Demographics of Singapore

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This article is about the demographic features of the population of Singapore, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

By end of June 2012, the island's population stood at 5.31 million.[1] It is the second densest sovereign state in the world, after the microstate Monaco. Singapore is a multiracial and multicultural country with a majority population of Chinese (74.2% of the resident population), with substantial Malay (13.2%) and Indian minorities (9.2%).[2] The Malays are recognised as the indigenous community although most are the descendants of post-1945 immigrants from Indonesia and Malaysia.[3][4][5][6]

Mahayana Buddhism is most widely adhered to in Singapore though followers do not represent the majority, with significant numbers following Islam, Christianity, Hinduism, Sikhism or no religion at all. The annual total population growth rate for the year 2012 was about 2.5%.[7] The constitution says Malay is the national language. The other three official languages are English, Mandarin and Tamil. English is the main working language and is the mandatory first language in all schools in Singapore.[8][9]

Singapore’s resident total fertility rate (TFR) was of 1.2 in 2011; the Chinese, Malay and Indian fertility rate was 1.08, 1.64 and 1.09 respectively. In 2010, the Malay fertility rate was about 70% higher than that of Chinese and Indians.[10] Singapore has attempted to boost the fertility rate for years to the replacement level of 2.1 births per woman.[2]

Population[edit]

Singapore population size and growth by residential status[7]
Demographics of Singapore, Data of FAO, year 2005 ; Number of inhabitants in thousands.

5,076,700 - 2010 est. Source: World Bank, World Development Indicators

Year Number (thousands) Growth Population density (persons per km2)
Total population Total residents Singapore citizens Permanent residents Non-residents Total population Total residents Singapore citizens Permanent residents Non-residents
1990 3,047.1 2,735.9 2,623.7 112.1 311.3 2.3% 1.7% 1.7% 2.3% 9.0% 4,706
2000 4,027.9 3,273.4 2,985.9 287.5 754.5 2.8% 1.8% 1.3% 9.9% 9.3% 5,900
2006 4,401.4 3,525.9 3,107.9 418.0 875.5 3.2% 1.7% 0.9% 8.1% 9.7% 6,292
2007 4,588.6 3,583.1 3,133.8 449.2 1,005.5 4.3% 1.6% 0.8% 7.5% 14.9% 6,508
2008 4,839.4 3,642.7 3,164.4 478.2 1,196.7 5.5% 1.7% 1.0% 6.5% 19.0% 6,814
2009 4,987.6 3,733.9 3,200.7 533.2 1,253.7 3.1% 2.5% 1.1% 11.5% 4.8% 7,022
2010 5,076.7 3,771.7 3,230.7 541.0 1,305.0 1.8% 1.0% 0.9% 1.5% 4.1% 7,126
2011 5,183.7 3,789.3 3,257.2 532.0 1,394.4 2.1% 0.5% 0.8% -1.7% 6.9% 7,257
2012 5,312.4 3,818.2 3,285.1 533.1 1,494.2 2.5% 0.8% 0.9% 0.2% 7.2% 7,429
2013 5,399.2 3,844.8 3,313.5 531.2 1,554.4 1.6% 0.7% 0.9% -0.3% 4.0% 7,540
Sex composition of resident population[7]
Year 1990 2000 2010 2011 2012
Total 2,735.90 3,273.40 3,771.70 3,789.30 3,818.20
Males 1,386.30 1,634.70 1,861.10 1,868.20 1,880.00
Females 1,349.60 1,638.70 1,910.60 1,921.10 1,938.20
Sex Ratio (Males per 1,000 females) 1,027 998 974 972 970
Age distribution of resident population[7]
Age group (years) 1990 2000 2010 2011 2012
Below 15 23.0 21.9 17.4 16.8 16.4
15 – 24 16.9 12.9 13.5 13.6 13.7
25 – 34 21.5 17.0 15.1 14.8 14.4
35 – 44 16.9 19.4 16.7 16.4 16.3
45 – 54 9.0 14.3 16.6 16.7 16.5
55 – 64 6.7 7.2 11.7 12.4 12.7
65 and over 6.0 7.2 9.0 9.3 9.9
Median age (years) 29.8 34.0 37.4 38.0 38.4

An average population density of 53km² was found for the "World (land only, excluding Antarctica)"
at Wikipedia's List of sovereign states and dependent territories by population density based
on data from July 5, 2014.

