Demographics of Serbia

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Demographics of Serbia
Population Decrease 7 186 862 (2011)
Growth rate Decrease −4.9 per 1,000 pop. (2011)
Birth rate Increase 9.3 per 1,000 pop. (2012)
Death rate negative increase 14.2 per 1,000 pop. (2012)
Life expectancy Increase 74.2 years (2011)[1]
 • male 71.6 years
 • female 76.8 years
Fertility rate Decrease 1.4 children born/woman (2011)[2]
Infant mortality rate positive decrease 6.3 deaths/1,000 infants (2011)
Net migration rate Decrease -1.6 migrant(s)/1,000 pop. (2011)
Age structure
0–14 years Decrease 14.3% (2011)[3]
15–64 years Decrease 68.3% (2011)[4]
65 and over Increase 17.4% (2011)[5]
Sex ratio
At birth 1.06 male(s)/female
Under 15 1.06 male(s)/female
15–64 years 0.99 male(s)/female
65 and over 0.72 male(s)/female
Nationality
Nationality noun: Serbian(s) adjective: Serbian
Major ethnic Serbs Increase (83.3%) (2011)
Minor ethnic Hungarians Decrease (3.5%)
Bosniaks Increase (2%)
Roma Increase (2%)
other minorities less than 1% respectively
Language
Official Serbian at national level;
Hungarian, Bosnian, Croatian, Slovakian, Albanian, Romanian and Rusyn are in official use in individual municipalities
Spoken Serbian Steady (88%);
Hungarian Decrease (3.4%)
Bosnian Increase (1.9%)
Romani Increase (1.4%)
other minority languages less than 1% respectively

This article is about the demographic features of the population of Serbia, including vital statistics, ethnicity, religious affiliations, education level, health of the populace and other aspects of the population.

Demographic history[edit]

Censuses in Serbia ordinarily takes place every 10 years, organized by the Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia. The Principality of Serbia had conducted the first population census in 1834; the subsequent censuses were conducted in 1841, 1843, 1846, 1850, 1854, 1859, 1863 and 1866 and 1874. During the era Kingdom of Serbia, six censuses were conducted in 1884, 1890, 1895, 1900, 1905 and the last one being in 1910. During the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, censuses were conducted in 1931 and 1921; the census in 1941 was never conducted due to the outbreak of WWII. Socialist Yugoslavia conducted censuses in 1948, 1953, 1961, 1971, 1981, and 1991. The two most recent censuses were held in 2002 and 2011.

The years since the first 1834 Census saw frequent border changes of Serbia, first amidst the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire and Austria-Hungary, then subsequent formation and later disintegration of Yugoslavia and, finally, recent self-proclaimed independence of Kosovo which affected territorial scope in which all these censuse have been conducted.

Historical population
Year Pop. ±%
1834 678,192 —    
1841 828,895 +22.2%
1843 859,545 +3.7%
1846 915,080 +6.5%
1850 956,893 +4.6%
1854 998,919 +4.4%
1859 1,078,281 +7.9%
1863 1,108,668 +2.8%
1866 1,216,219 +9.7%
1874 1,669,337 +37.3%
1884 1,901,336 +13.9%
1895 2,493,770 +31.2%
1910 2,922,858 +17.2%
1921 4,781,446 +63.6%
1931 5,675,567 +18.7%
1948 6,527,966 +15.0%
1953 6,979,154 +6.9%
1961 7,642,227 +9.5%
1971 8,446,591 +10.5%
1981 9,313,676 +10.3%
1991 9,778,991 +5.0%
2002 7,498,001 −23.3%
2011 7,186,862 −4.1%

Vital Statistics[edit]

1880–1887[edit]

Average population (x 1,000) Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1,000) Crude death rate (per 1,000) Natural change (per 1,000)
1880 1,738 70,167 54,243 15,924 40.4 31.2 9.2
1881 1,775 80,678 43,645 37,033 45.4 24.6 20.8
1882 1,814 80,274 41,648 38,626 44.3 23.0 21.3
1883 1,859 87,161 42,263 44,898 46.7 22.7 24.0
1884 1,902 90,441 47,552 42,889 47.6 25.0 22.6
1885 1,940 90,627 52,318 38,309 46.7 27.0 19.7
1886 1,965 83,091 58,525 24,566 42.3 29.7 12.6
1887 2,008 93,911 50,481 43,430 46.8 25.1 21.7

1900–1912[edit]

