Ethnography of Argentina
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The Ethnography of Argentina makes this country, along with other areas of relatively modern settlement like Canada, Australia or the United States, what in the country is called crisol de razas (race crucible), or, a melting pot of different peoples.
Upon the independence of Argentina, the newborn country had a large territory but was low populated, and like the other Latin American countries, the ethnic composition was largely the same from the colonial-era that lasted from 16th to early 19th centuries. Then, in the mid-19th century, a large wave of immigration started to arrive to the country due to newly established Constitutional policies that encouraged immigration, and due to issues on the Old World such as wars, poverty, hunger, social unrest and pursuit for opportunities or a better life in the New World. This immigration was mostly from Europe but also from the Arab world, Russia and Japan.
Thus, most Argentines are descendants of the 19th and 20th century immigrants, with about 97% of the population being of European, or of partial European descent. Arab descent is also significant, and the Jewish population is the biggest in all Latin America (7th in the world). Mestizo population in Argentina, unlike in other Latin American countries, is very low. So is the Black population after being decimated by diseases and wars in the 19th century, though since the 1990s a new wave of Black immigration is arriving. Native Argentines on the other hand have significant populations in the country's North-West (Quechua, Diaguita, Kolla, Aymara); in the North-East (Guaraní, Mocoví, Toba, Wichí); and in the Patagonia or South (Mapuche, Tehuelche). Asian peoples have increasing minorities in some Buenos Aires neighborhoods and are expanding to other large Argentine cities. Finally, through centuries people from neighboring countries like Bolivia, Paraguay and Peru immigrated to Argentina, establishing important communities.
Ethnic groups 
The arrival of the European immigrants 
The number and composition of the population was stable until 1853, when the national government, after passing a constitution, started a campaign to attract European immigration to populate the country. This state policy lasted several decades. At first the number of immigrants was scarce, but in the 1870s, due to the economic crisis in Europe, it started to increase, reaching an extremely high rate between 1890 and 1930. Unofficial records show that, during the 1860s, 160,000 immigrants arrived in Argentina, while in the 1880s the net number increased to 841,000, almost doubling the population of the country in that decade. Between 1857 and 1950, 6,611,000 European immigrants arrived in Argentina.
Immigrants arrived through the port of Buenos Aires and stayed in the capital or within Buenos Aires Province, as it still happens today. In 1895, immigrants accounted for 52% of the population in the Capital, and 31% in the province of Buenos Aires (some provinces of the littoral, such as Santa Fe, had about 40%, and the Patagonian provinces about 50%).
Waves of immigrants from European countries arrived in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Over 30 percent of the country's population born overseas by 1914, and half of the population in Buenos Aires and Rosario was foreign-born. Over 80% of the Argentine population, per the 1914 Census, were immigrants, their children, or grandchildren.
Italian immigration to Argentina began in the 19th century, just after Argentina won its independence from Spain. Argentine culture has significant connections to Italian culture, also in terms of language, customs and traditions.
Italians became firmly established throughout Argentina, but the greatest concentrations are in the City of Buenos Aires, in Buenos Aires Province, Santa Fe Province, Entre Rios Province, Córdoba Province, Tucumán Province, La Pampa Province and, in the nearby country of Uruguay.
There are many reasons explaining the Italian immigration to Argentina: Italy was enduring economic problems caused mainly by the unification of the Italian states into one nation. The country was impoverished, unemployment was rampant, certain areas witnessed overpopulation, and Italy was subject to significant political turmoil. Italians saw in Argentina a chance to build for themselves a brand new life. The Italian population in Argentina is the second largest in the world, by numbers, outside of Italy, some 25 million people. Italians form a majority of the population of Argentina and neighbouring Uruguay as up to two-third have some Italian background; among the Latin American countries, only Brazil has more people of Italian descent (28 million, approximately 15 percent of Brazil's total population).