Population growth and population control[edit]

Fertility and mortality (2012 estimate)[7]
Year 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2011
Total Live-Births 45,934 41,217 51,142 46,997 37,967 39,654
Resident Live-Births n.a. 40,100 49,787 44,765 35,129 36,178
Crude Birth Rate (Per 1,000 residents) 22.1 17.6 18.2 13.7 9.3 9.5
Total Fertility Rate (Per female) 3.07 1.82 1.83 1.60 1.15 1.20
Gross Reproduction Rate (Per female) 1.49 0.88 0.88 0.77 0.56 0.58
Net Reproduction Rate (Per female) 1.42 0.86 0.88 0.77 0.55 0.58
Total Deaths 10,717 12,505 13,891 15,693 17,610 18,027
Crude Death Rate (Per 1,000 residents) 5.2 4.9 4.7 4.5 4.4 4.5
Infant Mortality Rate (Per 1,000 resident live-births) 20.5 8.0 6.6 2.5 2.0 2.0
Life Expectancy at Birth (Years) 65.8 72.1 75.3 78.0 81.7 82.0
Life Expectancy at Birth for Males (Years) 64.1 69.8 73.1 76.0 79.2 79.6
Life Expectancy at Birth for Females (Years) 67.8 74.7 77.6 80.0 84.0 84.3

After World War II, from 1947 to 1957, Singapore had a massive population increase.[11] The birth rate rose and the death rate fell; the average annual growth rate was 4.4%, of which 1% was due to immigration; Singapore experienced its highest birth rate in 1957 at 42.7 per thousand individuals. (This was also the same year the United States saw its peak birth rate.)

By 1960, the government publicly funded and supported family planning programmes; after independence in 1965, the birth rate had fallen to 29.5 per thousand individuals, and the natural growth rate had fallen to 2.5%.

Per-period population growth, 1947—2000[11]
Period Growth rate
1947—1957 84.7%
1957—1970 90.8%
1970—1980 13.3%
1980—1990 18.5%
1990— 2000 20.6%

Birth rates in the 1960s were still perceived as high by the government; on average, a baby was born every 11 minutes in 1965. Kandang Kerbau Hospital (KKH) — which specialised in women's health and was the most popular hospital to have children — saw over 100 deliveries per day in 1962. In 1966, KKH delivered 39835 babies, earning it a place in the Guinness Book of World Records for "largest number of births in a single maternity facility" for ten years. Because there was generally a massive shortage of beds in that era, mothers with routine deliveries were discharged from hospitals within 24 hours.[12]

In September 1965 the Minister for Health, Yong Nyuk Lin, submitted a white paper to Parliament, recommending a "Five-year Mass Family Planning programme" that would reduce the birth rate to 20.0 per thousand individuals by 1970. In 1966, the Family Planning and Population Board (FPPB) had been established based on the findings of the white paper, providing clinical services and public education on family planning.[13]

By 1970, the Stop at Two campaign was firmly established, implementing incentives, disincentives and public exhortation to discourage families from having more than two children. After 1975, the fertility rate declined below replacement level, in a sign that Singapore was undergoing the demographic transition. In 1983, the Graduate Mothers' Scheme was implemented in an attempt to get educated women, especially women with a university degree, to marry and procreate, while the government encouraged women without an O-level degree to get sterilised. This was done out of the Lee Kuan Yew government's belief that for the nation to best develop and avoid hardship, the educated classes should be encouraged to contribute to the nation's breeding pool, while the uneducated should not, sparking the Great Marriage Debate.[13]

In 1986, the government reversed its population policy — except its stance on low-income, lowly-educated women — and initiated the Have Three or More (if you can afford it) campaign, offering cash and public administration incentives to have children. In 2001, the Singapore government started its Baby Bonus scheme.

As of 2012, Singapore total fertility rate (TFR) is 1.20 children born per woman, which represents a sub-replacement fertility rate and is one of the lowest in the world. Ethnic Chinese had a ferlility of 1.07 in 2004 (1.65 in 1990), while Malays had a TFR of 2.10 (2.69 in 1990). Both figures declined further in 2006. TFR for Indians was 1.30 in 2004 and 1.89 in 1990. 1 The Singapore government has launched several highly publicized attempts to raise the fertility rate and increase awareness of the negative effects of an aging population, the elderly (65 and above) had constituted 9.9% of its population in 2012; this proportion is still significantly lower than that of many other developed nations, such as the United States (12%) and Japan (21.2%)[citation needed].

Net migration rate 9.12 migrants/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Due to the continued low TFR, amongst other reasons, the Singapore government has varied its immigration policy over the years. As the demand for labour grew with industrialization, foreign talent with professional qualifications as well as less-skilled foreign workers has made up a significant and increasing proportion of Singapore's total population since the 2000s and 2010s.

Births and deaths[edit]

Average population (in thousands) Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) Total fertility rate
1970 45,934 10,717 35,217 22.1 5.2 16.9 3.07
1980 41,217 12,505 28,712 17.6 4.9 12.7 1.82
1990 3,047.1 51,142 13,891 37,251 18.2 4.7 13.5 1.83
2000 4,027.9 46,997 15,693 31,304 13.7 4.5 9.2 1.60
2010 5,076.7 37,967 17,610 20,357 9.3 4.4 4.9 1.15
2011 5,183.7 39,654 18,027 21,627 9.5 4.5 5.0 1.20
2012 5,312.4 1.29
2013 1.19

2013 Population White Paper[edit]

In early 2013, the Singapore parliament debated over the policies recommended by the Population White Paper entitled A Sustainable Population for a Dynamic Singapore. Citing that Singapore's 900,000 Baby Boomers would comprise a quarter of the citizen population by 2030 and that its workforce would shrink "from 2020 onwards", the White Paper projected that by 2030, Singapore's "total population could range between 6.5 and 6.9 million", with resident population between 4.2 and 4.4 million and citizen population between 3.6 and 3.8 million. The White Paper called for an increase in the number of foreign workers so as to provide balance between the number of skilled and less-skilled workers, as well as provide healthcare and domestic services. It also claimed that foreign workers help businesses thrive when the economy is good.[14] The motion was passed [15] albeit after amendments made to leave out "population policy" and add focus on infrastructure and transport development.

