating Aromanian culture all over Greece. Their language, Aromanian, is in danger of extinction and mostly spoken by the elderly. There are, however, small numbers of Aromanians in Greece who call for greater recognition of the Aromanian language, such as Sotiris Bletsas. It is hypothesized that these Vlachs originated from the Roman colonisation of the Balkans and are the descendants of Latinised native peoples and Roman legionaries who had settled in the Balkans.[50][51][52] German researcher Thede Kahl claims to have also documented some cases of assimilation of the Aromanian population in regions which are now largely Greek-speaking.[53] The Panhellenic Federation of Cultural Associations of Vlachs (Πανελλήνια Ομοσπονδία Πολιτιστικών Συλλόγων Βλάχων) has publicly stated that they do not want Aromanian recognized as a minority language nor do they want it inserted into the education system,[54][verification needed] and the same organization also protested,[55] when Thede Kahl discussed in a paper if they could be designated a "minority".[50] Greek Aromanians, and Greeks in general, believe that the aromanian-speaking population spoke Latin from the 5th century already, but went under a process of Romanian propaganda from 1860 that achieved changing their idiom but completely failed in developing the sentiment of Romanian ethnicity.[56]

Megleno-Romanians

Main article: Megleno-Romanians
Map of Megleno-Romanians settlements in Greece and Republic of Macedonia

Megleno-Romanians are concentrated in the Moglena region of Greek Macedonia. They speak the Megleno-Romanian language which is known as Vlăheşte by its speakers. An estimated 4,000 speakers can be found in the region spanning the Pella and Kilkis regional units of Central Macedonia. The largest Megleno-Romanian settlement is Notia.[57]

Romani

Main article: Roma people of Greece

The history of Romani in Greece goes back over 600 years to the 15th century. The name Gypsy sometimes used for the Romani people was first given to them by the Greeks who supposed them to be Egyptian in origin. Due to their nomadic nature, they are not concentrated in a specific geographical area, but are dispersed all over the country. The majority of the Greek Romani are Orthodox Christians who speak the 'Vlachoura-Roma' language in addition to Greek. Most of the Romani who live in Western Thrace are Muslims and speak a dialect of the same language.[58]

The Romani in Greece live scattered on the whole territory of the country, but a large concentration in the bigger cities, mainly in Athens and Thessalonica. Notable centres of Romani life in Greece are Agia Varvara which has a very successful Romani community and Ano Liosia where conditions are bad. Romani largely maintain their own customs and traditions. Although a large number of Romani has adopted a sedentary and urban way of living, there are still settlements in some areas. The nomads at the settlements often differentiate themselves from the rest of the population. They number 200,000 according to the Greek government. According to the National Commission for Human Rights that number is closer to 250,000 and according to the Greek Helsinki Watch group to 300,000.[58]

As a result of neglect by the state, among other factors, the Romani communities in Greece face several problems including high instances of child labour and abuse, low school attendance, police discrimination and drug trafficking. The most serious issue is the housing problem since many Romani in Greece still live in tents, on properties they do not own, making them subject to eviction. In the past decade these issues have received wider attention and some state funding.[58]

Slavic-speaking

Slavic languages have been spoken in the region of Macedonia alongside Greek and others since the invasions of the Slavs in the 6th and 7th centuries AD.[59] In parts of northern Greece, in the regions of Macedonia (Μακεδονία) and Thrace (Θράκη), Slavonic languages continue to be spoken by people with a wide range of self-identifications. The actual linguistic classification of these dialects is unclear, although most linguists will classify them as either Bulgarian or Macedonian taking into account numerous factors, including the resemblance and mutual intelligibility of each dialect to the standard languages (abstand), and the self-identification of the speakers themselves.

As however the vast majority of these people don't have a Bulgarian or Macedonian national identity, linguists will make their decisions based on abstand alone. Now, this people mainly identify themselves as ethnic Greek.[60][61] The Slavic-speaking minority of northern Greece can be divided into two main groups: Christians and Muslims (see below).

Christian Orthodox Slavophones

The Christian portion of Greece's Slavic-speaking minority are commonly referred to as Slavophones (from the Greek Σλαβόφωνοι Slavophōnoi - lit. Slavic-speakers) or Dopii, which means "locals" in Greek. The vast majority of them espouse a Greek national identity and are bilingual in Greek. They live mostly in the region of Western Macedonia and adhere to the Greek Orthodox Church. The fact that the majority of these people self-identify as Greeks makes their numbers uncertain. The second group is made up of those who seem to reject any national identity (Greek or Slav Macedonian) but have distinct ethnic identity, which they may call “indigenous” -dopia-, Slavomacedonian, or Macedonian. The smallest group is made up of those who have a clear Macedonian national identity and consider themselves as part of the same nation with the dominant one in the neighboring Republic of Macedonia.[62][63] A crucial element of that controversy is the very name Macedonian, as it is also used by a much more numerous group of people with a Greek national identity to indicate their regional identity. Slavic speakers also use the term "Macedonians" or "Slavomacedonians", though in a regional rather than an ethnic sense. Until and including the 1951 census the question of mother tongue was asked throughout Greece, so this gives a rough idea as to the size of this group, and later estimates are usually based on this figure.

