Ethyl Corporation is a fuel additive company headquartered in Richmond, Virginia in the United States. The company is a manufacturer, blender and distributor of fuel additives. Among other products, Ethyl Corporation distributes tetraethyllead, a gasoline antiknock additive, via a marketing/sales agreement with Octel Corporation (now known as Innospec).
Founded in 1923, Ethyl Corp was formed by General Motors and Standard Oil of New Jersey (Esso). General Motors had the "use patent" for tetraethyllead (TEL) as an antiknock, based on the work of Thomas Midgley, Jr., Charles Kettering, and later Charles Allen Thomas,:340-41 and Esso had the patent for the manufacture of TEL. Since the patents affected the marketing of TEL, General Motors and ESSO formed Ethyl Corp; each parent company had a 50% stake in the new corporation. Since neither company had chemical plant experience, they hired Dupont to operate the manufacturing facilities. After patents ran out, Dupont started manufacture of TEL on their own, and Ethyl started running its own operations.
In 1962, Albemarle Paper Manufacturing Company, in Richmond, borrowed $200 million and purchased Ethyl Corporation (Delaware), a corporation 13 times its size. Albemarle then changed its name to Ethyl Corporation. It is believed that General Motors thought to divest itself of "Ethyl Corporation," owing to concern about liabilities of TEL. The 1962 transaction was the largest leveraged buyout until that time.
During the 1970s and 1980s, the Ethyl Corporation expanded and diversified in response to the gradual decline of the market for TEL, as the automotive industry shifted to unleaded gasoline. In the late 1980s, Ethyl began to spin off a number of divisions. The aluminum, plastics, and energy units became Tredegar Corporation in 1989. In 1993, it spun off its life insurance company, First Colony Life, and then in 1994, the specialty chemicals business was spun off as an independent, publicly traded company named Albemarle Corporation.
In 2004, Ethyl Corporation changed its name to NewMarket Corporation (NYSE: NEU), the parent company of Afton Chemical Corporation, manufacturer of lubricant and fuel additives, and Ethyl Corporation, a manufacturer and distributor of certain fuel additives, including tetraethyllead, which is no longer allowed in fuel for on-highway vehicles, but is still used in aviation gasoline and some racing gasolines, for which there is no alternative to TEL.
Tetraethyllead has been recognized as a contributor to soil, air and water lead pollution, and is toxic to humans. Lead pollution has increased by over 625 times previous levels in the past century due partly to pollution by leaded fuel. Ethyl Corporation historically denied that tetraethyllead poses significant public health risks in excess of those associated with gasoline itself.
However, in the use of Leaded Fuel, engines became more efficient with increased compression ratios. This increased efficiency allowed the use of engines of smaller displacement, which would have otherwise consumed more fuel. The use of tetraethyllead, while toxic, prevented the emissions of many millions of tons of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere which would have resulted from inefficient engines with lower compression ratios and larger displacement.
Tetraethyllead was supplied for blending with raw gasoline in the form of "Ethyl Fluid", which blended tetraethyllead with the lead scavengers 1,2-dibromoethane and 1,2-dichloroethane. Ethyl fluid contained a dye which would distinguish treated gasoline from untreated gasoline and discourage the diversion of gasoline for other purposes, such as cleaning.
- Albemarle Corporation
- New Market Corporation miplastics 20:37, 18 September 2008 (UTC)
- Controversy over Ethyl leaded gasoline
- When Smoke Ran Like Water: Tales of Environmental Deception and the Battle Against Pollution. by Devra Lee Davis