|This article needs additional citations for verification. (August 2011)|
The MacMonnies Fountain in downtown Eufaula.
Location in Barbour County, Alabama
|• Mayor||Jack Tibbs|
|• Total||73.5 sq mi (190.3 km2)|
|• Land||59.4 sq mi (153.9 km2)|
|• Water||14.1 sq mi (36.4 km2)|
|Elevation||262 ft (80 m)|
|• Density||189.2/sq mi (73.1/km2)|
|Time zone||Central (CST) (UTC-6)|
|• Summer (DST)||CDT (UTC-5)|
|ZIP code||36027, 36072|
|GNIS feature ID||0118051|
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (April 2013)|
Beginning no later than 1733, the site along the Chattahoochee River that is now modern-day Eufaula was occupied by three Creek tribes of the Muscogee Nation. The most dominant of the three, and most open to contact with whites, was named the Eufaulas (pronounced "you-fall-uhs.") In 1823, European-American families from Georgia, looking for fertile crop land, established a permanent settlement on the high bluffs of the area and adopted the Creek village's name.
William Irwin was granted several thousand acres of land in nearby Henry County. One of the most prosperous men in the area, he was elected as its first State Senator. He promoted the area's development and established the first steamboat wharf along Eufaula's high bluffs. This enabled the town's development as a center of trade. In his honor the town was first named "Irwinton".
Attracted by the area's rich soil, and further encouraged by the opening of the Federal Road, white settlers swarmed the area. Due to the Treaty of Cusseta in 1832, the Creeks were forced to abandon their land rights in the area and the state incorporated Barbour County. The Creek were consolidated with other bands of the Muscogee Nation in upper Florida after defeat in the Creek Wars, thus leaving their native homeland forever. Others were removed to Indian Territory west of the Mississippi River.
In 1834, U.S. Army Captain Seth Lore and others developed what is now the downtown area, naming the four main north-south avenues "Livingston," "Orange," "Randolph," and "Eufaula" (L-O-R-E.) The Seth Lore and Irwinton Historic District of Eufaula has been defined as encompassing much of the oldest part of the city. In late 1843, the town was renamed "Eufaula," to end confusion of postal mail being delivered to Irwinton, Georgia.
The town became a major shipping and trading point for surrounding counties in Georgia and Alabama. Its many antebellum homes and businesses attest to the wealth and culture of the period. Eufaula became politically powerful, and the "Eufaula Regency," as early as the late 1840s, supported secession of Alabama from the United States. After the start of the American Civil War six companies of infantrymen and cavalrymen (an impressive number considering the population of the area at the time) came from Eufaula and its encompassing county, Barbour County. These men fought for the Confederate States of America in battles as far away as Virginia. They also developed a reputation as fierce fighters, using tactics learned through many decades of conflicts with the Creeks. John Gill Shorter, who returned to Eufaula after being wounded early in the war, served as Governor of Alabama during the Civil War.
Following the defeat and fall of Montgomery, the state capital, to Union troops, Eufaula did not engage in further combat. On April 29, 1865, a messenger galloped in with news that General Benjamin H. Grierson, Commanding General of over 4,000 Union cavalrymen, was approaching from Clayton, Alabama, to the west. Under a flag of truce, Eufaula's mayor, Doctor C. J. Pope, and other prominent citizens met General Grierson beyond College Hill with news that General Robert E. Lee had already surrendered to General Ulysses S. Grant at the Appomattox Courthouse and that the Civil War was over. The Union troops marched peacefully across the river to camp in Georgetown, Georgia as Doctor Pope rushed back with barely enough time to disband the local militias to avoid conflict. Dr. and Mrs. Pope entertained the general and his staff at dinner. Thanks to the efforts of Dr. Pope, Eufaula remained intact, its citizens unharmed.
After the Civil War, the town's fortunes suffered from the restrictive Reconstruction Act and the loss of plantation-produced cotton. In 1874, members of the White League disrupted elections in order to disenfranchise Republican voters in the area.
By the early 1900s, Eufaula was booming again with cotton mills and railways. In 1963, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers created Lake Walter F. George (unofficially named Lake Eufaula) behind the lock and dam of Fort Gaines, Georgia, once again assuring Eufaula's importance as an inland port.
In the early 1960s, the United States Coast Guard set up an Aids to Navigation Team in Eufaula that is still active today servicing from Columbus, GA to Apalachicola, FL and the Flint River.
In 1964, the Eufaula National Wildlife Refuge was established along Lake Walter F. George to serve and protect many endangered and threatened species such as the American Bald Eagle, the American Alligator, the wood stork and the peregrine falcon. The refuge is a major tourist attraction for visitors from around the country.
Eufaula is located at 31°53'21.732" North, 85°9'13.586" West (31.889370, -85.153774).
