Ethnic groups in Russia

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An ethnic map of European Russia before World War I.

Russia is a multi-national state with over 185 ethnic groups designated as nationalities, population of these groups varying enormously, from millions in case of e.g. Russians and Tatars to under 10,000 in the case of Samis and Kets.[1]

Among the 85 subjects which constitute Russia, there are 21 national republics (meant to be home to a specific ethnic minority), 5 autonomous okrugs (usually with substantial or predominant ethnic minority) and an autonomous oblast.

Ethnic groups of Russia, 1926-2010[2][edit]

Ethnic
group
Language
family
Main
area
1926 Census 1939 Census 1959 Census 1970 Census 1979 Census 1989 Census 2002 Census 2010 Census
Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number %, Number % Number %
Russians Indo-European European Russia 72,374,283 78.1% 89,747,795 82.9% 97,863,579 83.3% 107,747,630 82.8% 113,521,881 82.6% 119,865,469 81.5% 115,889,107 80.6% 111,016,896 80.9%
Tatars Turkic European Russia 2,926,053 3.2% 3,682,956 3.4% 4,074,253 3.5% 4,577,061 3.5% 5,055,757 3.6% 5,522,096 3.8% 5,554,601 3.9% 5,310,649 3.9%
Ukrainians Indo-European European Russia 6,870,976 7.4% 3,205,061 3.0% 3,359,083 2.9% 3,345,885 2.6% 3,657,647 2.7% 4,362,872 3.0% 2,942,961 2.0% 1,927,888 1.4%
Bashkirs Turkic European Russia 738,861 0.80% 824,537 0.76% 953,801 0.81% 1,180,913 0.91% 1,290,994 0.94% 1,345,273 0.92% 1,673,389 1.16% 1,584,554 1.15%
Chuvashs Turkic European Russia 1,112,478 1.20% 1,346,232 1.24% 1,436,218 1.22% 1,637,028 1.26% 1,689,847 1.23% 1,773,645 1.21% 1,637,094 1.14% 1,435,872 1.05%
Chechens Northeast Caucasian Caucasus 318,361 0.34% 400,325 0.37% 261,311 0.22% 572,220 0.44% 712,161 0.52% 898,999 0.61% 1,360,253 0.95% 1,431,360 1.04%
Armenians Indo-European Caucasus 183,785 0.20% 205,233 0.19% 255,978 0.22% 298,718 0.23% 364,570 0.27% 532,390 0.36% 1,132,033 0.79% 1,182,388 0.86%
Avars Northeast Caucasian Caucasus 178,263 0.19% 235,715 0.22% 249,529 0.21% 361,613 0.28% 438,306 0.32% 544,016 0.37% 814,473 0.57% 912,090 0.66%
Mordvins Uralic European Russia 1,306,798 1.41% 1,375,558 1.27% 1,211,105 1.03% 1,177,492 0.91% 1,111,075 0.81% 1,072,939 0.73% 843,350 0.59% 744,237 0.54%
Kazakhs Turkic Central Asia 136,501 0.15% 356,500 0.33% 382,431 0.33% 477,820 0.37% 518,060 0.38% 635,865 0.43% 653,962 0.46% 647,732 0.47%
Azerbaijanis Turkic Caucasus 24,335 0.03% 43,014 0.04% 70,947 0.06% 95,689 0.07% 152,421 0.11% 335,889 0.23% 621,840 0.43% 603,070 0.44%
Dargins Northeast Caucasian Caucasus 125,759 0.14% 152,007 0.14% 152,563 0.13% 224,172 0.17% 280,444 0.20% 353,348 0.24% 510,156 0.35% 589,386 0.43%
Udmurts (incl. Besermyan 1939-1989) Uralic European Russia 503,970 0.54% 599,893 0.55% 615,640 0.52% 678,393 0.52% 685,718 0.50% 714,883 0.49% 636,906 0.45% 552,299 0.40%
