Demographics of Mongolia

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Demographics of Mongolia
Mongolia-demography.png
Demographics of Mongolia, Data of FAO, year 2005
Population 2,754,685[1] (2010 census)
Density 1.76/km2
Growth rate 1.46%[1] (2010 census)
Birth rate 20.7 births/1,000 population[2] (2012 est.)
Death rate 6.01 deaths/1,000 population[2] (2012 est.)
Life expectancy 68.63 years[2] (2012 est.)
 • male 66.16 years[2] (2012 est.)
 • female 71.23 years[2] (2012 est.)
Fertility rate 2.19[2] (2012 est.)
Infant mortality rate 36 deaths/1,000 live births[2] (2012 est.)
Age structure
0–14 years 27.1%[2] (2012 est.)
15–64 years 68.9%[2] (2012 est.)
65 and over 4%[2] (2012 est.)
Sex ratio
Total 1 male(s)/female[2] (2012 est.)
At birth 1.05 male(s)/female[2] (2012 est.)
Under 15 1.04 male(s)/female[2] (2012 est.)
15–64 years 1 male(s)/female[2] (2012 est.)
65 and over 0.77 male(s)/female[2] (2012 est.)
Nationality
Nationality Mongolian
Major ethnic Mongol
Minor ethnic Kazakh
Language
Official Mongolian
Spoken Mongolian, Kazakh

This article is about the demographics of Mongolia, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

Vital statistics[edit]

UN estimates[3][edit]

Period Live births per year Deaths per year Natural change per year CBR1 CDR1 NC1 TFR1 IMR1
1950-1955 33 000 18 000 15 000 40.0 21.4 18.6 5.60 182.9
1955-1960 39 000 19 000 20 000 43.0 20.7 22.2 6.30 164.9
1960-1965 49 000 19 000 30 000 47.9 18.4 29.5 7.50 134.5
1965-1970 54 000 19 000 34 000 44.8 15.9 28.8 7.50 118.6
1970-1975 59 000 19 000 40 000 43.0 13.9 29.1 7.50 106.5
1975-1980 63 000 21 000 42 000 39.6 13.1 26.5 6.65 104.5
1980-1985 69 000 22 000 47 000 38.1 12.4 25.7 5.75 102.3
1985-1990 75 000 22 000 53 000 36.6 10.8 25.9 4.90 91.7
1990-1995 62 000 22 000 40 000 27.6 9.6 18.0 3.30 66.6
1995-2000 52 000 20 000 33 000 22.1 8.3 13.8 2.50 54.7
2000-2005 47 000 17 000 30 000 19.1 7.0 12.2 2.10 43.5
2005-2010 62 000 17 000 45 000 23.4 6.5 16.9 2.50 36.0
1 CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births

Registered births and deaths[edit]

Average population (x 1000) Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) Total fertility rate
2007 2 615 56 636 16 259 40 377 21.7 6.2 15.4 2.341
2008 2 659 63 768 15 413 48 355 24.0 5.8 18.2 2.595
2009 2 710 69 167 16 911 52 256 25.5 6.2 19.3 2.695
2010 2 758 63 270 18 293 44 977 22.9 6.6 16.3 2.390
2011 70 576 25.1 6.9 18.2
2012 74 778 26.0 6.3 19.7
2013 79 780 28.2 5.7 22.5

Ethnicity and Languages[edit]

The demonym for the people of Mongolia is Mongolian. The name Mongol usually accounts for people of the Mongol ethnic group, thus excluding Turkic groups such as Kazakhs and Tuvans.

Ethnic Mongols account for about 97% of the population and consist of Khalkh and other groups, all distinguished primarily by dialects of the Mongolian language. The Khalkhs make up 86% of the ethnic Mongol population. The remaining 14% include Oirats, Buryats and others. Ethnic distinctions among the Mongol subgroups are relatively minor. Language or tribal differences are not a political or social issue.

Significant Ethnic Turkic speaker Kazakhs constitute 3.9% of Mongolia's population and the other Tuvan, Khoton, Chantuu, Tsaatan are Mongolized people with Turkic origin and speak in Mongolian. In the 19th century, the advance of the Russian Empire troops pushed Kazakhs to neighboring countries. In around 1860, part of the Middle jüz Kazakhs came to Mongolia and were allowed to settle down in Bayan-Ölgii Province. Smaller numbers of Russian, Chinese, Korean and American people working in Mongolia, since 1990.

English is the most widely used foreign language followed by Russian. Lately, Japanese, Korean and German are gaining popularity.