Average population (x 1,000) Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1,000) Crude death rate (per 1,000) Natural change (per 1,000)
1900 2,470 105,000 58,000 47,000 42.4 23.5 18.9
1901 2,520 96,000 53,000 43,000 38.0 21.0 17.0
1902 2,570 98,000 57,000 41,000 38.0 22.3 15.7
1903 2,580 106,000 60,000 46,000 40.9 23.5 17.4
1904 2,650 106,000 56,000 50,000 39.8 21.1 18.7
1905 2,660 100,000 65,000 35,000 37.3 24.8 12.5
1906 2,690 113,000 66,000 47,000 42.0 24.5 17.5
1907 2,770 111,000 62,000 49,000 40.0 22.4 17.6
1908 2,820 104,000 67,000 37,000 36.8 23.7 13.1
1909 2,840 110,000 83,000 27,000 38.7 29.3 9.4
1910 2,870 112,000 64,000 48,000 39.0 22.4 16.6
1911 2,940 107,000 64,000 43,000 36.3 21.8 14.5
1912 2,980 114,000 63,000 51,000 38.3 21.1 17.1

1950–2014[edit]

Data for Serbia excluding Kosovo.

Average population (x 1000) Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) Total fertility rate Abortions reported
1950 5 970 163 297 76 851 86 446 27.4 12.9 14.5 3,51
1951 6 042 145 197 80 034 65 163 24.0 13.2 10.8 3,07
1952 6 112 161 306 67 870 93 436 26.4 11.1 15.3 3,33
1953 6 188 151 672 68 168 83 504 24.5 11.0 13.5 3,03
1954 6 274 152 569 62 610 89 959 24.3 10.0 14.3 3,05
1955 6 358 140 396 65 179 75 217 22.1 10.3 11.8 2,81
1956 6 425 132 078 67 055 65 023 20.6 10.4 10.1 2,66
1957 6 481 118 535 64 885 53 650 18.3 10.0 8.3 2,38
1958 6 535 118 425 55 564 62 861 18.1 8.5 9.6 2,45
1959 6 585 114 872 60 850 54 022 17.4 9.2 8.2 2,40
1960 6 635 119 298 61 872 57 426 18.0 9.3 8.7 2,56 81 516
1961 6 693 115 222 57 990 57 232 17.2 8.7 8.6 2,51 95 196
1962 6 752 110 008 62 830 47 178 16.3 9.3 7.0 2,47
1963 6 809 108 324 57 778 50 546 15.9 8.5 7.4 2,46
1964 6 863 103 847 62 100 41 747 15.1 9.0 6.1 2,51
1965 6 916 106 699 58 856 47 843 15.4 8.5 6.9 2,43
1966 6 974 103 775 55 471 48 304 14.9 8.0 6.9 2,45
1967 7 027 103 491 62 915 40 576 14.7 9.0 5.8 2,40 131 502
1968 7 078 103 621 60 932 42 689 14.6 8.6 6.0 2,41
1969 7 127 105 478 68 152 37 326 14.8 9.6 5.2 2,27 162 643
1970 7 171 102 453 67 211 35 242 14.3 9.4 4.9 2,40
1971 7 214 104 070 65 872 38 198 14.4 9.1 5.3 2,30
1972 7 258 106 859 70 822 36 037 14.7 9.8 5.0 2,28
1973 7 303 108 361 67 152 41 209 14.8 9.2 5.6 2,31
1974 7 351 110 458 66 457 44 001 15.0 9.0 6.0 2,32