The national identity of this community has frequently been loaded with political implications. The Politis-Kalfov Protocol signed on September 29, 1925 purported to recognize the Slav-speakers of Greek Macedonia as Bulgarians, but this protocol was never ratified. A short lived agreement was signed August 1926, which recognized them as a Serbian minority.[64]

In the 1951 census, 41,017 people claimed to speak the Slavic language.

See also

References

Further reading

  • Anagnostou, Dia (March 2005). "Deepening Democracy or Defending the Nation? The Europeanisation of Minority Rights and Greek Citizenship". West European Politics 28 (2): 335–357. doi:10.1080/01402380500059785. 
  • Divani, Lena (1999). Greece and Minorities The international protection system of the League of Nations (in Greek). ISBN 978-960-03-2491-4. 

Notes

  1. ^ Richard Clogg Concise History of Greece (Second edition) Chap.7 page 238 Cambridge 2002, for the Greek edition Katoptro ISBN 960-7778-61-8
  2. ^ Ελληνική Επιτροπή για τη διαχείρηση των υδατικών πόρων: Στοιχεία από την πρόσφατη απογραφή του πληθυσμού
  3. ^ Dimitris Karantinos, Anna Manoudi Country Report 2 2012 Discrimination On The Ground Of Religion Or Belief [1]
  4. ^ a b c www.armenians.gr
  5. ^ Κεντρικό Ισραηλίτικο Συμβούλιο Ελλάδος: Οι Εβραίοι της Ελλάδος
  6. ^ BBC News Ancient Greek gods' new believers
  7. ^ YSEE in the media (See Video 2)
  8. ^ The Guardian Greek gods prepare for comeback
  9. ^ Greek Helsinki Monitor: Religious freedom in Greece
  10. ^ a b Greek Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Muslim minority in Thrace
  11. ^ "Demographics of Greece". European Union National Languages. Retrieved 19 December 2010. 
  12. ^ (English) US Department of State - Religious Freedom, Greece
  13. ^ a b c d e Alexis Alexandris, "The Identity Issue of The Minorities In Greece An Turkey", in Hirschon, Renée (ed.), Crossing the Aegean: An Appraisal of the 1923 Compulsory Population Exchange Between Greece and Turkey, Berghahn Books, 2003, p. 124
  14. ^ a b Whitman 1990, i.
  15. ^ Levinson 1998, 41.
  16. ^ University of Leiden page
  17. ^ Whitman 1990, 2
  18. ^ Hirschon 2003, 106
  19. ^ a b Once again Xanthi Turkish Union not restored by Greek courts despite ECtHR judgement [2]
  20. ^ a b Whitman 1990, 16.
  21. ^ Greece / European Court of Human Rights - 26698/05 and 34144/05
  22. ^ Parallel Report by Federation of Western Thrace Turks in Europe on the 2010 Human Rights Report: Greece 8 April 2011 [3]
  23. ^ Clogg 2002, 84.
  24. ^ Mercator Education, The Turkish language in Education in Greece, 2003
  25. ^ Θεοφάνης Μαλκίδης. "Οι Πομάκοι στη Θράκη"
  26. ^ S Stojkov, Rodopian dialect
  27. ^ a b c d Report on the Pomaks, by the Greek Helsinki Monitor
  28. ^ Religious Freedom in Greece, by the Greek Helsinki Monitor, September 2002
  29. ^ Migration, tradition and transition among the Pomaks in Xanthi (Western Thrace)
  30. ^ Greek Television emits Pomak News
  31. ^ http://www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=Greece
  32. ^ Molho, Rena.The Jerusalem of the Balkans: Salonica 1856-1919 The Jewish Museum of Thessaloniki. URL accessed July 10, 2006.
  33. ^ "(875 KB) 2001 Census" (PDF). National Statistical Service of Greece (ΕΣΥΕ) (in Greek). www.statistics.gr. Archived from the original on 2007-09-29. Retrieved 2007-10-30. 
  34. ^ GREEK HELSINKI MONITOR (GHM) & MINORITY RIGHTS GROUP – GREECE (MRG-G) - In the report it is stated that: “...those with a Macedonian national identity can be estimated to between 10,000-30,000. Indeed, the political party “Rainbow” which was created in 1994 and has campaigned for the recognition of a national Macedonian minority, received 7,300 votes in 1994 and 5,000 in 1999, two elections it contested alone: these figures correspond to some 7,000-10,000 citizens of all (not just voting) ages. One can estimate that besides this “hard core” there may be other citizens voting for mainstream parties that also espouse this identity, hence the above estimate.“
  35. ^ Ministry of the Interior official election returns
  36. ^ FYROM Name Issue, Hellenic Republic - Ministry of Foreign Affairs
