Eucalyptus deanei

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Mountain Blue Gum
Eucalyptusdeanei-Blue Mountains National Park.jpg
giant Eucalyptus deanei, near Woodford in Blue Mountains National Park, Australia
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Myrtales
Family: Myrtaceae
Genus: Eucalyptus
Species: E. deanei
Binomial name
Eucalyptus deanei
Maiden
Synonyms

Eucalyptus saligna var. parviflora H.Deane & Maiden

Eucalyptus deanei, the round-leaved- or mountain blue gum is a eucalyptus tree of mountain country of central New South Wales.[1] Eucalyptus deanei is a large to very large tree, usually 45 to 65 metres tall or even taller.

They are most famously seen at the Blue Gum Forest, in Blue Mountains National Park, and by drivers on the Mooney Mooney Bridge on the main road north from Sydney.

Taxonomy[edit]

Also known by various names including Deane's gum, brown gum, mountain blue gum and round-leaved blue gum, Eucalyptus deanei was first described by Joseph Maiden and still bears its original name.[2] It had been described earlier as Eucalyptus saligna var. parviflora by Deane and Maiden in 1899.[3] The species name is derived from Australian engineer Henry Deane. who first collected the species in 1888.[4] It has been classified in the subgenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Latoangulatae, Series Transversae (eastern blue gums) by Brooker and Kleinig. Its two closest relatives are the flooded gum (Eucalyptus grandis) and the Sydney blue gum (E. saligna).[5] Its common name is derived from its roundish juvenile leaves, which also distinguish it from its closest relatives.[4]

Lawrie Johnson and Ken Hill reclassified the New England population as a separate species, Eucalyptus brunnea, but the consensus is that the differences are insufficient to warrant separate status.[4]

Description[edit]

Eucalyptus deanei generally grows as a straight and tall forest tree, growing to heights of 45 to 65 (or rarely 75) m (150–250 ft) tall with a dbh of up to 2 m (7 ft). In less optimal sites, it may be restricted to 20 or 30 m (60–100 ft) and have a thicker trunk and more branching crown.[4] The trunk has smooth pale grey or cream bark with a 'skirt' of rougher greyish or brownish bark at the base. The dull dark green lanceolate leaves are arranged alternately along the stems and are 8–13 cm (3.2–5.5 in) long by 2–3.5 cm (0.8–1.4 in) wide. The upper leaf surface is darker than underneath.[6] The white flowers appear in March and April,[7] and are arranged in groups of seven to eleven in umbellasters.[6]

The broad and rounded juvenile leaves are 6–15 cm (2.2–6 in) long by 4.5–8.5 cm (0.9–3.4 in) wide. They can appear in mature foliage and canopy and give the tree crown a distinctive appearance.[4]

Distribution and habitat[edit]

Eucalyptus deanei is found in two disjunct populations, the southern range is from Thirlmere to Broke,[6] near Singleton, while the northern range is from Armidale on the Northern Tablelands through to the D'aguilar Range west of Brisbane.[4] It is a dominant tree in tall forests in sheltered valleys where there is plenty of moisture, on clay or loam soils, and alluvial sands, although also grows on more elevated areas.[4] They are most famously seen at the Blue Gum Forest, in the Grose Valley of the Blue Mountains National Park.[8]

Associated trees include Sydney blue gum (E. saligna), grey gum (E. punctata), messmate (E. obliqua), manna gum (E. viminalis), river peppermint (E. elata), silvertop stringybark (E. laevopinea), New England blackbutt (E. andrewsii), rough-barked apple (Angophora floribunda), turpentine (Syncarpia glomulifera) and forest oak (Allocasuarina torulosa)..[7][4]

Notable specimens[edit]

base of 71 metre specimen at Woodford

Located near Woodford in the Blue Mountains, the largest known was measured in 1978 at 78 metres tall, and remeasured in 2010 at 71 metres tall with a diameter at breast height of 2.5 metres.[9][10] Another large tree measures 65 m high with a 6 m diameter trunk in the Blue Gum Forest in the Grose Valley near Blackheath. Over 600 years old, it is a local landmark for bushwalkers.[8]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Brooker, I. & Kleinig, D., Eucalyptus, An illustrated guide to identification, Reed Books, Melbourne, 1996
  2. ^ "Eucalyptus deanei Maiden". Australian Plant Name Index (APNI), IBIS database. Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research, Australian Government. 
  3. ^ "Eucalyptus saligna var. parviflora H.Deane & Maiden". Australian Plant Name Index (APNI), IBIS database. Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research, Australian Government. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h Boland, Douglas J.; Brooker, M. I. H.; Chippendale, G. M.; McDonald, Maurice William (2006). Forest trees of Australia. Collingwood, Victoria: CSIRO Publishing. p. 84. ISBN 0-643-06969-0. Retrieved 3 March 2012. 
  5. ^ Brooker, M.I.H.; Kleinig, D. A. (1999). Field Guide to Eucalypts. 1: South-eastern Australia. Melbourne: Bloomings Books. pp. 69–72. ISBN 1-876473-03-7. 
  6. ^ a b c New South Wales Flora Online: Eucalyptus deanei by Hill, Ken, Royal Botanic Gardens & Domain Trust, Sydney, Australia. Retrieved 3 March 2012
  7. ^ a b Benson, Doug; McDougall, Lyn (1998). "Ecology of Sydney plant species:Part 6 Dicotyledon family Myrtaceae". Cunninghamia 5 (4): 926.  Retrieved 3 March 2012.
  8. ^ a b Allen, Richard; Baker, Kimbal (2009). Australia's Remarkable Trees. Carlton, Victoria: The Miegunyah Press. pp. 250–253. ISBN 978-0-522-85669-9. 
  9. ^ Dr. Dean Nicolle measured the tree on December 17th, 2010
  10. ^ Woodard, Peter (2012). "Blue Gum - Mountain: Tree Details". National Register of Big Trees: Australia's Champion Trees. National Register of Big Trees. Retrieved 2 March 2012.