1975 7 401 112 945 69 590 43 355 15.3 9.4 5.9 2,35
1976 7 452 114 035 68 565 45 470 15.3 9.2 6.1 2,28
1977 7 503 111 510 68 924 42 586 14.9 9.2 5.7 2,26
1978 7 550 110 622 71 986 38 636 14.7 9.5 5.1 2,23
1979 7 611 109 953 72 306 37 647 14.4 9.5 4.9 2,14
1980 7 688 109 597 76 180 33 417 14.3 9.9 4.3 2,26
1981 7 729 103 407 78 086 25 321 13.4 10.1 3.3 2,24
1982 7 738 106 575 78 473 28 102 13.8 10.1 3.6 2,31
1983 7 747 108 003 83 506 24 497 13.9 10.8 3.2 2,23
1984 7 754 107 036 82 742 24 294 13.8 10.7 3.1 2,21
1985 7 759 101 938 81 836 20 102 13.1 10.5 2.6 2,22 214 806
1986 7 759 99 419 83 977 15 442 12.8 10.8 2.0 2,21 212 400
1987 7 757 98 279 83 426 14 853 12.7 10.8 1.9 2,24 205 343
1988 7 755 97 471 83 616 13 855 12.6 10.8 1.8 2,22 193 558
1989 7 773 91 270 85 256 6 014 11.7 11.0 0.8 2,09 193 755
1990 7 806 90 590 85 932 4 658 11.6 11.0 0.6 2,11
1991 7 836 90 378 89 072 1 306 11.5 11.4 0.2 1,80 150 449
1992 7 852 86 877 93 475 -6 598 11.1 11.9 -0.8 1,77 135 907
1993 7 848 87 931 95 121 -7 190 11.2 12.1 -0.9 1,90 113 720
1994 7 843 85 292 93 011 -7 719 10.9 11.9 -1.0 1,87 114 659
1995 7 837 86 236 93 933 -7 697 11.0 12.0 -1.0 1,70 92 785
1996 7 828 82 548 98 370 -15 822 10.5 12.6 -2.0 1,85 80 003
1997 7 831 79 716 98 068 -18 352 10.2 12.5 -2.3 1,76 60 723
1998 7 568 76 330 99 376 -23 046 10.1 13.1 -3.0 1,68 55 360
1999 7 540 72 222 101 444 -29 222 9.6 13.5 -3.9 1,62 43 771
2000 7 516 73 764 104 042 -30 278 9.8 13.8 -4.0 1,48 42 322
2001 7 503 78 435 99 008 -20 573 10.5 13.2 -2.7 1,58 34 255
2002 7 500 78 101 102 785 -24 684 10.4 13.7 -3.3 1,57 30 794
2003 7 481 79 025 103 946 -24 921 10.6 13.9 -3.3 1,59 29 856
2004 7 463 78 186 104 320 -26 134 10.5 14.0 -3.5 1,57 26 645
2005 7 441 72 180 106 771 -34 591 9.7 14.3 -4.6 1,45 26 645
2006 7 412 70 997 102 884 -31 887 9.6 13.9 -4.3 1,43 25 665
2007 7 382 68 102 102 805 -34 703 9.2 13.9 -4.7 1,38 24 273
2008 7 350 69 083 102 711 -33 628 9.4 14.0 -4.6 1,42 24 159
2009 7 321 70 299 104 000 -33 701 9.6 14.2 -4.6 1,45 22 733
2010 7 291 68 304 103 211 -34 907 9.4 14.2 -4.8 1,42 22 092
2011 7 259 65 598 102 935 -37 337 9.0 14.2 -5.2 1,41
2012 7 199 67 257 102 400 -35 143 9.3 14.2 -4.9 1,45
20131 7 164 65 554 100 300 -34 746 9.2 14.0 -4.8