Mari Uralic European Russia 427,874 0.46% 476,314 0.44% 498,066 0.42% 581,082 0.45% 599,637 0.44% 643,698 0.44% 604,298 0.42% 547,605 0.40%
Ossetians Indo-European Caucasus 157,280 0.17% 195,624 0.18% 247,834 0.21% 313,458 0.24% 352,080 0.26% 402,275 0.27% 514,875 0.36% 528,515 0.38%
Belarusians Indo-European European Russia 607,845 0.66% 451,933 0.42% 843,985 0.72% 964,082 0.74% 1,051,900 0.77% 1,206,222 0.82% 807,970 0.56% 521,443 0.38%
Kabardins Northwest Caucasian Caucasus 139,864 0.15% 161,216 0.15% 200,634 0.17% 277,435 0.21% 318,822 0.23% 386,055 0.26% 519,958 0.36% 516,826 0.38%
Kumyks Turkic Caucasus 94,509 0.10% 110,299 0.10% 132,896 0.11% 186,690 0.14% 225,800 0.16% 277,163 0.19% 422,409 0.29% 503,060 0.37%
Yakuts (icl. Dolgans 1939-1959) Turkic Siberia 240,682 0.26% 241,870 0.22% 236,125 0.20% 295,223 0.23% 326,531 0.24% 380,242 0.26% 443,852 0.31% 478,085 0.35%
Lezgians Northeast Caucasian Caucasus 92,937 0.10% 100,328 0.09% 114,210 0.10% 170,494 0.13% 202,854 0.15% 257,270 0.17% 411,535 0.29% 473,722 0.34%
Buryats (incl. Soyots 1939-1989) Mongolic Siberia 237,490 0.26% 220,618 0.20% 251,504 0.21% 312,847 0.24% 349,760 0.25% 417,425 0.28% 445,175 0.31% 461,389 0.34%
Ingush Northeast Caucasian Caucasus 72,137 0.08% 90,980 0.08% 55,799 0.05% 137,380 0.11% 165,997 0.12% 215,068 0.15% 413,016 0.29% 444,833 0.32%
Germans Indo-European European Russia 707,277 0.76% 811,205 0.75% 820,016 0.70% 761,888 0.59% 790,762 0.58% 842,295 0.57% 597,212 0.42% 394,138 0.29%
Uzbeks Turkic Central Asia 942 0.00% 16,166 0.01% 29,512 0.03% 61,588 0.05% 72,385 0.05% 126,899 0.09% 122,916 0.09% 289,862 0.21%
Tuvans Turkic Siberia 200 0.00% 794 0.00% 99,864 0.08% 139,013 0.11% 165,426 0.12% 206,160 0.14% 243,442 0.17% 263,934 0.19%
Komi (incl. Komi-Permyak 1939) Uralic European Russia 226,012 0.24% 415,009 0.38% 281,780 0.24% 315,347 0.24% 320,078 0.23% 336,309 0.23% 293,406 0.20% 228,235 0.17%
Karachays Turkic Caucasus 55,116 0.06% 74,488 0.07% 70,537 0.06% 106,831 0.08% 125,792 0.09% 150,332 0.10% 192,182 0.13% 218,403 0.16%
Roma Indo-European European Russia 39,089 0.04% 59,198 0.05% 72,488 0.06% 97,955 0.08% 120,672 0.09% 152,939 0.10% 183,252 0.13% 204,958 0.15%
Tajiks Indo-European Central Asia 52 0.00% 3,315 0.00% 7,027 0.01% 14,108 0.01% 17,863 0.01% 38,208 0.03% 120,136 0.08% 200,666 0.15%
Kalmyks Mongolic Caucasus 128,809 0.14% 129,786 0.12% 100,603 0.09% 131,318 0.10% 140,103 0.10% 165,103 0.11% 174,000 0.12% 183,372 0.13%
Laks Northeast Caucasian Caucasus 40,243 0.04% 54,348 0.05% 58,397 0.05% 78,625 0.06% 91,412 0.07% 106,245 0.07% 156,545 0.11% 178,630 0.13%
Georgians South Caucasian Caucasus 20,551 0.02% 43,585 0.04% 57,594 0.05% 68,971 0.05% 89,407 0.07% 130,688 0.09% 197,934 0.14% 157,803 0.11%
