- This article is about Euler's formula in complex analysis. For Euler's formula in algebraic topology and polyhedral combinatorics see Euler characteristic.
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Euler's formula, named after Leonhard Euler, is a mathematical formula in complex analysis that establishes the fundamental relationship between the trigonometric functions and the complex exponential function. Euler's formula states that, for any real number x,
where e is the base of the natural logarithm, i is the imaginary unit, and cos and sin are the trigonometric functions cosine and sine respectively, with the argument x given in radians. This complex exponential function is sometimes denoted cis(x) ("cosine plus i sine"). The formula is still valid if x is a complex number, and so some authors refer to the more general complex version as Euler's formula.
- 1 History
- 2 Applications in complex number theory
- 3 Relationship to trigonometry
- 4 Topological interpretation
- 5 Other applications
- 6 Definitions of complex exponentiation
- 7 Proofs
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 External links
the above equation tells us something about complex logarithms. Bernoulli, however, did not evaluate the integral.
Bernoulli's correspondence with Euler (who also knew the above equation) shows that Bernoulli did not fully understand complex logarithms. Euler also suggested that the complex logarithms can have infinitely many values.
Meanwhile, Roger Cotes, in 1714, discovered that
Cotes missed the fact that a complex logarithm can have infinitely many values, differing by multiples of 2π, due to the periodicity of the trigonometric functions.
Around 1740 Euler turned his attention to the exponential function instead of logarithms, and obtained the formula used today that is named after him. It was published in 1748, obtained by comparing the series expansions of the exponential and trigonometric expressions.
Applications in complex number theory
This formula can be interpreted as saying that the function eix traces out the unit circle in the complex number plane as x ranges through the real numbers. Here, x is the angle that a line connecting the origin with a point on the unit circle makes with the positive real axis, measured counter clockwise and in radians.
The original proof is based on the Taylor series expansions of the exponential function ez (where z is a complex number) and of sin x and cos x for real numbers x (see below). In fact, the same proof shows that Euler's formula is even valid for all complex numbers x.
A point in the complex plane can be represented by a complex number written in cartesian coordinates. Euler's formula provides a means of conversion between cartesian coordinates and polar coordinates. The polar form simplifies the mathematics when used in multiplication or powers of complex numbers. Any complex number , and its complex conjugate, , can be written as
is the argument of z—i.e., the angle between the x axis and the vector z measured counterclockwise and in radians—which is defined up to addition of 2π. Many texts write θ = tan−1(y/x) instead of θ = atan2(y,x), but the first equation needs adjustment when x ≤ 0. This is because, for any real x, y not both zero, the angles of the vectors (x,y) and (-x,-y) differ by π radians, but have the identical value of tan(θ) = y/x.
Now, taking this derived formula, we can use Euler's formula to define the logarithm of a complex number. To do this, we also use the definition of the logarithm (as the inverse operator of exponentiation) that
both valid for any complex numbers a and b.
Therefore, one can write:
for any z ≠ 0. Taking the logarithm of both sides shows that:
Finally, the other exponential law
Relationship to trigonometry
The two equations above can be derived by adding or subtracting Euler's formulas:
and solving for either cosine or sine.
These formulas can even serve as the definition of the trigonometric functions for complex arguments x. For example, letting y = ix, we have:
Complex exponentials can simplify trigonometry, because they are easier to manipulate than their sinusoidal components. One technique is simply to convert sinusoids into equivalent expressions in terms of exponentials. After the manipulations, the simplified result is still real-valued. For example:
Another technique is to represent the sinusoids in terms of the real part of a more complex expression, and perform the manipulations on the complex expression. For example:
This formula is used for recursive generation of cos(nx) for integer values of n and arbitrary x (in radians).
See also Phasor arithmetic.