Ethnicity[edit]

National censuses data[4]
Ethnic groups Language family 1956 1963 1969 1979 1989 2000 2010[5]
Khalkh Mongolic 639,141 775,376 911,079 1,235,806 1,610,424 1,934,674 2,168,141
Kazakh Turkic 36,729 47,735 62,812 84,305 120,506 102,983 101,526
Dörbet Mongolic 25,667 31,339 34,725 45,053 55,208 66,706 72,403
Bayid Mongolic 15,874 19,891 25,479 31,053 39,233 50,824 56,573
Buryat Mongolic 24,625 28,523 29,772 29,802 35,444 40,620 45,087
Zakhchin Mongolic 15,772 14,399 15,662 18,957 23,478 25,183 32,845
Dariganga Mongolic 16,852 18,587 20,603 24,564 29,040 31,909 27,412
Altai Uriankhai Mongolic 10,833[6] 13,140 15,057 19,475 22,998 29,766 26,654
Darkhad Mongolic 8,826 10,174 10,716 14,757 19,019 21,558
Khotogoid Mongolic ... ... ... ... ... 7,237 15,460
Torguud Mongolic 4,729 6,028 7,119 8,617 10,050 12,628 14,176
Khotons Mongolic 2,603 2,874 4,056 4,380 6,076 9,014 11,304
Myangad Mongolic 2,518 2,712 3,222 4,173 4,760 6,028 6,592
Tuvan Turkic ... ... ... ... ... 4,778 5,169
Barga Mongolic 2,458 2,343 2,305 1,999 2,130 2,506 2,989
Üzemchin Mongolic 2,046 2,070 2,127 2,030 2,086 2,386 2,577
Eljigin Mongolic ... ... ... ... ... 151 1,340
Sartuul Mongolic ... ... ... ... ... 1,540 1,286
Hamnigan of Tungusic origin Mongolic ... ... ... ... ... 565 537
Tsaatan Mongolic ... ... ... ... ... 303 282
Chantuu Turkic ... ... ... ... ... 380 260
Kharchin Mongolic ... ... ... ... ... 266 152
Chahar Mongolic ... ... ... ... ... 123 132
(Huuchid)* Mongolic ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
(Baarin)* Mongolic ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
(Khorchin)* Mongolic ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
(Tümed)* Mongolic ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
Russian nationals 13,444 8,905 1,433 196 140 2,020 2,474
Chinese nationals 16,157 21,981 725 344 247 3,374 8,688
Korean nationals ... ... ... ... ... 338 1,522
American nationals ... ... ... ... ... 303 656
Others 11,125 6,819 35,045 8,653 1,509 ... ...
Mongolia 845,481 1,017,162 1,188,271 1,538,980 1,987,274 2,365,269 2,754,685

* - not listed in Censuses

Literacy[edit]

Literacy rate is the percentage of people over the age of 15 who can read and write.

Total population: 98.3%[7]

After a decline in enrollment ratios during the transition to a market economy in the 1990, school attendance is now once more near-universal: primary school attendance rate is estimated at 97%, and adult literacy at 98%.[8]

Religions[edit]

A young Mongolian boy
Main article: Religion in Mongolia

Various forms of Tengriism and Shamanism have been widely practiced throughout the history of what is now Mongolia, as such beliefs were common among nomadic people in Asian history. Such beliefs gradually gave way to Tibetan Buddhism, but shamanism has left a mark on Mongolian religious culture, and continues to be practiced. Traditionally, Tibetan Buddhism was the predominant religion. However, it was suppressed under the communist regime until 1990, with only one showcase monastery allowed to remain. Since 1990, as liberalization began, Buddhism has enjoyed a resurgence.

Religions in Mongolia
(population aged 15 and above)[9]
Religion Population Share
%
Buddhism 1,009,357 53.0
Islam 57,702 3.0
Shamanism 55,174 2.9
Christianity 41,117 2.1
Other religions 6,933 0.4
Atheism 735,283 38.6
TOTAL 1,905,566 100.0

Urbanization[edit]

Life in sparsely populated Mongolia has become more urbanized. Nearly half of the people live in the capital, Ulaanbaatar, and in other provincial centers. Semi nomadic life still predominates in the countryside, but settled agricultural communities are becoming more common. Mongolia's population growth rate is estimated at 1.54% (2000 census). About two-thirds of the total population is under age 30, 36% of whom are under 14.