Jews Semitic European Russia 539,086 0.58% 891,147 0.82% 875,058 0.74% 807,526 0.62% 699,286 0.51% 550,709 0.37% 233,439 0.16% 156,801 0.11%
Moldovans Indo-European European Russia 16,870 0.02% 21,974 0.02% 62,298 0.05% 87,538 0.07% 102,137 0.07% 172,671 0.12% 172,330 0.12% 156,400 0.11%
Koreans Korean Siberia 86,799 0.09 % 11,345 0.01 % 91,445 0.08 % 101,369 0.08 % 97,649 0.07 % 107,051 0.07 % 148,556 0.10 % 153,156 0.11 %
Tabasarans Northeast Caucasian Caucasus 31,983 0.03% 33,471 0.03% 34,288 0.03% 54,047 0.04% 73,433 0.05% 93,587 0.06% 131,785 0.09% 146,360 0.11%
Adyghe (incl. Shapsugs 1926-1989 and Cherkess 1926-1939) Northwest Caucasian Caucasus 64,959 0.07% 85,588 0.08% 78,561 0.07% 98,461 0.08% 107,239 0.08% 122,908 0.08% 128,528 0.09% 124,835 0.09%
Balkars Turkic Caucasus 33,298 0.04% 41,949 0.04% 35,249 0.03% 52,969 0.04% 61,828 0.04% 78,341 0.05% 108,426 0.08% 112,924 0.08%
Turks (incl. Meskhetian Turks 1926-1989) Turkic Caucasus 1,846 0.00% 2,668 0.00% 1,377 0.00% 1,568 0.00% 3,561 0.00% 9,890 0.01% 92,415 0.06% 105,058 0.08%
Nogais Turkic Caucasus 36,089 0.04% 36,088 0.03% 37,656 0.03% 51,159 0.04% 58,639 0.04% 73,703 0.05% 90,666 0.06% 103,660 0.08%
Kyrgyz Turkic Central Asia 285 0.00% 6,311 0.01% 4,701 0.00% 9,107 0.01% 15,011 0.01% 41,734 0.03% 31,808 0.02% 103,422 0.08%
Komi-Permyak (in Komi 1939) Uralic European Russia 149,275 0.16% 143,030 0.12% 150,244 0.12% 145,993 0.11% 147,269 0.10% 125,235 0.09% 94,456 0.07%
Altay Turkic Siberia 52,248 0.06% 46,489 0.04% 44,654 0.04% 54,614 0.04% 58,879 0.04% 69,409 0.05% 77,822 0.05% 89,773 0.06%
Greeks Indo-European Caucasus 34,439 0.04% 65,705 0.06% 47,024 0.04% 57,847 0.04% 69,816 0.05% 91,699 0.06% 97,827 0.07% 85,640 0.06%
Cherkess (in Adyghe 1926-1939) Northwest Caucasian Caucasus 28,986 0.02% 38,356 0.03% 44,572 0.03% 50,572 0.03% 60,517 0.04% 73,184 0.05%
Khakas Turkic Siberia 45,607 0.05% 52,033 0.05% 56,032 0.05% 65,368 0.05% 69,247 0.05% 78,500 0.05% 76,278 0.05% 72,959 0.05%
Karelians Uralic European Russia 248,017 0.27% 249,778 0.23% 164,050 0.14% 141,148 0.11% 133,182 0.10% 124,921 0.08% 93,344 0.06% 60,815 0.04%
Poles Indo-European European Russia 189,269 0.20% 142,461 0.13% 118,422 0.10% 107,084 0.08% 99,733 0.07% 94,594 0.06% 73,001 0.05% 47,125 0.03%
Nenets (incl. Enets 1926-1979 and Nganasans 1926-1939) Uralic Siberia 17,560 0.02% 24,716 0.02% 22,845 0.02% 28,487 0.02% 29,487 0.02% 34,190 0.02% 41,302 0.03% 44,640 0.03%
Abazas Northwest Caucasian Caucasus 13,825 0.01% 14,739 0.01% 19,059 0.02% 24,892 0.02% 28,800 0.02% 32,983 0.02% 37,942 0.03% 43,341 0.03%
Yazidis (in Kurds 1939-1989) Indo-European Caucasus 1 0.00% 31,273 0.02% 40,586 0.03%
Evenks Tungusic Siberia 38,804 0.03% 29,599 0.02% 24,583 0.02% 25,051 0.02% 27,278 0.02% 29,901 0.02% 35,527 0.02% 37,843 0.03%
