Eurabia

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Not to be confused with Eurybia.

Eurabia is a political neologism.[2] The concept was coined by Bat Ye'Or in the early 2000s. Bat Ye'Or (pen name of Gisele Littman) claims a conspiracy of Europe, allegedly led by France and Arab powers to islamise and arabise Europe and thereby weakening its existing culture and undermining an alleged previous alignment with the U.S. and Israel.[3][4]

The term has gained some public interest and has been used and discussed on a wide range of the political spectrum, including far-right activists,[5] counterjihadis and different sort of antiislamist and conservative activists. Bat Ye'Or’s “Mother conspiracy theory” has been used for further, subtheories.[6] The narrative grew important in expressing Islamophobic sentiments and was used by movements like Stop Islamisation of Europe. It gained renewed interest after the 9/11 events and due to the use of the term by 2011 Norway attacker Breivik. It is as well a part of classical Anti-Europeanism, a strong influence in American culture and American exceptionalism[7] which sometimes sees Europe on the decline or as a rising rival power, or, as it is the case here, both.

Basic Narrative[edit]

In Eurabia: The Euro-Arab Axis, Bat Ye'or claims that Eurabia is the result of the Euro-Arab Dialogue, based on an allegedly French-led European policy intended to increase European power against the United States by aligning its interests with those of the Arab countries. During the 1973 oil crisis, the European Economic Community (predecessor of the European Union), had entered into the Euro-Arab Dialogue (EAD) with the Arab League.[8] Ye'or claims it as a primary cause of alleged European hostility to Israel, referring to joint Euro-Arab foreign policies that she characterizes as anti-American and anti-Zionist.[9] Ye'or purported a close connection of a Eurabia conspiracy and used the term "dhimmitude", denoting alleged "western subjection to Islam".[10] The term itself is based on a newsletter published in the 1970s by the Comité européen de coordination des associations d'amitié avec le monde Arabe, a Euro-Arab friendship committee.[1][9]

Bat Ye'Or's Eurabia: The Euro-Arab Axis was the first print publication in the Eurabia genre,[10] which has since grown to a number of titles,[11][12] including Melanie Phillips' Londonistan,[13] Oriana Fallaci's The Force of Reason,[14] and Bruce Bawer's While Europe Slept.[15] The term is often used by the writers (Fallaci,[16][17] Steyn)[18][19][20] and several web sites, many of them affiliated with the counterjihad movement.[21] Peder Are Nøstvold Jensen's Defeating Eurabia[22] earned him a high standing among far-right extremists.[23]

An important part of the narrative is the idea of a Demographic threat, the fear that sometime in the future, Islam will take over Europe.[24] or as Bernard Lewis put it, "Europe will be Islamic by the end of the century."[25][26]Walter Laqueur's The Last Days of Europe [27] as quoted often among the Eurabia literature, however he modified his statements later.

Impact[edit]

The slogan has had become a basic theme in the European extremist and populist right and expresses as well a significnt strategy change. This has led to the adaption of political positions that were previously considered fringe or third rail on either side. The main anti-Islamic theme has also penetrated into mainstream European politics,[5] for instance in the case of Dutch populist Party for Freedom leader Geert Wilders:

This government is enthusiastically co-operating with the Islamization of the Netherlands. In all of Europe the elite opens the floodgates wide. In only a little while, one in five people in the European Union will be Muslim. Good news for this multiculti-government that views bowing to the horrors of Allah as its most important task. Good news for the CDA : C-D-A, in the meanwhile stands for Christians Serve Allah (Christenen Dienen Allah).[28]

Significant alterations in the asserted positions of the political (far) right include a sudden focus on the rights of women and homosexuals.[5][29][30] The conservative historian Nigel Ferguson referred to the concept, taken as the potential future Islamisation of Europe based on mere demographic facts and a supposed ideational lack of the continent.[31]

While immigrants are being deemed a threat, in the postwar 1940ies period, the British extreme right – in particular Fascist politician Oswald Mosley– were rather outspoken, (see the Union Movement and the Europe a Nation slogan) for a stronger integration of Britain with Europe and, using their own interpretation of the Eurafrika concept, Africa.[32][33]

Shortcomings[edit]

Mainland territories of the member states of the European Union (European Communities pre-1993), animated in order of accession. Against the Eurabia narrative, the largest Muslim territorium, Algeria, was included on behalf of strong French lobbying in the early stages but actually left 1962

Eurabia is not considered as actual science. Several academics have described the Eurabia concept as an Islamophobic conspiracy theory.[34] Eurabia shortcuts the complex interaction between USA, France, Israel, the Arabic and Muslim countries on a "Us against them" basis. The Eurabia theories are dismissed as islamophobic, extremist[4][5] and conspiracy theories in the academic community.[34] At first academics showed little interest in the Eurabia theories due to their lack of factual basis.[6][35] The theme was treated in studies of rightist extremism[5] and Middle East Politics.[36] This changed after the 2011 Norway attacks, which resulted in the publication of several works specifically treating the Eurabia conspiracy theories.[10][37] Janne Haaland Matlary went as far as to say that "it is poor use of time to analyse something so primitive".[38]