The White Paper was criticized by opposition parties.[16] Member of Parliament Low Thia Khiang of the Workers' Party of Singapore had criticized current measures of increasing the fertility rate, claiming that the high cost of living and lack of family and social support discouraged young couples from having babies. As for current immigration policies, he had noted that immigrants were a source of friction for Singaporeans and that an increased population would put more stress on the already strained urban infrastructure.[17] On February 16, 2013, nearly 3,000 people rallied to protest the White Paper and raise concerns that the increased population would lead to the deterioration of public service and the increase of the cost of living in the future.[18]

Ethnic groups[edit]

Main article: Race in Singapore
Ethnic composition of resident population  (chart)
Ethnic group 1970 [19] 1980 [19] 1990 [7] 2000 [7] 2010 [7] 2011 [7] 2012 [7] 2013 [7]
Chinese 77.0% 78.3% 77.8% 76.8% 74.1% 74.1% 74.2% 74.2%
Malays 14.8% 14.4% 14.0% 13.9% 13.4% 13.4% 13.3% 13.3%
Indians 7.0% 6.3% 7.1% 7.9% 9.2% 9.2% 9.2% 9.1%
Others 1.2% 1.0% 1.1% 1.4% 3.3% 3.3% 3.3% 3.3%
Total Fertility Rate by Ethnic Group [7]
Year 1990 2000 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
Chinese 1.65 1.43 1.14 1.14 1.08 1.02 1.08
Malays 2.69 2.54 1.94 1.91 1.82 1.65 1.64
Indians 1.89 1.59 1.25 1.19 1.14 1.13 1.09
Total 1.83 1.6 1.29 1.28 1.22 1.15 1.2

Singapore became numerically dominated by immigrant ethnic groups soon after the British annexed the island in the 19th century. It is estimated that in January 1819, Singapore had about 880 Malays and aboriginal tribes and about 20 to 30 Chinese. In 1821, it was estimated that there were nearly 3,000 Malays and more than 1,000 Chinese.

While the Singapore Department of Statistics reports overall population figures for Singapore (4.48 million in 2006), as a matter of policy, it only provides more detailed demographic breakdown analysis for the approximately 80% of the population who are Singapore citizens and Permanent Residents (collectively termed 'residents'). Of this group of about 3.6 million people, Chinese form 75.2%, Malays form 13.6%, Indians form 8.8%, while Eurasians and other groups form 2.4%. No breakdown by ethnicity is released for the non-resident population.

Official figures show that the number of foreigners on short-term permits (termed 'non-residents') has grown from 30,900 in 1970 to 797,900 in 2005, which translate roughly to a 24-fold increase in 35 years, or from 1% of the population in 1970 to 18.3% in 2005. Despite this huge increase, no further breakdown is given by Singstat.

Proportion of non-residents out of total population  (chart) [19]
1970 1980 1990 2000 2009
Non-residents (Residents = Citizens + PRs) 2.9% 5.5% 10.2% 18.7% 25.3%

Some studies attempted to cast light on the demographic profile of Singapore's non-residents. According to 'The Encyclopedia of the Indian Diaspora' (published in 2006), "independent surveys approximate the number of South Asians on work permits to be between 30-35 per cent of the total 'Indian' population in Singapore, or approximately 90,000-100,000." Based on this, it can be estimated that, as of June 2006, the Indian population formed 12.5% of the non-resident population, and therefore numbered between 415,000 and 430,000, or about 9.5% of the total population of about 4.5 million. It is likely the population of 'others' is similarly greater than suggested by the figures for the 'resident' population. Conversely, it is likely that the Chinese form significantly less than 75% of the total population of 4.5 million.

A figure released by the Straits Times on 20 July 2010 shows that the total population of non- resident Singaporeans (PRs and foreigners) is around 1.79 million[20] of which Indians are 400,000 (22.35%). The number of Indian PRs and foreigners had doubled in the previous 2 years.[20]

Languages[edit]

Language most frequently spoken at home (%)[21]
Language 1990 2000 2010
English 18.8 23.0 32.3
Mandarin 23.7 35.0 35.6
(non-Mandarin) Chinese Dialects 39.6 23.8 14.3
Malay 14.3 14.1 12.2
Tamil 2.9 3.2 3.3
Quadrilingual warning sign written in Singapore's four official languages; English, Chinese, Tamil and Malay.

There are four official languages: English, Malay, Mandarin and Tamil.