Turkmens Turkic Central Asia 7,849 0.01% 12,869 0.01% 11,631 0.01% 20,040 0.02% 22,979 0.02% 39,739 0.03% 33,053 0.02% 36,885 0.03%
Rutuls Northeast Caucasian Caucasus 10,333 0.01% SDP SDP 6,703 0.01% 11,904 0.01% 14,835 0.01% 19,503 0.01% 29,929 0.02% 35,240 0.03%
Aghuls Northeast Caucasian Caucasus 7,653 0.01% SDP SDP 6,460 0.01% 8,751 0.01% 11,752 0.01% 17,728 0.01% 28,297 0.02% 34,160 0.02%
Lithuanians Indo-European European Russia 26,128 0.03% 20,795 0.02% 108,579 0.09% 76,718 0.06% 66,783 0.05% 70,427 0.05% 45,569 0.03% 31,377 0.02%
Khanty Uralic Siberia 22,301 0.02% 18,447 0.02% 19,246 0.02% 21,007 0.02% 20,743 0.02% 22,283 0.02% 28,678 0.02% 30,943 0.02%
Chinese Sino-Tibetan Siberia 8,739 0.01 % 22,491 0.02 % 19,097 0.02 % 7,987 0.01 % 5,743 0.00 % 5,197 0.00 % 34,577 0.02 % 28,943 0.02 %
Bulgarians Indo-European European Russia 4,087 0.00% 8,338 0.01% 24,899 0.02% 27,321 0.02% 24,943 0.02% 32,785 0.02% 31,965 0.02% 24,038 0.02%
Kurds (incl. Yazidis 1939-1989) Indo-European Caucasus 164 0.00% 387 0.00% 855 0.00% 1,015 0.00% 1,634 0.00% 4,724 0.00% 19,607 0.01% 23,232 0.01%
Evens Tungusic Siberia 2,044 0.00% 9,674 0.01% 9,023 0.01% 11,819 0.01% 12,215 0.01% 17,055 0.01% 19,071 0.01% 22,383 0.02%
Finns Uralic European Russia 134,089 0.14% 138,962 0.13% 72,356 0.06% 62,307 0.05% 55,687 0.04% 47,102 0.03% 34,050 0.02% 20,267 0.01%
Latvians Indo-European European Russia 124,312 0.13% 104,877 0.10% 74,932 0.06% 59,695 0.05% 67,267 0.05% 46,829 0.03% 28,520 0.02% 18,979 0.01%
Estonians Uralic European Russia 146,051 0.16% 130,494 0.12% 78,556 0.07% 62,980 0.05% 55,539 0.04% 46,390 0.03% 28,113 0.02% 17,875 0.01%
Chukchi (incl. Kereks 1926-1989 and Chuvans 1939-1979) Chukotko-Kamchatkan Siberia 12,331 0.01% 13,830 0.01% 11,680 0.01% 13,500 0.01% 13,937 0.01% 15,107 0.01% 15,767 0.01% 15,908 0.01%
Vietnamese Vietnamese European Russia 0 0.00 % 0 0.00 % 781 0.00 % 6,287 0.00 % 661 0.00 % 2,142 0.00 % 26,206 0.02 % 13,954 0.01 %
Gagauz Turkic European Russia 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 3,012 0.00% 3,704 0.00% 4,176 0.00% 10,051 0.01% 12,210 0.01% 13,690 0.01%
Shors Turkic Siberia 13,000 0.01% 16,042 0.01% 14,938 0.01% 15,950 0.01% 15,182 0.01% 15,745 0.01% 13,975 0.01% 12,888 0.01%
Tsakhurs Northeast Caucasian Caucasus 3,533 0.00% SDP SDP 4,437 0.00% 4,730 0.00% 4,774 0.00% 6,492 0.00% 10,366 0.01% 12,769 0.01%
Mansi Uralic Siberia 5,754 0.01% 6,295 0.01% 6,318 0.01% 7,609 0.01% 7,434 0.01% 8,279 0.01% 11,432 0.01% 12,269 0.01%
Nanais Tungusic Siberia 5,860 0.01% 8,411 0.01% 7,919 0.01% 9,911 0.01% 10,357 0.01% 11,883 0.01% 12,160 0.01% 12,003 0.01%
Abkhaz Northwest Caucasian Caucasus 97 0.00% 647 0.00% 1,400 0.00% 2,427 0.00% 4,058 0.00% 7,239 0.00% 11,366 0.01% 11,249 0.01%
Assyrians Semitic Caucasus 2,791 0.00% 7,446 0.01% 7,612 0.01% 8,098 0.01% 8,708 0.01% 9,622 0.01% 13,649 0.01% 11,084 0.01%
