Euphorbia characias (Mediterranean Spurge) is a species of flowering plant in the Euphorbiaceae family typical of the Mediterranean vegetation. It is an upright, compact evergreen shrub growing to 1.2 m (3 ft 11 in) tall and wide, with many woolly stems and characteristic black or dark brown nectar glands in the cyathia, which are borne in dense spherical clusters, from spring to early summer. The fruits are smooth capsules.
It is a tough plant, capable of resisting long periods of drought. It grows preferably in dry areas, often far away from the freatic sheet, both in flat as well as in mountainous terrain. This plant can also resist high salinity.
Two main subspecies are found in different regions of the Mediterranean Basin. These often overlap in the western areas of distribution:
- E. characias subsp. characias (s). From Portugal to Crete
- E. characias subsp. wulfenii (Hoppe ex W.D.J.Koch) Radcl.-Sm. 1968 (s). From Southern France to Anatolia.
Garden cultivars are sold under the names "Black Pearl", "Thelma's Giant", "Lambrook Gold", "Silver Swan" and "Tasmanian Tiger", among others. They come in a variety of colors, from silvery grey and bluish green to greenish yellow. These garden varieties are valued in Mediterranean or desert landscaping for not being highly demanding and for looking good despite lack of watering in sunny areas.
This plant also has uses in traditional medicine; like many other species of genus Euphorbia its toxic white and sticky sap has been used to treat skin excrescences, like cancers, tumors, and warts, since ancient times.
- "The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species".
- RHS A-Z encyclopedia of garden plants. United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. 2008. p. 1136. ISBN 1405332964.
- Espècies d'habitats allunyades del freàtic
- Mediterranean Landscaping
- "RHS Plant Selector - Euphorbia characias 'Portuguese Velvet'". Retrieved 14 July 2013.
- "RHS Plant Selector - Euphorbia characias subsp. wulfenii 'John Tomlinson'". Retrieved 14 July 2013.
- Lletereses (Catalan)
- Seidel, Denkwart. Blumen am Mittelmeer, München 2002, ISBN 3-405-16294-7
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- Teresa Franquesa i Codinach, El paisatge vegetal de la península del Cap de Creus
- UIB - Herbari virtual - Euphorbia characias L. subsp. characias
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