Malay is the national language of the country, although English is mainly used. English serves as the link between the different ethnic groups and is the language of the educational system and the administration. The colloquial English used in everyday life is often referred to as Singlish.

The government of Singapore has been promoting the use of Mandarin, the official form of Chinese in Singapore as well as mainland China and Taiwan, with its Speak Mandarin Campaign among the Chinese population. The use of other Chinese dialects, like Hokkien, Teochew, Cantonese, Hainanese and Hakka, has been declining over the last two decades, although they are still being used especially by the older generations of the Chinese population.

About 60% of Singapore's Indian population speaks Tamil as their native language. Other widely spoken Indian languages are Punjabi, Malayalam, Hindi and Telugu.

Around 5,000 Peranakans, the early Chinese population of the region, still use the Hokkien-influenced Malay dialect called Baba Malay.

Religion[21][22][edit]

Main article: Religion in Singapore
Resident population aged 15 years and over by religion (%) (Generate a chart)
Religion 1980 1990 2000 2010
Buddhism 27.0 31.2 42.5 33.3
Christianity 10.1 12.7 14.6 18.3
No religion 13.0 14.1 14.8 17.0
Islam 15.7 15.3 14.9 14.7
Taoism/Chinese traditional beliefs 30.0 22.4 8.5 10.9
Hinduism 3.6 3.7 4.0 5.1
Other religions 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.7

Singapore generally allows religious freedom, although the authorities restrict or ban some religious sects (such as Jehovah's Witnesses, due to their opposition to National Service). The majority of Malays are Muslim, the plurality of Chinese practise Buddhism and syncretic Chinese folk traditions. Christianity is growing among the Chinese, having overtaken Taoism as second most important religion[when?] among this ethnic group. Indians are mostly Hindus though many are Muslims, Sikhs, Buddhists and Christians. People who practise no religion form the third-largest group in Singapore.[23]

Religions of the main ethnic groups (2000):

Singapore religion by ethnic group.png

Source: Census 2000.[22]

Marriage and divorce[edit]

Marriages and divorces
2011
Number of marriages (excluding previously married) 27,258
Number of divorces and annulments 7,604
Median age of first marriage (years)
…Grooms 30.1
…Brides 28.0
General marriage rate
…Males (per 1,000 unmarried resident males) 43.7
…Females (per 1,000 unmarried resident females) 41.4
Median Age at Divorce (Years)
…Grooms 41.3
…Brides 37.7
General divorce rate
…Males (Per 1,000 married resident males aged 20 years & over) 7.6
…Females (Per 1,000 married resident females aged 20 years & over) 7.2
Crude marriage rate (per 1,000 resident population) 6.7
Crude rate of marital dissolution (per 1,000 resident population) 2.0

Source: Singapore Department of Statistics.[24]

The divorce rate has doubled over the last decade, and as of 2003, for every ten marriages registered in Singapore, almost three ended in divorce. The Women's Charter protects the women's financial interests during a divorce, often requiring the husband to contribute to his divorced wife and their children.

Literacy and education[edit]

Literacy rate population aged 15 years and above[25]
Year 1990 2000
Total 89.1% 92.5%
Male 95.1% 96.6%
Female 83.0% 88.6%
Highest qualification attained of resident non-student population aged 25 years and over[7]
Highest qualification attained 2001 2011
Below secondary 46.9% 33.4%
Secondary 24.1% 19.6%
Post-secondary (non tertiary) 6.6% 8.9%
Diploma or professional qualification 8.9% 13.6%
University 13.6% 24.5%

Among residents aged 25–39 years, the percentage of university graduates increased from 23.7% in 2001 to 45.9% in 2011 while that who had attained a diploma or professional qualification increased from 15.9% to 22.9% over the same period.[7]

Employment[edit]

In 2005, the unemployment rate for persons aged 15 years and over was 2.5%, the lowest in the last four years, with a labour force of 2.3 million people.[26][27][28]

Employment (thousands)[29]
Year Employment change Employment in December 2012
2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
Total -22.9 -12.9 71.4 113.3 176.0 234.9 221.6 37.6 115.9 122.6 129.1 3,357.6
Total (excluding foreign domestic workers) -23.6 -11.7 66.4 105.5 168.0 223.5 213.4 32.9 110.6 117.7 125.8 3,148.0
Locals 19.4 14.9 49.9 63.5 90.9 90.4 64.7 41.8 56.2 37.9 58.7 2,089.3
Foreigners -42.3 -27.9 21.5 49.8 85.1 144.5 156.9 -4.2 59.7 84.8 70.4 1,268.3
Foreigners (excluding foreign domestic workers) -43.0 -26.6 16.5 42.0 77.1 133.1 148.7 -8.9 54.4 79.8 67.1 1,058.7
Unmployment rate (%) for persons aged 15 years and over[29]
Year 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
Overall 3.6 4.0 3.4 3.1 2.7 2.1 2.2 3.0 2.2 2.0 2.0
Residents 4.8 5.2 4.4 4.1 3.6 3.0 3.2 4.3 3.1 2.9 2.8
Singapore Citizens 5.1 5.4 4.8 4.4 3.7 3.1 3.4 4.5 3.4 3.0 3.0