Arabs Semitic European Russia 466 0.00 % 94 0.00 % 649 0.00 % 2,555 0.00 % 2,339 0.00 % 2,704 0.00 % 10,811 0.01 % 9,583 0.01 %
Nağaybäk Turkic Siberia 11196 0.01 % 0 0.00 % 0 0.00 % 0 0.00 % 0 0.00 % 0 0.00 % 9,600 0.01 % 8,148 0.01 %
Koryaks Chukotko-Kamchatkan Siberia 7,437 0.01% 7,337 0.01% 6,168 0.01% 7,367 0.01% 7,637 0.01% 8,942 0.01% 8,743 0.01% 7,953 0.01%
Dolgans (in Yakuts 1939-1959) Turkic Siberia 656 0.00% 4,718 0.00% 4,911 0.00% 6,584 0.00% 7,261 0.01% 7,885 0.01%
Veps Uralic European Russia 32,783 0.04% 31,442 0.03% 16,170 0.01% 8,057 0.01% 7,550 0.01% 12,142 0.01% 8,240 0.01% 5,936 0.00%
Afghans Indo-European European Russia 38 0.00 % 190 0.00 % 175 0.00 % 561 0.00 % 184 0.00 % 858 0.00 % 9,800 0.01 % 5,350 0.00 %
Meskhetian Turks (in Turks 1926-1989) Turkic Caucasus 3,527 0.00% 4,825 0.00%
Nivkh Nivkh Siberia 4,076 0.00% 3,857 0.00% 3,690 0.00% 4,356 0.00% 4,366 0.00% 4,631 0.00% 5,162 0.00% 4,652 0.00%
Udis Northeast Caucasian Caucasus 2 0.00% SDP SDP 35 0.00% 94 0.00% 216 0.00% 1,102 0.00% 3,721 0.00% 4,267 0.00%
Indians Indo-European European Russia 17 0.00 % 0 0.00 % 216 0.00 % 1,378 0.00 % 181 0.00 % 535 0.00 % 4,980 0.00 % 4,058 0.00 %
Shapsugs (in Adyghe 1926-1989) Northwest Caucasian Caucasus 3,231 0.00% 3,882 0.00%
Persians Indo-European Caucasus 8,626 0.01% 6,041 0.01% 2,490 0.00% 2,548 0.00% 1,747 0.00% 2,572 0.00% 3,821 0.00% 3,696 0.00%
Uygurs Turkic Central Asia 26 0.00% 642 0.00% 720 0.00% 1,513 0.00% 1,707 0.00% 2,577 0.00% 2,867 0.00% 3,696 0.00%
Selkups Uralic Siberia 1,630 0.00% 2,604 0.00% 3,704 0.00% 4,249 0.00% 3,518 0.00% 3,564 0.00% 4,249 0.00% 3,649 0.00%
Soyots (in Buryats 1939-1989) Mongolic Siberia 229 0.00% 2,769 0.00% 3,608 0.00%
Serbs Indo-European European Russia 1,278 0.00 % 2,373 0.00 % 0 0.00 % 1,431 0.00 % 815 0.00 % 1,580 0.00 % 4,156 0.00 % 3,510 0.00 %
Romanians Indo-European European Russia 2,881 0.00 % 2,682 0.00 % 3,316 0.00 % 4,093 0.00 % 3,837 0.00 % 5,996 0.00 % 5,308 0.00 % 3,201 0.00 %
Itelmeni Chukotko-Kamchatkan Siberia 803 0.00% SSP SSP 1,096 0.00% 1,255 0.00% 1,335 0.00% 2,429 0.00% 3,180 0.00% 3,193 0.00%
Mongols Mongolic Siberia 548 0.00 % 0 0.00 % 1,511 0.00 % 3,759 0.00 % 1,812 0.00 % 2,117 0.00 % 2,656 0.00 % 2,986 0.00 %
Kumandins Turkic Siberia 6,335 0.01 % 0 0.00 % 0 0.00 % 0 0.00 % 0 0.00 % 0 0.00 % 3,114 0.00 % 2,892 0.00 %
Hungarians Uralic European Russia 3,882 0.00 % 0 0.00 % 4,175 0.00 % 6,681 0.01 % 4,313 0.00 % 5,742 0.00 % 3,768 0.00 % 2,781 0.00 %
Ulchs Tungusic Siberia 723 0.00% SSP SSP 2,049 0.00% 2,410 0.00% 2,494 0.00% 3,173 0.00% 2,913 0.00% 2,765 0.00%
Teleuts Turkic Siberia 1,898 0.00 % 0 0.00 % 0 0.00 % 0 0.00 % 0 0.00 % 0 0.00 % 2,650 0.00 % 2,643 0.00 %
Talysh Indo-European Caucasus 0 0.00% 47 0.00% 33 0.00% 2 0.00% 202 0.00% 2,548 0.00% 2,529 0.00%