According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 73.5 square miles (190 km2), of which, 59.4 square miles (154 km2) of it is land and 14.1 square miles (37 km2) of it (19.13%) is water. It sits on a reservoir called Walter F. George Lake, or just Lake Eufaula to locals.
As of the census of 2000, there were 13,908 people, 5,447 households, and 3,878 families residing in the city. However, a Challenge to the July 1, 2007 Census Estimate resulted in a revised estimate of 14,478. This was an increase from the original estimate of 13,115. The population density was 234.1 people per square mile (90.4/km2). There were 6,110 housing units at an average density of 102.8 per square mile (39.7/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 57.28% White, 40.42% Black or African American, 0.29% Native American, 0.47% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.86% from other races, and 0.65% from two or more races. 1.53% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 5,447 households out of which 35.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.4% were married couples living together, 20.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 28.8% were non-families. 26.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.51 and the average family size was 3.02.
In the city, the population's age was spread out with 28.6% under the age of 18, 7.8% from 18 to 24, 27.1% from 25 to 44, 22.6% from 45 to 64, and 13.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 86.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 79.0 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $27,910, and the median income for a family was $37,640. Males had a median income of $30,617 versus $20,477 for females. The per capita income for the city was $16,146. About 19.3% of families and 23.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 34.2% of those under age 18 and 27.2% of those age 65 or over.
Eufaula is served by Eufaula City Schools,which operates two elementary schools, one middle school, one high school. It also served by a private accredited school, Lakeside School; as well as a smaller unaccredited school, Parkview Christian School.
Culture and recreation
Many of Eufaula's historic buildings are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Other historic buildings include the Eufaula First United Methodist Church and the First Baptist Church of Eufaula. The Seth Lore and Irwinton Historic District, with 667 contributing properties, is the second-largest historic district in Alabama.
The Shorter Mansion was built in 1884 by Eli Shorter and is recognized by the National Trust for Historic Preservation. It serves as a museum honoring the six Alabama governors from Barbour County, as well as Admiral Thomas Moorer, a former Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
In popular culture
Eufaula was featured in the movie Sweet Home Alabama.
- Lula Mae Hardaway (born January 11, 1930), mother of entertainer Stevie Wonder.
- William Henry Harrison Hart, African American attorney.
- Bertha "B" Holt (born August 16, 1916), representative in the North Carolina General Assembly.
- Jerrel Jernigan, professional football player
- Admiral Thomas Hinman Moorer (born February 9, 1912), Chief of Naval Operations and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
- Martha Reeves (born July 18, 1941), Motown singer.
- Walter Reeves (born December 15, 1965), professional football player
- Les Snead, General Manager of the St. Louis Rams.
- Courtney Upshaw, professional football player
- George Wallace, Jr. (born October 17, 1951), former Alabama Public Service Commissioner and State Treasurer
- Dave Watson, former professional football offensive lineman
Reeves Peanut Company, the Renaissance Revival-style warehouse was built by the Eufaula Grocery Company in 1903.
Eufaula post office (ZIP Code: 36027)
The Walter F. George lock and dam which creates Lake Eufaula.
The Bray-Barron House was added to the National Register of Historic Places on May 27, 1971.
The Lewis Llewellyn Cato House was added to the National Register of Historic Places on May 27, 1971.
Built in 1837, Sheppard Cottage is the oldest known residence in Eufaula. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places on May 27, 1971.
The McNab Bank Building was added to the National Register of Historic Places on June 24, 1971.
The Wellborn-Thomas House was added to the National Register of Historic Places on July 14, 1971.
Kendall Manor was added to the National Register of Historic Places on January 14, 1972.
The Drewry-Mitchell-Moorer House was added to the National Register of Historic Places on April 13, 1972.
The Kiels-McNab House was added to the National Register of Historic Places on January 21, 1982.
The Eufaula Carnegie Library, built in 1904.
The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and generally mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Eufaula has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps.
- "2010 Census Redistricting Data (Public Law 94-171) Summary File". American FactFinder. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 4 May 2012.
- "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- "Eufaula's Census challenge accepted: Population estimate now tops 14,000". Eufaula Tribune. Retrieved 2011-11-06.
- "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 2009-03-13.
- "Visitor Information - Attractions". City of Eufaula, Alabama. Retrieved 2008-06-20.
- "The Shorter Mansion". Eufaula Heritage Association.
- "Fendall Hall". Alabama Historic Commission. Retrieved June 18, 2011.
- "Fish and Fishing in Lake Eufaula". Outdoor Alabama.
- Climate Summary for Eufaula, Alabama
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Eufaula, Alabama.|
- City Webpage
- Eufaula Police Webpage
- Eufaula Pilgrimage
- Eufaula City Schools
- Eufaula Tribune
- Cato-Thorne House