Household income[edit]

Average household monthly income[edit]

The average household monthly income was SGD 4,943 in 2000, which was an increase of $3,080 in 1990 at an average annual rate of 4.9%. The average household income experienced a drop of 2.7% in 1999 due to economic slowdown. Measured in 1990 dollars, the average household monthly income rose from SGD$3,080 in 1990 to SGD$4,170 in 2000 at an average annual rate of 2.8%.[30]

Household income from work (SGD)[30][31]
Year 1990 1995 1997 1998 1999 2000 2010 2011
Average income 3,076 4,107 4,745 4,822 4,691 4,943 8,726 9,618
Median income 2,296 3,135 3,617 3,692 3,500 3,607 5,600 6,307
Households income from work by ethnic group of head (SGD)[30]
Ethnic group Average household
income
Median household
income
1990 2000 2010[32] 1990 2000 2010[32]
Total 3,076 4,943 7,214 2,296 3,607 5,000
Chinese 3,213 5,219 7,326 2,400 3,848 5,100
Malays 2,246 3,148 4,575 1,880 2,708 3,844
Indians 2,859 4,556 7,664 2,174 3,387 5,370
Others 3,885 7,250 2,782 4,775

Household income distribution[edit]

Resident households by monthly household income from work including employer CPF contributions (%)[33]
Year 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
No working person 8.6 6.9 9.0 9.7 9.8 10.0 9.0 8.6 8.6 9.6 10.5 9.3 9.2
Retiree households 3.6 3.3 4.3 4.7 5.1 4.7 5.2 5.1 4.9 5.3 5.4 5.8 6.0
Below $1,000 3.3 3.9 4.0 4.6 4.3 4.3 4.4 4.3 3.8 4.1 3.5 3.2 3.0
$1,000-$1,999 12.2 11.1 11.5 11.1 11.4 10.9 10.5 9.8 8.3 7.8 7.0 6.5 6.2
$2,000-$2,999 13.2 12.7 12.5 11.9 12.2 11.4 11.2 10.0 8.6 8.6 8.2 7.1 6.3
$3,000-$3,999 12.6 11.5 11.6 11.7 11.4 10.7 10.8 9.7 8.5 8.9 8.3 7.6 6.6
$4,000-$4,999 10.2 9.8 9.5 9.4 9.6 9.1 8.9 8.8 8.4 8.1 7.9 7.2 7.0
$5,000-$5,999 8.3 8.3 8.1 7.9 7.9 7.9 8.1 7.7 7.3 7.5 7.4 7.0 6.8
$6,000-$6,999 6.7 6.7 6.4 6.9 6.3 6.4 6.9 6.8 6.4 6.9 6.7 6.5 6.1
$7,000-$7,999 5.1 5.3 5.1 4.9 5.3 5.4 5.3 5.7 5.9 5.7 5.7 6.0 5.8
$8,000-$8,999 4.0 4.3 4.3 4.0 4.1 4.5 4.4 4.7 5.1 4.7 5.1 5.4 5.4
$9,000-$9,999 3.1 3.5 3.3 3.4 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.8 4.1 4.1 4.2 4.7 4.7
$10,000-$10,999 2.4 2.9 2.8 2.7 2.7 2.8 2.9 3.3 3.8 3.7 3.8 4.1 4.1
$11,000-$11,999 1.8 2.1 2.1 1.9 1.9 2.1 2.3 2.6 3.2 2.9 3.0 3.3 3.8
$12,000-$12,999 1.5 1.8 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.8 1.9 1.9 2.4 2.4 2.6 2.7 3.3
$13,000-$13,999 1.1 1.4 1.2 1.4 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.9 2.0 2.2 2.1 2.4 2.6
$14,000-$14,999 0.9 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.4 1.7 1.8 1.8 2.1 2.2
$15,000 and over 5.0 6.6 5.9 6.0 5.9 6.7 7.2 9.0 11.8 11.0 12.2 15.0 16.9
Resident households by monthly household income from work excluding employer CPF contributions (%)[33]
Year 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
No working person 8.6 6.9 9.0 9.7 9.8 10.0 9.0 8.6 8.6 9.6 10.5 9.3 9.2
Retiree households 3.6 3.3 4.3 4.7 5.1 4.7 5.2 5.1 4.9 5.3 5.4 5.8 6.0
Below $1,000 3.3 3.9 4.0 4.6 4.3 4.3 4.4 4.3 3.8 4.1 3.5 3.2 3.0
$1,000-$1,999 12.2 11.1 11.5 11.1 11.4 10.9 10.5 9.8 8.3 7.8 7.0 6.5 6.2
$2,000-$2,999 13.2 12.7 12.5 11.9 12.2 11.4 11.2 10.0 8.6 8.6 8.2 7.1 6.3
$3,000-$3,999 12.6 11.5 11.6 11.7 11.4 10.7 10.8 9.7 8.5 8.9 8.3 7.6 6.6
$4,000-$4,999 10.2 9.8 9.5 9.4 9.6 9.1 8.9 8.8 8.4 8.1 7.9 7.2 7.0
$5,000-$5,999 8.3 8.3 8.1 7.9 7.9 7.9 8.1 7.7 7.3 7.5 7.4 7.0 6.8
$6,000-$6,999 6.7 6.7 6.4 6.9 6.3 6.4 6.9 6.8 6.4 6.9 6.7 6.5 6.1
$7,000-$7,999 5.1 5.3 5.1 4.9 5.3 5.4 5.3 5.7 5.9 5.7 5.7 6.0 5.8
$8,000-$8,999 4.0 4.3 4.3 4.0 4.1 4.5 4.4 4.7 5.1 4.7 5.1 5.4 5.4
$9,000-$9,999 3.1 3.5 3.3 3.4 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.8 4.1 4.1 4.2 4.7 4.7
$10,000-$10,999 2.4 2.9 2.8 2.7 2.7 2.8 2.9 3.3 3.8 3.7 3.8 4.1 4.1
$11,000-$11,999 1.8 2.1 2.1 1.9 1.9 2.1 2.3 2.6 3.2 2.9 3.0 3.3 3.8
$12,000-$12,999 1.5 1.8 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.8 1.9 1.9 2.4 2.4 2.6 2.7 3.3
$13,000-$13,999 1.1 1.4 1.2 1.4 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.9 2.0 2.2 2.1 2.4 2.6
$14,000-$14,999 0.9 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.4 1.7 1.8 1.8 2.1 2.2
$15,000 and over 5.0 6.6 5.9 6.0 5.9 6.7 7.2 9.0 11.8 11.0 12.2 15.0 16.9