Crimean Tatars Turkic European Russia 0 0.00 % 0 0.00 % 416 0.00 % 2,852 0.00 % 5,165 0.00 % 21,275 0.01 % 4,131 0.00 % 2,449 0.00 %
Besermyan (in Udmurts 1939-1989) Uralic European Russia 10,035 0.01% 3,122 0.00% 2,201 0.00%
Hemshins Indo-European Caucasus 2 0.00 % 0 0.00 % 0 0.00 % 0 0.00 % 0 0.00 % 0 0.00 % 1,542 0.00 % 2,047 0.00 %
Kamchadals Chukotko-Kamchatkan Siberia 4216 0.00 % 0 0.00 % 0 0.00 % 0 0.00 % 0 0.00 % 0 0.00 % 2,293 0.00 % 1,927 0.00 %
Czechs Indo-European European Russia 7,996 0.01 % 7,526 0.01 % 7,174 0.01 % 6,073 0.00 % 4,491 0.00 % 4,375 0.00 % 2,904 0.00 % 1,898 0.00 %
Sami Uralic European Russia 1,715 0.00% 1,828 0.00% 1,760 0.00% 1,836 0.00% 1,775 0.00% 1,835 0.00% 1,991 0.00% 1,771 0.00%
Dungans Sino-Tibetan Siberia 6,009 0.01 % 48 0.00 % 169 0.00 % 304 0.00 % 1,159 0.00 % 635 0.00 % 801 0.00 % 1,651 0.00 %
Eskimo Eskimo-Aleut Siberia 1,292 0.00% SSP SSP 1,111 0.00% 1,265 0.00% 1,460 0.00% 1,704 0.00% 1,750 0.00% 1,738 0.00%
Yukaghir Yukaghir Siberia 443 0.00% SSP SSP 440 0.00% 593 0.00% 801 0.00% 1,112 0.00% 1,509 0.00% 1,603 0.00%
Tats Indo-European Caucasus 223 0.00% 5,136 0.00% 8,753 0.01% 12,748 0.01% 19,420 0.01% 2,303 0.00% 1,585 0.00%
Americans Indo-European European Russia 0 0.00 % 457 0.00 % 273 0.00 % 785 0.00 % 81 0.00 % 185 0.00 % 1,275 0.00 % 1,572 0.00 %
Udege (incl. Taz 1926-1989) Tungusic Siberia 1,357 0.00% 1,701 0.00% 1,395 0.00% 1,396 0.00% 1,431 0.00% 1,902 0.00% 1,657 0.00% 1,496 0.00%
French Indo-European European Russia 1,338 0.00 % 991 0.00 % 535 0.00 % 1,243 0.00 % 305 0.00 % 352 0.00 % 819 0.00 % 1,475 0.00 %
Karakalpaks Turkic Central Asia 14 0.00% 306 0.00% 988 0.00% 2,267 0.00% 1,743 0.00% 6,155 0.00% 1,609 0.00% 1,466 0.00%
Italians Indo-European European Russia 749 0.00 % 713 0.00 % 525 0.00 % 889 0.00 % 356 0.00 % 627 0.00 % 862 0.00 % 1,370 0.00 %
Ket Yeniseian Siberia 1,428 0.00% SSP SSP 1,017 0.00% 1,161 0.00% 1,072 0.00% 1,084 0.00% 1,494 0.00% 1,219 0.00%
Spanish Indo-European European Russia 0 0.00 % 2,290 0.00 % 1,615 0.00 % 2,631 0.00 % 1,961 0.00 % 2,054 0.00 % 1,547 0.00 % 1,162 0.00 %
Slovenes Indo-European European Russia 0 0.00 % 0 0.00 % 0 0.00 % 0 0.00 % 0 0.00 % 0 0.00 % 0 0.00 % 1,008 0.00 %
Chuvans (in Chukchi 1939-1979) Chukotko-Kamchatkan Siberia 704 0.00% 1,384 0.00% 1,087 0.00% 1,002 0.00%
British Indo-European European Russia 517 0.00 % 416 0.00 % 312 0.00 % 542 0.00 % 115 0.00 % 223 0.00 % 529 0.00 % 950 0.00 %
Japanese Japanese Siberia 79 0.00 % 922 0.00 % 888 0.00 % 1,141 0.00 % 655 0.00 % 591 0.00 % 835 0.00 % 888 0.00 %
Nganasans (in Nenets 1926-1939) Uralic Siberia 721 0.00% 823 0.00% 842 0.00% 1,262 0.00% 834 0.00% 862 0.00%
Mountain Jews Indo-European Caucasus 15,612 0.02 % 0 0.00 % 19,352 0.02 % 15,434 0.01 % 6,509 0.00 % 11,282 0.01 % 3,394 0.00 % 762 0.00 %