In the language of topology, Euler's formula states that the imaginary exponential function is a (surjective) morphism of topological groups from the real line to the unit circle . In fact, this exhibits as a covering space of . Similarly, Euler's identity says that the kernel of this map is , where . These observations may be combined and summarized in the commutative diagram below:
In differential equations, the function eix is often used to simplify derivations, even if the final answer is a real function involving sine and cosine. The reason for this is that the complex exponential is the eigenfunction of differentiation. Euler's identity is an easy consequence of Euler's formula.
In electronic engineering and other fields, signals that vary periodically over time are often described as a combination of sine and cosine functions (see Fourier analysis), and these are more conveniently expressed as the real part of exponential functions with imaginary exponents, using Euler's formula. Also, phasor analysis of circuits can include Euler's formula to represent the impedance of a capacitor or an inductor.
Definitions of complex exponentiation
The exponential function ex for real values of x may be defined in a few different equivalent ways (see Characterizations of the exponential function). Several of these methods may be directly extended to give definitions of ez for complex values of z simply by substituting z in place of x and using the complex algebraic operations. In particular we may use either of the two following definitions which are equivalent. From a more advanced perspective, each of these definitions may be interpreted as giving the unique analytic continuation of ex to the complex plane.
Power series definition
For complex z
For complex z
Various proofs of the formula are possible.
Using power series
and so on. Using now the power series definition from above we see that for real values of x
Using the limit definition
An alternative proof is based on the limit definition of :
Substitute , and let n be a very large integer, say 1000. Then, based on the limit definition, the complex number (1+ix/1000)1000 is supposed to be a good approximation to eix. So, what is the value of (1+ix/1000)1000?
Consider the sequence of 1000 complex numbers:
(We started with 1, and successively multiplied it by (1+ix/1000), 1000 times.) If the points of this sequence are plotted in the complex plane (see animation at right), they approximately trace out the unit circle, with each point being x/1000 radians counterclockwise of the previous point. (The proof of this is based on the rules of trigonometry and complex-number algebra.) Therefore, the last point in the sequence, (1 + ix/1000)1000, is approximately the point on the unit circle of the complex plane located x radians counterclockwise from +1, that is the point cos x + i sin x. If we replaced the number 1000 by larger and larger numbers, all of the approximations in this paragraph become more and more accurate. Therefore, eix = cos x + i sin x.
Another proof is based on the fact that all complex numbers can be expressed in polar coordinates. Therefore for some and depending on ,
Now from any of the definitions of the exponential function it can be shown that the derivative of is . Therefore differentiating both sides gives
Substituting for and equating real and imaginary parts in this formula gives and . Together with the initial values and which come from this gives and . This proves the formula .
- Complex number
- Euler's identity
- Integration using Euler's formula
- List of topics named after Leonhard Euler
- Moskowitz, Martin A. (2002). A Course in Complex Analysis in One Variable. World Scientific Publishing Co. p. 7. ISBN 981-02-4780-X.
- Feynman, Richard P. (1977). The Feynman Lectures on Physics, vol. I. Addison-Wesley. p. 22-10. ISBN 0-201-02010-6.
- Johann Bernoulli, Solution d'un problème concernant le calcul intégral, avec quelques abrégés par rapport à ce calcul, Mémoires de l'Académie Royale des Sciences de Paris, 197-289 (1702).
- John Stillwell (2002). Mathematics and Its History. Springer.
- A Modern Introduction to Differential Equations, by Henry J. Ricardo, p428
- Ordinary differential equations, by Vladimir Igorevich Arnolʹd, p166
- Strang, Gilbert (1991). Calculus. Wellesley-Cambridge. p. 389. ISBN 0-9614088-2-0. (Second proof on page)
- Hazewinkel, Michiel, ed. (2001), "Euler formulas", Encyclopedia of Mathematics, Springer, ISBN 978-1-55608-010-4
- Proof of Euler's Formula by Julius O. Smith III
- Euler's Formula and Fermat's Last Theorem
- Complex Exponential Function Module by John H. Mathews
- Elements of Algebra
- Visual Derivation of Euler's Formula
- Euler's Formula and Euler's Identity : Rationale for Euler's Formula and Euler's Identity, video at Khanacademy.org