Between 1857 and 1940 more than 2 million Spanish people emigrated to Argentina, mostly from Galicia, Basque Country, Asturias, Cantabriain northern Spain, Catalonia in south-east Spain, and also from Andalusia in southern Spain.
Scandinavians arrived in Argentina around 1909, the first ones settled in the northeastern area and founded a city called Villa Svea (now called Oberá) and was composed of Swedes, Norwegians and Finns. Russians Germans, English and Danish joined them before and after World War I and spread throughout the country.
Volga Germans 
Volga Germans (ethnic Germans of Russian origin) arrived in Argentina around 1878. In the United States they settled in North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Iowa, Kansas and Arkansas. Argentina has more than 2,000,000 Volga German descendants. Most of them speak German as second language and keep many traditions to this day.
Austrians settled throughout the country in the late 19th century.
Around 100,000 British immigrants arrived between 1857 and 1940. The British community founded solid institutions like the British Hospital in Buenos Aires, the Herald newspaper, prestigious bilingual schools and clubs as the Lawn Tennis Club, Hurlingham Club, etc. British immigrants had a strong impact on the taste of Argentine sports through the development of football, polo, hockey, rugby, among others.
Bulgarian immigration in Argentina began intensively in the 1920s and had a second boom period between 1937 and 1938. They came mostly farmers in the northern regions of Bulgaria. Most of them settled in the province of Chaco.
The Czechs were also part of the great immigration of the early 20th century. Most of the descendants of Czechs live in the provinces of Chaco and Mendoza, in the country.
They emigrated to Argentina in the 19th century, between 1830 and 1875. They extended throughout the country especially in the provinces of Santa Fe, Entre Rios and Cordoba.
Arrived mostly after the First World War, between 1925 and 1930. They settled mainly in Buenos Aires, Berisso and Rosario.
The first organized immigration from the Netherlands occurred in 1889, when immigrants came from the area of Friesland. A second immigration took place around 1924. Most of them settled in Mar del Plata, Bahía Blanca, Comodoro Rivadavia, and Chubut.
Organized Polish immigration began in 1897 and had a decisive influence in the Argentine population. Between the two world wars (1918–1939) large numbers of Poles emigrated, they settled in Llavallol, San Justo, Valentín Alsina, San Martin, Quilmes, and so on. Between 1946 and 1950 around one hundred thousand Poles settled in the country.
Germans are one of the largest ethnic groups of Argentina and they had one of the biggest impacts in the Argentine culture. The influence of German culture has also impacted Argentinian cuisine; this trend is especially apparent in the field of desserts. The pastries known as facturas are Germanic in origin: croissants, known as medialunas ("half-moons", from German "Halbmond"), are the most popular of these, and can be found in two varieties: butter- and lard-based. Also German in origin are the "Berliner" known as bolas de Fraile ("friar's balls"), and the rolls called piononos. The facturas were re-christened with local names given the difficult phonology of German, and usually Argentinized by the addition of a dulce de leche filling. That was also the case of the "Kreppel", which are called torta fritas in Argentina, and were introduced by German immigrants, and similar case with the "Achtzig Schlag" cake, which was translated as Torta Ochenta Golpes in the country. In addition, dishes like chucrut (sauerkraut) and many different kinds of sausage like bratwurst and others have also made it into mainstream Argentinian cuisine. German immigration to Argentina occurred during 5 main time periods: pre–1870, 1870–1914, 1918–1933, 1933–1940 and post–1945. During the first period till 1870. Argentina and Germany had close ties to each other since the immigration of Germans to Argentina to this day. A flourishing trade developed between Germany and Argentina as early as the German Unification, Germany had a privileged position in the Argentine economy. Later on, Argentina maintained a strong economic relationship with both Germany and Great Britain and supported them with supplies during World War I. There are around 50,000 German citizens living in Buenos Aires. Argentina, United States, Canada and Brasil have the biggest number of German descendants in the world. They arrived in the 19th century and before and after WWII. Their arrival continues over an extended period, from mid to end of the 19th century until 1960 of the 20th century. Germans, Swiss, Belgian, Luxembourg and French people founded the Colony of Esperanza, Establishing the first agricultural colony and kept founding others.