Tofalars Turkic Siberia 2,828 0.00% SSP SSP 476 0.00% 570 0.00% 576 0.00% 722 0.00% 837 0.00% 762 0.00%
Cubans Indo-European European Russia 0 0.00 % 0 0.00 % 0 0.00 % 0 0.00 % 1,175 0.00 % 1,566 0.00 % 707 0.00 % 676 0.00 %
Orochs (incl. Oroks 1970-1979) Tungusic Siberia 646 0.00% SSP SSP 779 0.00% 1,037 0.00% 1,040 0.00% 883 0.00% 686 0.00% 596 0.00%
Negidals Tungusic Siberia 683 0.00% SSP SSP 495 0.00% 477 0.00% 587 0.00% 567 0.00% 513 0.00%
Pakistani Indo-European European Russia 0 0.00 % 0 0.00 % 0 0.00 % 0 0.00 % 0 0.00 % 0 0.00 % 0 0.00 % 507 0.00 %
Aleut Eskimo-Aleut Siberia 353 0.00% SSP SSP 399 0.00% 410 0.00% 489 0.00% 644 0.00% 540 0.00% 482 0.00%
Pamiris Indo-European European Russia 0 0.00 % 0 0.00 % 0 0.00 % 0 0.00 % 0 0.00 % 0 0.00 % 0 0.00 % 363 0.00 %
Chulyms Turkic Siberia 0 0.00 % 0 0.00 % 0 0.00 % 0 0.00 % 0 0.00 % 0 0.00 % 656 0.00 % 355 0.00 %
Macedonians Indo-European European Russia 0 0.00 % 0 0.00 % 0 0.00 % 0 0.00 % 0 0.00 % 0 0.00 % 0 0.00 % 325 0.00 %
Slovaks Indo-European European Russia 0 0.00 % 513 0.00 % 497 0.00 % 758 0.00 % 439 0.00 % 711 0.00 % 568 0.00 % 324 0.00 %
Croats Indo-European European Russia 0 0.00 % 0 0.00 % 0 0.00 % 174 0.00 % 115 0.00 % 479 0.00 % 0 0.00 % 304 0.00 %
Oroks (in Orochs 1970-1979) Tungusic Siberia 162 0.00% SSP SSP 2 0.00% 179 0.00% 346 0.00% 295 0.00%
Taz (in Udege 1926-1989) Sino-Tibetan Siberia 276 0.00% 274 0.00%
Izhorians Uralic European Russia 16,136 0.02% 7,720 0.01% 564 0.00% 561 0.00% 449 0.00% 449 0.00% 327 0.00% 266 0.00%
Bosnians Indo-European European Russia 0 0.00 % 0 0.00 % 0 0.00 % 0 0.00 % 0 0.00 % 0 0.00 % 0 0.00 % 256 0.00 %
Enets (in Nenets 1926-1979) Uralic Siberia 198 0.00% 237 0.00% 227 0.00%
Ruthenians Indo-European European Russia 0 0.00 % 0 0.00 % 0 0.00 % 0 0.00 % 0 0.00 % 0 0.00 % 97 0.00 % 225 0.00 %
Karaites Turkic European Russia 1,608 0.00% 1,608 0.00% 1,236 0.00% 939 0.00% 680 0.00% 366 0.00% 205 0.00%
Montenegrins Indo-European European Russia 0 0.00 % 0 0.00 % 0 0.00 % 0 0.00 % 0 0.00 % 0 0.00 % 0 0.00 % 181 0.00 %
Krymchaks Turkic European Russia 6,185 0.01 % 0 0.00 % 249 0.00 % 389 0.00 % 1,365 0.00 % 338 0.00 % 157 0.00 % 90 0.00 %
Georgian Jews South Caucasian Caucasus 82 0.00 % 0 0.00 % 109 0.00 % 109 0.00 % 130 0.00 % 1,172 0.00 % 53 0.00 % 78 0.00 %
Votes Uralic European Russia 705 0.00 % 0 0.00 % 0 0.00 % 0 0.00 % 0 0.00 % 0 0.00 % 73 0.00 % 64 0.00 %
Central Asian Gypsies Indo-European European Russia 0 0.00 % 0 0.00 % 0 0.00 % 0 0.00 % 0 0.00 % 0 0.00 % 486 0.00 % 49 0.00 %
Central Asian Jews Indo-European European Russia 93 0.00 % 0 0.00 % 99 0.00 % 91 0.00 % 336 0.00 % 1,407 0.00 % 54 0.00 % 32 0.00 %
Kereks (in Chukchi 1926-1989) Chukotko-Kamchatkan Siberia 8 0.00% 4 0.00%
Small Dagestan Peoples (SDP) Caucasus 20,962 0.02%
Small Siberian Peoples (SSP) Siberia 11,824 0.01%