Growth in household income by decile[edit]

With the recovery from the 1998 economic slowdown, household income growth had resumed for the majority of households in 2000. However, for the lowest two deciles, the average household income in 2000 had declined compared with 1999. This was mainly due to the increase in the proportion of households with no income earner from 75% in 1999 to 87% in 2000 for the lowest 10%. Households with no income earner include those with retired elderly persons as well as unemployed members.[34]

Average monthly household income from work including employer CPF contributions among resident employed households(SGD)[33]
Decile Average monthly household income (SGD) Nominal annual change (%)
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
Total 5,947 6,417 6,229 6,276 6,285 6,593 6,792 7,431 8,414 8,195 8,726 9,618 10,348 7.9 -2.9 0.8 0.1 4.9 3.0 9.4 13.2 -2.6 6.5 10.2 7.6
1st - 10th 1,382 1,331 1,266 1,223 1,232 1,257 1,258 1,321 1,399 1,361 1,497 1,581 1,644 -3.7 -4.9 -3.4 0.7 2.0 0.1 5.0 5.9 -2.7 10.0 5.6 4.0
11th - 20th 2,241 2,275 2,180 2,164 2,199 2,257 2,305 2,418 2,700 2,696 2,940 3,135 3,302 1.5 -4.2 -0.7 1.6 2.6 2.1 4.9 11.7 -0.1 9.1 6.6 5.3
21st - 30th 2,986 3,043 2,944 2,984 2,988 3,116 3,182 3,379 3,831 3,787 4,158 4,421 4,782 1.9 -3.3 1.4 0.1 4.3 2.1 6.2 13.4 -1.1 9.8 6.3 8.2
31st - 40th 3,683 3,867 3,722 3,746 3,786 4,020 4,038 4,335 4,906 4,978 5,418 5,794 6,183 5.0 -3.7 0.6 1.1 6.2 0.4 7.4 13.2 1.5 8.8 6.9 6.7
41st - 50th 4,505 4,680 4,572 4,637 4,648 4,859 4,971 5,358 6,055 5,980 6,603 7,032 7,608 3.9 -2.3 1.4 0.2 4.5 2.3 7.8 13.0 -1.2 10.4 6.5 8.2
51st - 60th 5,304 5,677 5,522 5,638 5,504 5,865 6,027 6,561 7,492 7,319 7,840 8,436 9,133 7.0 -2.7 2.1 -2.4 6.6 2.8 8.9 14.2 -2.3 7.1 7.6 8.3
61st - 70th 6,354 6,751 6,664 6,725 6,633 7,136 7,180 7,928 8,957 8,798 9,310 10,101 10,894 6.2 -1.3 0.9 -1.4 7.6 0.6 10.4 13.0 -1.8 5.8 8.5 7.9
71st - 80th 7,608 8,322 8,132 8,229 8,012 8,641 8,809 9,479 10,820 10,694 11,105 12,306 13,186 9.4 -2.3 1.2 -2.6 7.9 1.9 7.6 14.1 -1.2 3.8 10.8 7.2
81st - 90th 9,461 10,755 10,294 10,271 10,350 10,701 11,048 12,386 14,013 13,423 13,943 15,509 16,366 13.7 -4.3 -0.2 0.8 3.4 3.2 12.1 13.1 -4.2 3.9 11.2 5.5
91st - 100th 15,946 17,467 16,998 17,146 17,493 18,076 19,100 21,146 23,968 22,909 24,442 27,867 30,379 9.5 -2.7 0.9 2.0 3.3 5.7 10.7 13.3 -4.4 6.7 14.0 9.0
Average monthly household income from work excluding employer CPF contributions among resident employed households(SGD)[33]
Decile Average monthly household income (SGD) Nominal annual change (%)
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
Total 5,456 5,736 5,572 5,618 5,761 6,052 6,280 6,889 7,752 7,549 8,058 8,864 9,515 5.1 -2.9 0.8 2.5 5.1 3.8 9.7 12.5 -2.6 6.7 10.0 7.3
1st - 10th 1,285 1,209 1,151 1,112 1,140 1,162 1,165 1,223 1,300 1,264 1,385 1,460 1,518 -5.9 -4.8 -3.4 2.5 1.9 0.3 5.0 6.3 -2.8 9.6 5.4 4.0
11th - 20th 2,062 2,040 1,956 1,942 2,009 2,064 2,114 2,218 2,464 2,462 2,679 2,834 2,985 -1.1 -4.1 -0.7 3.5 2.7 2.4 4.9 11.1 -0.1 8.8 5.8 5.3