There are a significant amount of Russians in Argentina. Most reside in the city of Buenos Aires and northeastern areas. The majority of Russian immigrants arrived between 1880 and 1921. A small wave arrived in the country in early 1990.
Ukrainian regular immigration to Argentina began in the 19th century. The first Ukrainian settlement in the country was in 1897. Subsequently, groups of immigrants settled in the City of Buenos Aires, Misiones, Chaco, Corrientes, Formosa, Mendoza, Río Negro, Entre Ríos and so on.
The Welsh settlement in Argentina – known in Welsh as "Y Wladfa" – began in 1865 and occurred mainly along the coast of Chubut Province in the far southern region of Patagonia. In the 19th and early 20th century the Argentine government encouraged the immigration of Europeans to populate the country outside the Buenos Aires region; between 1856 and 1875 no fewer than 34 settlements of immigrants of various nationalities were established between Santa Fe and Entre Ríos. In addition to the main colony in Chubut, a smaller colony was set up in Santa Fe by 44 Welsh people who left Chubut, and another group settled at Coronel Suárez in southern Buenos Aires Province. In the early 21st century, around 50,000 Patagonians are of Welsh descent. The Welsh-Argentine community is centred around Gaiman, Trelew and Trevelin. From Chubut's own estimate, the number of Welsh speakers is about 25.000.
There are 1,300,000–3,500,000 Argentines whose ancestry traces back to any of various waves of immigrants, largely of Arab cultural and linguistic heritage and/or identity. Arabs are usually considered part of the White population in Argentina. Most Arab Argentines are from either Lebanese or Syrian background, being originating mainly from what is now Lebanon and Syria, but also there are some individuals from the twenty-two countries which comprise the Arab world. The first Arabs settled in Argentina in the 19th century, and most of the Arabs who came during this time period were Sirio-Lebanese Arabs (During that time, Syria and Lebanon were one territory). From 1891 to 1920, 367,348 people of Arabic heritage immigrated into Argentina. When they were first processed in the ports of Argentina, they were classified as Turks because what is modern day Lebanon and Syria was a territory of the Turkish Ottoman Empire. Among Arab Argentines, 784,000 are Muslims. The interethnic marriage in the Arab Argentine community, regardless of religious affiliation, is very high; most community members have only one parent who has Arab ethnicity. As a result of this, the Arab community in Argentina shows marked language shift away from Arabic. Only a few speak any Arabic, and such knowledge is often limited to a few basic words. Instead the majority, especially those of younger generations, speak Spanish as a first language.
Ethnic Minorities 
Around 8–15% of the population is of mestizo origins. This segment of the population, who live mainly in the northern provinces, and in some districts within the Greater Buenos Aires area, experience varying degrees of perceived racism against people of indigenous heritage. According to the University of Buenos Aires (UBA), 56% of Argentinians have at least one indigenous ancestor. The actual porcentage of "mestizos" (mixed race people of Amerind and Caucasoid ancestry) is in fact very difficult to measure. Of the current population, around 44% has European ancestry, but the rest (the majority) has partial or full indigenous lineage. Famous argentinians of mixed ancestry:
Diego Armando Maradona (football player. Mixed Amerindian-Italian) Mariana de Melo (glamour model. Mixed Amerindian-Spanish) Luciano Pereyra (singer. Mixed Amerindian-Spanish) Maria Gabriela Epumer (musician. Mixed Mapuche Amerindian-Italian) Jose de San Martín (Argentina's national hero. Mixed Amerindian-Spanish) Carlos Monzon (boxer. Mixed Amerindian-Spanish)
There are Amerindian groups like the Tobas, Aymaras, Guaraníes and Mapuches among others that still maintain their cultural roots, but under continuous pressure for religious and idiomatic integration.