Language and culture[edit]

Although the constitution of Russia recognizes Russian as the official language, the individual republics may declare one or more official languages. Most of subjects have at least two — Russian and the language of the "eponymous" nationality.[1] There is a lively minority language scene in most subjects of the country, with more than 1,350 newspapers and magazines, 300 TV channels and 250 radio stations in over 50 minority languages. Moreover, new legislation allows usage of minority languages in federal radio and TV broadcasting.[3]

In 2007, there were 6,260 schools which provided teaching in altogether 38 minority languages, and over 75 minority languages were taught as a discipline in 10,404 schools. Ministers of Council of Europe has noted efforts to improve the supply of minority language textbooks and teachers, as well as greater availability of minority language teaching. However, as Ministers has noted, there remain shortcomings in the access to education of persons belonging to certain minorities.[3]

There are more than 2,000 national minorities' public associations and 560 national cultural autonomies, however the Committee of Ministers has noted that in many regions amount of state support for the preservation and development of minority cultures is still inadequate.[3] There's a significant difference between "eponymous" ethnic groups and nationalities without their own national territory, as resources of the last are relatively limited.[1]

Indigenous peoples[edit]

Russia is also home of a particular category of minority peoples, i.e. small indigenous peoples of the North and Far East, who maintain very traditional lifestyles, often in a hazardous climatic environment, while adapting to the modern world.[1] After the fall of the Soviet Union, Russia passed legislation to protect rights of small northern indigenous peoples.[1]

Gil-Robles has noted agreements between indigenous representatives and oil companies, which are to compensate potential damages on peoples habitats due to oil exploration.[1] As Committee of Ministers of Council of Europe noted in 2007, despite some initiatives for development, the social and economic situation of numerically small indigenous peoples was affected by recent legislative amendments at the federal level, removing some positive measures as regards their access to land and other natural resources.[3]

Maps[edit]

See also[edit]

Indigenous peoples:

References[edit]

External links[edit]