21st - 30th 2,737 2,717 2,627 2,668 2,721 2,833 2,903 3,078 3,464 3,436 3,759 3,988 4,290 -0.7 -3.3 1.6 2.0 4.1 2.5 6.0 12.5 -0.8 9.4 6.1 7.6
31st - 40th 3,367 3,434 3,312 3,330 3,431 3,645 3,673 3,950 4,420 4,495 4,887 5,200 5,529 2.0 -3.6 0.5 3.0 6.2 0.8 7.5 11.9 1.7 8.7 6.4 6.3
41st - 50th 4,097 4,149 4,043 4,103 4,200 4,390 4,514 4,870 5,455 5,391 5,959 6,303 6,800 1.3 -2.6 1.5 2.4 4.5 2.8 7.9 12.0 -1.2 10.5 5.8 7.9
51st - 60th 4,830 5,015 4,884 4,981 4,978 5,301 5,477 5,962 6,753 6,601 7,090 7,587 8,196 3.8 -2.6 2.0 -0.1 6.5 3.3 8.9 13.3 -2.3 7.4 7.0 8.0
61st - 70th 5,773 5,971 5,891 5,936 6,005 6,458 6,535 7,234 8,107 7,972 8,450 9,147 9,806 3.4 -1.3 0.8 1.2 7.5 1.2 10.7 12.1 -1.7 6.0 8.2 7.2
71st - 80th 6,919 7,365 7,187 7,273 7,256 7,846 8,046 8,694 9,849 9,733 10,142 11,193 11,973 6.4 -2.4 1.2 -0.2 8.1 2.5 8.1 13.3 -1.2 4.2 10.4 7.0
81st - 90th 8,631 9,557 9,144 9,142 9,443 9,797 10,203 11,491 12,916 12,354 12,887 14,307 15,038 10.7 -4.3 0.0 3.3 3.7 4.1 12.6 12.4 -4.4 4.3 11.0 5.1
91st - 100th 14,862 15,905 15,524 15,688 16,425 17,021 18,170 20,174 22,797 21,784 23,345 26,622 29,012 7.0 -2.4 1.1 4.7 3.6 6.8 11.0 13.0 -4.4 7.2 14.0 9.0

Household income disparity[edit]

The disparity in household income had widened in 2000, reflecting the faster income growth for the higher-income households. The Gini coefficient, a measure of income inequality, rose from 0.446 in 1998 to 0.481 in 2000. Other measures of income inequality also indicated similar trend of increasing disparity in household income.[30] In the United Nations Development Programme Report 2004,[35] Singapore's Gini coefficient based on income is 0.425 in 1998, which is ranked 78 among 127 countries in income equality (see list of countries by income equality).

Gini coefficient among resident employed households[33]
Year 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
Household income from work excluding employer CPF contributions per household member 0.444 0.456 0.457 0.460 0.464 0.470 0.476 0.489 0.481 0.478 0.480 0.482 0.488
Household income from work including employer CPF contributions per household member 0.442 0.454 0.454 0.457 0.460 0.465 0.470 0.482 0.474 0.471 0.472 0.473 0.478
Household income from work including employer CPF contributions per household member after accounting for government transfers and taxes 0.434 0.437 0.433 0.446 0.446 0.449 0.444 0.467 0.449 0.448 0.452 0.448 0.459
Ratio of household income from work per household member at the 90th percentile to 10th percentile among resident employed households[33]
Year 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
Household income from work excluding employer CPF contributions per household member 7.74 8.68 8.49 8.51 8.81 9.26 9.3 9.52 9.61 9.25 9.43 9.12 9.18
Household income from work including employer CPF contributions per household member 7.75 8.58 8.82 8.81 8.87 9.06 9.23 9.38 9.64 9.43 9.35 9.19 9.14
Household income from work including employer CPF contributions per household member after accounting for government transfers and taxes 7.68 7.82 7.71 8.28 8.24 8.3 7.68 8.68 7.94 8.00 8.1 7.54 7.87