Ethnic groups[edit]

Ethnic map of Serbia, 2002 census

Situated in the middle of the Balkans, Serbia is home to many different ethnic groups. According to the 2011 census, Serbs are the largest ethnic group in the country and constitute 83.3% of population. Hungarians are the largest ethnic minority in Serbia, concentrated predominately in northern Vojvodina and representing 3.5% of the country's population (13% in Vojvodina). Roma people constitute 2% of the total population but unofficial estimates put their actual number to be twice or three as high.[9] Bosniaks are third largest ethnic minority mainly inhabiting Raška region in southwestern part of the country. Other minority groups include Croats (0.9%), Slovaks (0.8%), Albanians, Montenegrins (0.5%), Romanians (0.4%), Macedonians (0.3%), and Bulgarians (0.3%). The Chinese, estimated at about 15,000, are the only significant immigrant minority.[10][11]

Serbia (excluding Kosovo) in 2011
Serbs
  
83.3%
Hungarians
  
3.5%
Roma
  
2%
Bosniaks
  
2%
Croats
  
0.8%
Slovaks
  
0.7%
other
  
5.3%
unspecified
  
2.2%
Vojvodina
Serbs
  
66.7%
Hungarians
  
13%
Slovaks
  
2.6%
Croats
  
2.4%
Roma
  
2.2%
Romanians
  
1.3%
Montenegrins
  
1.1%
other/unspecified
  
9.7%
Šumadija and Western Serbia
Serbs
  
88.5%
Bosniaks
  
7%
Roma
  
1%
other/unspecified
  
3.5%
Southern and Eastern Serbia
Serbs
  
89.1%
Roma
  
3.6%
Vlachs
  
2.1%
Bulgarians
  
1%
other/unspecified
  
4.2%
Belgrade region
Serbs
  
90.7%
Roma
  
1.6%
other/unspecified
  
7.6%
Ethnic
group
census 1948 census 1953 census 1961 census 1971 census 1981 census 1991 census 2002[12] census 2011
Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  %
Serbs 4,651,819 80.2 4,963,070 80.4 5,477,670 82.0 5,788,547 80.4 5,972,661 77.3 6,616,917 80.3 6,212,838 82.9 5,988,150 83.3
Hungarians 433,618 7.5 441,748 7.2 449,377 6.7 430,145 6.0 390,321 5.0 337,479 4.5 293,299 3.9 253,899 3.5
Roma 40,951 0.7 46,896 0.8 6,624 0.1 35,301 0.5 76,833 1.0 90,853 1.2 108,193 1.4 147,604 2.1
Muslims 7,636 0.1 74,840 1.2 85,441 1.3 127,973 1.8 156,604 2.0 176,401 2.3 19,503 0.3 22,301 0.3
Bosniaks 136,087 1.8 145,278 2.0
Croats 164,574 2.8 167,045 2.7 189,158 2.8 176,649 2.5 140,650 1.8 97,344 1.2 70,602 0.9 57,900 0.8
Slovaks 73,138 1.3 75,006 1.2 77,816 1.2 76,707 1.1 73,170 0.9 65,363 0.9 59,021 0.8 52,750 0.7
Albanians 33,769 0.6 40,954 0.7 53,167 0.8 68,593 1.0 76,296 1.0 74,303 1.0 61,647 0.8 5,809 0.1
Montenegrins 46,810 0.8 54,718 0.9 67,165 1.0 93,705 1.3 120,438 1.6 117,761 1.6 69,049 0.9 38,527 0.5
Vlachs 93,440 1.6 28,047 0.5 1,367 0.0 14,719 0.2 25,592 0.3 15,675 0.2 40,054 0.5 35,330 0.5
Romanians 63,112 1.1 59,689 1.0 59,492 0.9 57,399 0.8 53,676 0.7 37,818 0.5 34,576 0.5 29,332 0.4
Yugoslavs 14,873 0.2 122,904 1.7 439,265 5.7 312,595 4.1 80,721 1.1 23,303 0.3
Macedonians 17,391 0.3 26,302 0.4 35,146 0.5 41,627 0.6 47,930 0.6 44,028 0.6 25,847 0.3 22,755 0.3
Bulgarians 59,395 1.0 60,146 1.0 58,243 0.9 53,536 0.7 33,294 0.4 26,416 0.3 20,497 0.3 18,543 0.3
Others/unspecified 114,493 2.0 132,549 2.1 102,700 1.5 115,093 1.6 122,506 1.6 97,953 1.3 266,067 3.5 368,136 5.1
Total 5,936,223 6,171,010 6,678,239 7,202,898 7,729,236 8,110,906 7,498,001 7,186,862

Religion[edit]

Main article: Religion in Serbia
Serbia (excluding Kosovo) in 2011
Eastern Orthodox
  
84.5%
Roman Catholic
  
5%
Islam
  
3%
Protestant
  
1%
Other
  
0.1%
Atheists/Agnostics
  
1.1%
Unspecified
  
4.4%

Serbia is one of religiously diverse European countries, with an Eastern Orthodox majority, and a Catholic and Islamic minority, among other smaller confessions.[13]

Orthodox Christians number 6,079,396 or 84.5% of country's population. The Serbian Orthodox Church is the largest and traditional church of the country, adherents of which are overwhelmingly Serbs. Other Orthodox Christian communities in Serbia include Montenegrins, Romanians, Vlachs, Macedonians and Bulgarians.

There are 356,957 Roman Catholics in Serbia, roughly 5% of the population, mostly in Vojvodina (especially its northern part) which is home to minority ethnic groups such as Hungarians, Croats, Bunjevci, as well as to some Slovaks and Czechs.[13] Protestantism accounts for about 1% of the country's population, chiefly among Slovaks in Vojvodina as well as among Reformist Hungarians.

Muslims, with 222,282 or 3% of population, form third largest religious group. Islam has a strong historic following in the southern regions of Serbia, primarily in southern Raška. Bosniaks are the largest Islamic community in Serbia; estimates are that some third of country's Roma people are Muslim.

