Jambul (Syzygium cumini) is an evergreen tropical tree in the flowering plant family Myrtaceae. Jambul is native to Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, the Philippines, and Indonesia. The name of the fruit is sometimes mistranslated as blackberry, which is a different fruit in an unrelated family.
The tree was introduced to Florida, USA in 1911 by the USDA, and is also now commonly grown in Suriname and Trinidad and Tobago. In Brazil, where it was introduced from India during Portuguese colonization, it has dispersed spontaneously in the wild in some places, as its fruits are eagerly sought by various native birds such as thrushes, tanagers and the Great Kiskadee. This species is considered an invasive in Hawaii, USA. It is also illegal to grow, plant or transplant in Sanibel, Florida.
Other names 
Jambul is also known as Jambhul/jambu/jambula/jamboola, Java plum, jamun, jaam/kalojaam, jamblang, jambolan, black plum, Damson plum, Duhat plum, Jambolan plum or Portuguese plum. Malabar plum may also refer to other species of Syzygium. This fruit is called Neredu Pandu in Telugu, Naaval Pazham in Tamil, Navva Pazham in Malayalam, Nerale Hannu in Kannada, Jam in Bengali, Jamukoli in Oriya and Jambu in Gujarat. Jambul is known as Duhat in the Tagalog-speaking regions of the Philippines, Lomboy in the Cebuano-speaking areas and Inobog in Maguindanao. It is called Dhanvah in Maldives and Dhuwet/Juwet in Javanese. Among its names in Portuguese are jamelão, jambolão, jalão, joão-bolão, manjelão, azeitona-preta, baga-de-freira, brinco-de-viúva and guapê, always with lower case, the early four derived from the Konkani name jambulan. They are called rotra in the Malagasy language (Madagascar).
A fairly fast growing species, it can reach heights of up to 30 m and can live more than 100 years. Its dense foliage provides shade and is grown just for its ornamental value. At the base of the tree, the bark is rough and dark grey, becoming lighter grey and smoother higher up. The wood is strong and is water resistant. Because of this it is used in railway sleepers and to install motors in wells. It is sometimes used to make cheap furniture and village dwellings though it is relatively hard to work on.
The leaves which are an aroma similar to turpentine, are pinkish when young, changing to a leathery, glossy dark green with a yellow midrib as they mature. The leaves are used as food for livestock, as they have good nutritional value.
Jambul trees start flowering from March to April. The flowers of jambul are fragrant and small, about 5 mm in diameter. The fruits develop by May or June and resemble large berries. The fruit is oblong, ovoid, starts green and turns pink to shining crimson black as it matures. A variant of the tree produces white coloured fruit. The fruit has a combination of sweet, mildly sour and astringent flavour and tends to colour the tongue purple.
Jambul has been spread overseas from India by Indian emigrants and at present is common in former tropical British colonies.
Nutrients and phytochemicals 
Nutritional information for both jambul leaves and fruit are detailed here.
Cultural and religious significance 
According to Hindu tradition, Rama subsisted on the fruit in the forest for 14 years during his exile from Ayodhya. Because of this, many Hindus regard jambul as a 'fruit of the gods,' especially in Gujarat, India, where it is known locally as jamboon.
In Maharashtra culture 
In Maharashtra, jambul (locally known as jāmbhūḷ Marathi :जांभूळ) leaves are used in marriage pandal decorations. There is famous Marathi song "Jambhul pikalya zada khali...". The seeds are used in tisanes for diabetics. It is proved to bring the sugar level down
In Telugu culture 
This tree is called Neredu(నేరేడు) in Telugu. Besides the fruits, wood from Neredu tree is used in Andhra Pradesh to make bullock cart wheels and other agricultural equipment. Culturally, beautiful eyes are compared to this fruit. In the great epic of India Mahabharatha Sri Krishnas'[Lord Vishnu] body color is compared to this fruit as well.
In Kannada the jambul tree is called Nerale mara and its fruit are Nerale Hannu nerale hannu is widely used by diabetes patients as they thought it cures the same. the bears like this fruit. this tree is found liberally every where in village areas of karnataka.
See also 
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-  Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER), retrieved November 3rd, 2010
-  Go fertilizer free, retrieded September 21st, 2012
- FERREIRA, A. B. H. Novo Dicionário da Língua Portuguesa. Segunda edição. Rio de Janeiro: Nova Fronteira, 1986. 981
- Eugenia Jambolana: Madagascar, Suzanne Urverg Ratsimamanga. Malagasy Institute of Applied Research (IMRA) Antananarivo, Madagascar. http://tcdc2.undp.org/GSSDAcademy/SIE/Docs/Vol7/Eugenia_Jambolana_Madagascar.pdf
- The encyclopedia of fruit & nuts, By Jules Janick, Robert E. Paull, p. 552
-  Article in The Hindu, retrieved June 23, 2007
-  Tips for Health: Wofome
-  Syzygium Cumini, retrieved November 3rd, 2010
-  TopTropicals plant catalog, retrieved November 3rd, 2010
-  Antioxidant actions and phenolic and vitamin C contents of common Mauritian exotic fruits, by Amitabye Luximon-Ramma1, Theeshan Bahorun1,and Alan Crozier, retrieved November 3rd, 2010
- Syzygium cumini