The local natives that speak Quechua adopted that language by the teachings of the Spanish religious missionaries that came from Peru to today's Santiago del Estero Province; the language is quickly losing importance. Today there are about 400,000 indigenous people, representing 1% of the Argentine population; 3% of the Argentine population is estimated to be of predominantly Amerindian ancestry.
The overwhelming majority of Argentina's Jewish community (about 2% of the population) derives from immigrants of Northern, Central, and Eastern European origin (Ashkenazi Jews). Argentina's Jewish population is, by far, the largest in all of Latin America and is the fifth largest in the world. Buenos Aires itself is said to have over 100,000 practicing Jews, making it one of the largest Jewish urban centers in the world (see also History of the Jews in Argentina).
The black population in Argentina declined since the early 19th century from 15% of the total population in 1857 (Blacks and Mulatto people), to 1% in present days (mainly mulattoes, and immigrants from Cape Verde).
Afro Argentines were up to a third of the population during colonial times, most of them slaves brought from Africa to work for the criollos. The 1813 Assembly abolished slavery, and led to the Freedom of Wombs Law of 1813, which automatically freed slaves' children at birth. During the wars of independence (1810–21) and the War of the Triple Alliance (1865–70), the male cohort within this ethnic group was reduced when thousands of black citizens were forcefully recruited and used as front-line soldiers.
The first Asian-Argentines were of Japanese descent, arriving in the 1900s and for most of the 20th Century were the only Asians in Argentina. Japanese immigrants were primarily from the island of Okinawa; the majority of dry cleaning establishments in Buenos Aires were, by the mid 20th century, Japanese businesses. During the 1970s the main Asian influx was from China, and during the 1990s from South Korea and Laos. Unlike most immigrants who arrived earlier in the century, they tended to remain in close social circles and not mix with other local ethnicities. This excluded the Japanese who were the first to arrive and therefore the first to produce a native generation of mixed race Japanese-Argentines, thus integrating more so than the other Asian groups.
The Japanese-Argentine population assimilated well into Argentine society, and nearly 78% of the 4th Generation of Japanese-Argentines (Yonsei) are of mixed European and Japanese descent, mostly intermixed with immigrants from Italy and Spain, and in lesser number from the United Kingdom, France (mainly Occitania), Germany and Switzerland. The use of Japanese language has declined in Argentina and the Japanese-Argentine citizens speak the nation's national language, Spanish, although a minority of them only speak Japanese when living with a Japanese-born relative at home, but when they are living with Argentine-born relatives they only speak Spanish.
Intermarriage in the Japanese-Argentine community. Proportion of mixed-race in each generation (%):
- Issei (immigrants): 0%
- Nissei (Children): 9%
- Sansei (Grandchildren): 66%
- Yonsei (Great-grandchildren): 78%
Immigration from neighbouring countries 
Among the most numerous immigrants from neighbouring countries are Paraguayans (the biggest foreign community), Bolivians, Peruvians, and in lesser number Ecuadorians and Brazilians. There have been reports of discrimination to these groups, as well as exploitation; Buenos Aires Police have released Bolivian citizens held in semi-slavery working in textile factories, some run by South Korean immigrants.
Uruguayans represent a special case; many have crossed the Río de la Plata to live in Argentina, mainly in Buenos Aires, searching for opportunities in the bigger country. Given their cultural resemblances with the porteños, they are rarely discriminated against.
See also 
- Demographics of Argentina
- Immigration to Argentina
- Argentinian people
- Native languages of Argentina
- History of the Jews in Argentina
- "Argentina (People)". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2008-08-08.
- Dinámica migratoria: coyuntura y estructura en la Argentina de fines del XX
- Población total por sexo y origen según grupo de edad. Ciudad de Buenos Aires. Censo Nacional 1914
- Rock, David. Argentina: 1516–1982. University of California Press, 1987.
- O.N.I.-Department of Education of Argentina
- Italianos en Argentina
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- Encycolpedia Britannica. Book of the Year (various issues). Britannica World Data: Argentina.