Key: For population growth 1979 - 2008

  • Salmon cells indicate that the population has declined or experienced minimal (<1%) growth.
  • Light green cells indicate a growth between 1-2%.
  • Dark Green cells indicate a growth of greater than or equal to 2%.
Rank Name Mongolian Inhabitants
(1979 est.[10][11][12])
Inhabitants
(1989 est.[10][13])
Inhabitants
(2000 census[10][14])
Inhabitants
(est. 2008[10])
Change since 1979 Growth Percentage/Year Administrative
Unit
1. Ulan Bator * Улаанбаатар 396,300 540,600 711,900 1,008,738 612,438 +5.2% Ulan Bator
2. Erdenet Эрдэнэт 29,100 - 68,310 86,866 57,766 +6.6% Orkhon
3. Darkhan Дархан 49,100 - 65,791 74,300 25,200 +1.7% Darkhan-Uul
4. Choibalsan Чойбалсан 28,500 37,300 40,123 38,150 9,650 +1.1% Dornod
5. Mörön Мөрөн 16,500 21,300 28,903 36,082 19,582 +4.0% Khövsgöl
6. Nalaikh Налайх - - 23,600 29,115 5,515 +3.0% Ulan Bator
7. Khovd Ховд 17,500 24,100 25,765 28,601 11,101 +2.1% Khovd
8. Ölgii Өлгий 18,700 27,200 25,791 27,855 9,155 +1.6% Bayan-Ölgii
9. Bayankhongor Баянхонгор 16,300 21,200 22,066 26,252 9,952 +2.0% Bayankhongor
10. Baganuur Багануур - - 21,100 25,877 4,777 +1.8% Ulan Bator
11. Arvaikheer Багануур 12,300 16,900 19,058 25,622 13,322 +3.6% Övörkhangai
12. Ulaangom Улаангом 17,900 22,900 25,993 21,406 3,506 +0.67% Uvs
13. Sükhbaatar Сүхбаатар 14,300 19,600 22,374 19,626 5,326 +1.2% Selenge
14. Sainshand Сайншанд 11,100 10,300 18,290 25,210 14,110 +4.2% Dornogovi
15. Dalanzadgad Даланзадгад 10,000 14,300 14,050 16,856 6,856 +2.3% Ömnögovi
16. Tsetserleg Цэцэрлэг 14,700 20,300 18,519 16,300 1,600 +0.37% Arkhangai
17. Uliastai Улиастай 15,400 20,300 18,154 16,240 840 +0.17% Zavkhan
18. Altai Алтай 13,700 18,800 15,741 15,800 2,100 +0.5% Govi-Altai
19. Züünkharaa Зүүнхараа 11,400 - 15,000(2004) - 3,600 +1.1% Selenge
20. Öndörkhaan Өндөрхаан 11,100 14,400 18,003 14,800 3,700 +1.1% Khentii
21. Zuunmod Зуунмод 9,800 15,800 14,837 14,568 4,768 +1.6% Töv
22. Baruun-Urt Баруун-Урт 11,600 16,100 15,133 12,994 1,394 +0.4% Sükhbaatar
23. Zamyn-Üüd Замын-Үүд - - 5,486 11,527 6,041 +13.8% Dornogovi
24. Bulgan Булган 11,300 12,800 12,681 11,198 -102 -0.03% Bulgan
25. Mandalgovi Мандалговь 10,200 16,100 14,517 10,299 99 +0.03% Dundgovi
26. Kharkhorin Хархорин - - 8,977(2003) - - n/a% Övörkhangai
27. Bor-Öndör Бор-Өндөр - - 6,406(2001) 8,902 2,496 +3.5% Khentii
28. Choir Чойр 4,500 - 8,983 7,998 3,498 +2.6% Govisümber
29. Sharyngol Шарынгол - - 8,902 7,798 -1,104 -2.8% Darkhan-Uul
Mongolia Монгол улс 1,538,980 1,987,274 2,365,269 2,635,000 1,096,600 +2.38% Darkhan-Uul

* - city proper, Nalaikh, Baganuur, Bagakhangai not included in this figure, they are separated in the table.

