|This article does not cite any references or sources. (December 2009)|
Diederichs started his publishing company in Florence, Italy, in 1896. He moved on to Leipzig, where he published the early works of Herman Hesse, and from there to Jena in 1904. He started publishing the magazine Die Tat in 1912. He married the writer Lulu von Strauß und Torney in 1916. He died in Jena in 1930.
Since 1988 Diederichs has become an imprint of the Hugendubel publishing house.