Atheists numbered 80,053 or 1.1% of population and additional 4,070 are Agnostics.[14]

Languages[edit]

Language Native speakers %
Serbian 6,330,919 88
Hungarian 243,146 3.4
Bosnian 138,871 1.9
Romani 100,668 1.4
Other/unspecified 373,258 5.2

The official language is Serbian, member of the South Slavic group of languages, and is native to 88% of the population.[14] Recognized minority languages are: Hungarian, Slovak, Albanian, Romanian, Bulgarian and Rusyn as well as Bosnian and Croatian which are completely mutual intelligible with Serbian. All these languages are in official use in municipalities or cities where more than a 15% of population consists of national minority. [15] In Vojvodina, provincial administration uses, besides Serbian, five other languages (Hungarian, Slovak, Croatian, Romanian and Rusyn).

Education[edit]

According to 2011 census, literacy in Serbia stands at 98% of population while computer literacy is at 49% (complete computer literacy is at 34.2%).[16] Same census showed the following levels of education: 16.2% of inhabitants have higher education (10.6% have bachelors or masters degrees, 5.6% have an associates degree), 49% have a secondary education, 20.7% have an elementary education, and 13.7% have not completed elementary education.[17]

Health[edit]

The life expectancy in Serbia at birth is 74.2 years, 71.6 for males and 76.8 for females.[18] Serbia has a comparatively old overall population (among the 10 oldest in the world), with the average age of 42.2 years.[19]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://webrzs.stat.gov.rs/WebSite/Public/ReportResultView.aspx?rptKey=indId%3d180108IND01%2635%3d6%266%3d1%2c2%2c3%2c4%2c5%2c6%2c7%2c8%2c9%2c10%2c11%2c12%2c13%2c14%2c15%2c16%2c17%2c18%2c19%262%3d200100%2c201100%26sAreaId%3d180108%26dType%3dName%26lType%3dSerbianCyrillic
  2. ^ http://webrzs.stat.gov.rs/WebSite/Public/ReportResultView.aspx?rptKey=indId%3d180108IND01%2635%3d6%266%3d1%2c2%2c3%2c4%2c5%2c6%2c7%2c8%2c9%2c10%2c11%2c12%2c13%2c14%2c15%2c16%2c17%2c18%2c19%262%3d200100%2c201100%26sAreaId%3d180108%26dType%3dName%26lType%3dSerbianCyrillic
  3. ^ http://pod2.stat.gov.rs/ObjavljenePublikacije/Popis2011/Starost%20i%20pol-Age%20and%20sex.pdf
  4. ^ http://pod2.stat.gov.rs/ObjavljenePublikacije/Popis2011/Starost%20i%20pol-Age%20and%20sex.pdf
  5. ^ http://pod2.stat.gov.rs/ObjavljenePublikacije/Popis2011/Starost%20i%20pol-Age%20and%20sex.pdf
  6. ^ [1]
  7. ^ B.R. Mitchell. European historical statistics. 1750-1975.
  8. ^ Institut national d'études démographique (INED)
  9. ^ "Vesti – Zvaničan broj Roma u Srbiji". B92. 7 April 2009. 
  10. ^ Chinese Migrants Use Serbia as Gate to Europe. ABC News. 13 July 2010.
  11. ^ V. Mijatović – B. Hadžić. "I Kinezi napuštaju Srbiju | Reportaže". Novosti.rs. 
  12. ^ Official Results of Serbian Census 2003–Population PDF (441 KiB), pp. 12-13 (Serbian)
  13. ^ a b "Становништво, домаћинства и породице – база : Попис у Србији 2011". Popis2011.stat.rs. 
  14. ^ a b http://pod2.stat.gov.rs/ObjavljenePublikacije/Popis2011/Knjiga4_Veroispovest.pdf
  15. ^ http://www.coe.int/t/dg4/education/minlang/Report/EvaluationReports/SerbiaECRML2_en.pdf
  16. ^ http://pod2.stat.gov.rs/ObjavljenePublikacije/Popis2011/Skolska%20sprema,%20pismenost%20i%20kompjuterska%20pismenost-Educational%20attainment,%20literacy%20and%20computer%20literacy%20.pdf
  17. ^ "Education stats in Serbia". webrzs.stat.gov.rs. Retrieved 20 March 2013. 
  18. ^ http://webrzs.stat.gov.rs/WebSite/Public/ReportResultView.aspx?rptKey=indId%3d180108IND01%2635%3d6%266%3d1%2c2%2c3%2c4%2c5%2c6%2c7%2c8%2c9%2c10%2c11%2c12%2c13%2c14%2c15%2c16%2c17%2c18%2c19%262%3d200100%2c201100%26sAreaId%3d180108%26dType%3dName%26lType%3dSerbianCyrillic
  19. ^ "Dnevni list Danas | Društvo | Srbija gubi 30.000 stanovnika godišnje". Danas.rs.