From List of cities in Mongolia

Base Demographic Indicators for Mongolia[edit]

Base Demographic Indicators for Mongolia
Demography indicator units U.S. Census Bureau
International
Data Base
1 July 2007[15]
United Nations
World Population
Prospects:
The 2007 Revision
1 July 2007[16]
United Nations
Economic and Social
Commission for Asia
and Pacific(ESCAP)
1 July 2006[17]
National Statistical
Office of Mongolia
31 December 2007[18]
Population person 2,951,786 2,629,000 2,605,000 2,635,200
Age structure: 0–14 years:  % of total population 28.72 27 28 28.58
Age structure: 15–59 years:  % of total population 65.56 67 n.a. 65.36
Age structure: 60 years and over:  % of total population 5.72 6 n.a. 6.06
Population growth rate : % 1.486 1.20 0.9 1.545
Birth rate: births/1,000 population 21.07 18.5 19.7 (2000–2005) 21.7
Death rate: deaths/1,000 population 6.21 6.6 6.9 (2000–2005) 6.2
Net migration rate: migrant(s)/1,000 population 0 0 -4.0 (2000–2005) n.a.
Sex ratio: at birth: male(s)/female 1.0500 1.01 1.0424 1.0310
Sex ratio: under 15 years: male(s)/female 1.0408 n.a. 1.0153 1.0193
Sex ratio: 15–59 years: male(s)/female 1.0003 n.a. 0.9414 0.9379
Sex ratio: 60 years and over: male(s)/female 0.8169 0.80 n.a. 0.7933
Sex ratio: total population: male(s)/female 1.0002 0.9947 n.a. 0.9508
Potential support ratio: persons aged 15 to 64
per persons aged 65 or older
17.47 17 n.a. 16.33
Infant mortality rate: deaths/1,000 live births 42.65 40 39 (2005) 15.4
Mortality under age 5: deaths/1,000 n.a. 55 49 (2005) 22
Life expectancy at birth total population: years 66.99 68 65.1 (2000–2005) 66.54
Life expectancy at birth male: years 64.61 64 61.9 (2000–2005) 63.13
Life expectancy at birth female: years 69.48 70 68.4 (2000–2005) 70.23
Total fertility rate: children born/woman 2.2517 1.9 2.1 (2000–2005) 2.3
Age specific fertility rate: ages 15–19 (per 1,000) 22.5 45 49.7 (2000–2005) 18.7
Urban population:  % of total population n.a. 57 56.8 60.75
Gross secondary school enrolment ratio males: % n.a. 84 n.a. 92.1
Gross secondary school enrolment ratio females: % n.a. 95 n.a. 95.6
Contraceptive prevalence rate all methods: % of women aged 15 to 49
who are married or in union
n.a. 67.4 n.a. n.a.
Contraceptive prevalence rate modern methods: % of women aged 15 to 49
who are married or in union
n.a. 54.3 n.a. n.a.
Persons with disabilities:  % of total population n.a. 3.5 n.a. n.a.
National poverty rate:  % of total population n.a. 35.6 36.1 (2002) 32.2
Human development index:  % of total population n.a. 0.691 n.a. 0.720
Population projected to 2025: person 3,725,352 3,112,000 n.a. n.a.
Population projected to 2050: person 4,340,496 3,388,000 n.a. n.a.


See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Date: (2011-06-13). "Mongolia National Census 2010 Preliminary Results". National Statistical Office of Mongolia. Retrieved 2011-06-14. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o "CIA World Factbook". CIA. 2012. Retrieved 14 November 2012. 
  3. ^ World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision
  4. ^ "Монгол улсын ястангуудын тоо, байршилд гарч буй өөрчлөлтyyдийн асуудалд" М.Баянтөр, Г.Нямдаваа, З.Баярмаа pp.57-70
  5. ^ Mongolia National Census 2010 Provision Results. National Statistical Office of Mongolia (in Mongolian.)
  6. ^ In the 1956 National Census Darkhad were counted with Uriankhai
  7. ^ National Census 2010 Preliminary results (in Mongolian])
  8. ^ For the 2000-2006 and 2000-2005 periods, respectively. UNICEF - At a glance: Mongolia, accessed June 15th, 2006
  9. ^ 2010 Population and Housing Census of Mongolia. Data recorded in Brian J. Grim et al. Yearbook of International Religious Demography 2014. BRILL, 2014. p. 152
  10. ^ a b c d City Population - Historical population figures
  11. ^ Statistisches Bundesamt: Statistik des Auslands - Mongolei, 1985
  12. ^ Encyclopedia "Cartactual," published 01/01/85
  13. ^ http://www.nso.mn/eng/index.php National Statistical Office of Mongolia (accessed May 2, 2007)
  14. ^ (2000) PADCO: Mongolia Urban Development and Housing Sector Strategy, Final Report, Vol. 2, published 2005.
  15. ^ U.S. Census Bureau International Data Base - Mongolia Country Summary
  16. ^ United Nations World Population Prospects: The 2007 Revision
  17. ^ United Nations ESCAP 2007 Statistical Yearbook
  18. ^ Statistical Yearbook of Mongolia 2007, National Statistical Office, Ulaanbaatar, 2008