  37. ^ Report of the Independent Expert on Minority Issues, Gay McDougall : addendum : mission to Greece (8-16 September 2008)
  38. ^ See Ethnologue ([4]); Euromosaic, Le (slavo)macédonien / bulgare en Grèce, L'arvanite / albanais en Grèce, Le valaque/aromoune-aroumane en Grèce, and Mercator-Education: European Network for Regional or Minority Languages and Education, The Turkish language in education in Greece. cf. also P. Trudgill, "Greece and European Turkey: From Religious to Linguistic Identity", in S Barbour, C Carmichael (eds.), Language and nationalism in Europe, Oxford University Press 2000.
  39. ^ Atlas narodov mira = Atlas of peoples of the world (in Russian). Moscow. 1964. p. 159. 
  40. ^ Greek Helsinki Monitor, The Arvanites.
  41. ^ M. Mazower (ed.), After The War Was Over: Reconstructing the Family, Nation and State in Greece, 1943-1960, p. 25
  42. ^ Miranda Vickers, The Cham Issue - Albanian National & Property Claims in Greece, paper prepared for the British MoD, Defence Academy, 2002
  43. ^ Russell King, Nicola Mai, Stephanie Schwandner-Sievers,The New Albanian Migration, p.67, and 87
  44. ^ M. Mazower, Inside Hitler's Greece
  45. ^ Riki Van Boeschoten. "Usage des langues minoritaires dans les départements de Florina et d’Aridea (Macédoine)"
  46. ^ Euromosaic (1996): "L'arvanite / albanais en Grèce". Report published by the Institut de Sociolingüística Catalana.
  47. ^ Migrants in Greece Online Observatory
  48. ^ Migration and Migration Policy in Greece. Critical Review and Policy Recommendations. Anna Triandafyllidou. Hellenic Foundation for European and Foreign Policy (ELIAMEP). Data taken from Greek ministry of Interiors. p. 5 "the total number of Albanian citizens residing in Greece, including 185,000 co-ethnics holding special identity cards"
  49. ^ Antonopoulos, Georgios A., and John Winterdyk. "The Smuggling of Migrants in Greece An Examination of its Social Organization." European Journal of Criminology 3.4 (2006): 439-461.
  50. ^ a b Thede Kahl - "Minorities in Greece. Historical Issues and New Perspectives". "Jahrbücher für Geschichte un Kultur Südeuropas" Vol. 5, 2004, p. 205-219"
  51. ^ Max D. Peyfuss - "Die Aromunische Frage. Ihre Entwicklung von der Ursprüngen bis zum Frieden von Bukarest (1913) und die Haltung Österreich-Ungarns. Wiener Archiv für Geschichte des Slawentums und Osteuropas, Wien 1974
  52. ^ Gustav Weigand - "Die Aromunen. Ethnographisch-philologisch-historische Untersuchungen über das Volk der sogennanten Makedo-Romanen oder Zinzaren". Vol 1. "Land und Leute", 2. "Volksliteratur der Aromunen", Leipzig 1894 (vol.2), 1895 (vol.1)
  53. ^ Thede Kahl - "Gustav Weigand in Griechenland: Von den Shwierigkeiten einer Rezeption", in Südost/Forschungen 61, München 2003, p. 101-113."
  54. ^ http://vlahos.xan.duth.gr/nea/180304.htm
  55. ^ http://www.tamos.gr/popsb_reply_en.htm[dead link]
  56. ^ Spyros Ergolabos, "The Zagori villages in the beginning of the 20th century: 2 precious documents", Epirus Publications, Ioannina 1993
  57. ^ Steven Franks, "A linguist's linguist: studies in South Slavic linguistics in honor of E. Wayles Browne", University of Michigan Press, 2009
  58. ^ a b c Hellenic Republic: National Commission for Human Rights: The state of Roma in Greece
  59. ^ Macedonia. (2006). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved June 16, 2006, from Encyclopædia Britannica Premium Service: [5]
  60. ^ Minorities in Greece: aspects of a plural society, Richard Clogg, C. Hurst & Co. Publishers, 2002, ISBN 1-85065-706-8, p.142,
  61. ^ The Macedonian Conflict: Ethnic Nationalism in a Transnational World, Loring M. Danforth, Princeton University Press, 1997, ISBN 0-691-04356-6, p. 116.
  62. ^ ... See: Greek Helsinki Monitor, Report about Compliance with the Principles of the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities (along guidelines for state reports according to Article 25.1 of the Convention), 18 September 1999, Part I, [6]
  63. ^ Macedonia: the politics of identity and difference, Jane K. Cowan, Pluto Press, 2000, ISBN 0-7453-1589-5, pp. 102-102.
  64. ^ Iakovos D. Michailidis Minority Rights and Educational Problems in Greek Interwar Macedonia: The Case of the Primer "Abecedar"

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