International rankings[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.channelnewsasia.com/stories/singaporelocalnews/view/1228473/1/.html
  2. ^ a b "September 28, 2011 - Singapore's Fertility Rate Dropped to a Record Low". 
  3. ^ http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/topic,463af2212,469f2f192,49749cb046,0.html
  4. ^ Vasil, R K (2000). Governing Singapore: democracy and national development. Allen & Unwin. p. 96. ISBN 978-1-86508-211-0. 
  5. ^ "Constitution of the Republic of Singapore". Attorney-General's Chambers of Singapore website. Part XIII Section 152(2). Retrieved 11 August 2011. 
  6. ^ http://www.cidcm.umd.edu/mar/assessment.asp?groupId=83001#summary
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Population Trends 2012 Department of Statistics, Singapore.
  8. ^ http://www.asiaone.com/Business/SME%2BCentral/Talking%2Bpoint/Story/A1Story20090916-168233.html
  9. ^ http://www.moe.gov.sg/
  10. ^ Lee Kuan Yew (22 June 2010). "Singapore releases 2010 population in Brief Report". Govmonitor. Retrieved 23 June 2010. 
  11. ^ a b Wong, Theresa; Brenda Yeoh (2003). "Fertility and the Family: An Overview of Pro-natalist Population Policies in Singapore". ASIAN METACENTRE RESEARCH PAPER SERIES (12). 
  12. ^ "Family Planning". National Archives. Government of Singapore. Retrieved 12 August 2011. 
  13. ^ a b "Singapore: Population Control Policies". Library of Congress Country Studies (1989). Library of Congress. Retrieved 11 August 2011. 
  14. ^ A Sustainable Population for a Dynamic Singapore.
  15. ^ Amended motion on white paper adopted; 6.9 million is not a target. The Straits Times. February 9, 2013.
  16. ^ http://wp.sg/2013/02/the-workers-partys-population-policy-paper-a-dynamic-population-for-a-sustainable-singapore/ The Workers’ Party’s Population Policy Paper: “A Dynamic Population for a Sustainable Singapore” The Workers' Party.
  17. ^ A Sustainable Singapore with a Dynamic Singaporean majority – MP Low Thia Khiang The Workers' Party.
  18. ^ "Rare Singapore protest against population plan". February 17, 2013. 
  19. ^ a b c Singapore Department of Statistics
  20. ^ a b http://www.straitstimes.com/The+Print+Edition/The%2BPrint%2BEdition_20100720.html?vgnid=1[dead link]
  21. ^ a b Census of Population 2010 Statistical Release 1: Demographic Characteristics, Education, Language and Religion. Department of Statistics, Ministry of Trade & Industry, Republic of Singapore. January 2011. ISBN 978-981-08-7808-5. Retrieved 28 August 2011. 
  22. ^ a b "Census 2000 - Chapter 5: Religion" (PDF). Retrieved 29 August 2011. 
  23. ^ [1]
  24. ^ http://www.singstat.gov.sg/stats/themes/people/marriages.pdf
  25. ^ Census 2000
  26. ^ "Latest Data (1 February 2006) - Singapore Department of Statistics. URL accessed on 2 February 2006.
  27. ^ "Singapore's employment hits all-time high of 2.3 m in 2005". Channel NewsAsia. 1 February 2006.  By May Wong.
  28. ^ [2] Department of Statistics, Singapore.
  29. ^ a b Labour Market 2012 Ministry of Manpower, Singapore.
  30. ^ a b c d [3] Department of Statistics, Singapore.
  31. ^ [4] Department of Statistics, Singapore.
  32. ^ a b http://www.singstat.gov.sg/publications/publications_and_papers/cop2010/census_2010_release2/cop2010sr2.pdf
  33. ^ a b c d e f Key Household Income Trends 2012 Department of Statistics, Singapore.
  34. ^ [5]
  35. ^ United Nations Development Programme Report 2004 See page 50–53.
  36. ^ Freedom in the World (report)
  37. ^ Freedom of the Press (report)
  38. ^ Press Freedom Index
  39. ^ Democracy Index
  40. ^ Corruption Perceptions Index
  41. ^ Privacy International
  42. ^ List of countries by GDP (nominal) per capita
  43. ^ List of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita
  44. ^ List of countries by foreign exchange reserves
  45. ^ List of countries by income equality
  46. ^ Ease of Doing Business Index
  47. ^ Global Enabling Trade Report
  48. ^ Global Competitiveness Report
  49. ^ Human Development Index
  50. ^ a b Quality-of-life index
  51. ^ List of countries and dependencies by population density
  52. ^ List of countries by immigrant population
  53. ^ List of countries by carbon dioxide emissions per capita
  54. ^ List of countries by number of troops
  55. ^ List of countries and territories by fertility rate

External links[edit]