Eurafrika[edit]

Main article: Eurafrika

A vision of a stronger cooperation of Europe and its African or mediterranean neighbors was neither new nor especially endangering. The elder concepts of 'Eurafrique' or 'Eurafrika', both portmanteaus of Europe and Afrika referred to the much elder idea of strategic partnership between Africa and Europe. Already in the 1920ies Richard Nikolaus Coudenhove-Kalergi, founder of the first popular movement for a united Europe believed in a Eurafrika alliance using the European colonies as "dowry"[39] to allow Europa to compete against the Amerikas and Asia.[40][41] Largely forgotten in the present, in the 1920ies Europe's future survival and continued role in history was seen in close connection with a successful merger with Africa.[42] As a genuine political project, it played a crucial role in the early development of the European Union.[43]

France was one of the staunchest supporters of Israel in the 1950ies and shared till the 1960ies a strategic interest, due to its Algerian territories, against radical Arab nationalism with its heyday in the Suez Crisis. The scientific literature sees the military and diplomatic blunders of the strongest European colonial powers, Great Britain and France, in the Suez crisis 1954 and with respect to France, the Battle of Dien Bien Phu and the start of the Algerian War as major markstones of failed ambitions.[44] The Eurafrika narrative cuts that short and starts after the USA assumed its current role as ally of Israel with the Six-Day War in 1967 and France started taking sides with the Arab world to improve its relations after the independence of Algeria.[45]

The rather bleak Eurabia narrative lacks any positive vision of Europe [46] and reduces the future outlook of the region on a sort of endangered species respectively sinking lifeboat ethics approach.[47] It ignores as well differences within Europe (compare Olim le Berlin) with regard to welcoming Jewish or Israeli immigrants. Actual Muslims elites in Europe have complete different, rather differentiated and overall much more positive impression of Europe and are rather outspoken against religious fundamentalism.[48]

Demography[edit]

The Pew Research Center notes that "the data that we have isn't pointing in the direction of 'Eurabia' at all",[49] and predicts that percentage of Muslims is estimated to rise to 8% in 2030. Most academics who have analysed the demographics dismiss the predictions that the EU will have Muslim majorities.[50] It is completely reasonable to assume that the overall Muslim population in Europe will increase, and Muslimic citizens have and will have a significant imprint on European life.[51] The prospect of a homogenous Muslim community per se, or a Muslim majority in Europe is however out of question.[52]

Justin Vaïsse seeks to discredit what he calls, "four myths of the alarmist school", using Muslims in France as an example. Specifically he has written that the Muslim population growth rate was lower than that predicted by Eurabia, partly because the fertility rate of immigrants declines with integration.[53] He further points out that Muslims are not a monolithic or cohesive group,[54] and that many Muslims do seek to integrate politically and socially. Finally, he wrote that despite their numbers, Muslims have had little influence on French foreign policy.[55]

Furthermore leading European Muslims are rather outspoken against religious fundamentalism and are far from acknowledging Arab countries as a role model at all.[48][56]

The Eurabia narrative ignores the current status of Christianity as a religion growing significantly in the global perspective. The Pentecostalism movement is being deemed the fastest-growing religion worldwide[57] and the current success of Christianity in China is being described as one of the "greatest revivals in Christian history".[58][59][relevant? ]

David Aaronovitch acknowledges that the threat of "jihadist terror" may be real, but that there was no threat of Eurabia. Aaronovitch concludes that those of study conspiracy theories will recognize Eurabia to be a theory that combines the "Sad Dupes thesis to the Enemy Within idea".[60]

Spread conspiracies and further influences[edit]

The Economist rejected the concept of Eurabia as "scaremongering".[61] Simon Kuper in Financial Times described Ye'or's book as "little-read but influential", and akin to "Protocols of the Elders of Zion in reverse", adding that "though ludicrous, Eurabia became the spiritual mother of a genre".[12]

Examples of proponent's use:

In his book Wars of Blood and Faith, conservative US military analyst Ralph Peters states that far from being about to take over Europe through demographic change, "Europe's Muslims are living on borrowed time" and that in the event of a major terrorist attack in Europe, thanks to the "ineradicable viciousness" of Europeans and what he perceives as a historical tendency to over-react to real or perceived threats, European Muslims "will be lucky if they're only deported."[64]

According to Marján and Sapir, the very idea of "Eurabia" is "based on an extremist conspiracy theory, according to which Europe and the Arab states would join forces to make life impossible for Israel and Islamize the old continent."[4]

Writing in Race & Class in 2006, author and freelance journalist Matt Carr argued that Eurabia had moved from "an outlandish conspiracy theory" to a "dangerous Islamophobic fantasy". Carr states,

"In order to accept Ye'or's ridiculous thesis, it is necessary to believe not only in the existence of a concerted Islamic plot to subjugate Europe, involving all Arab governments, whether 'Islamic' or not, but also to credit a secret and unelected parliamentary body with the astounding ability to transform all Europe's major political, economic and cultural institutions into subservient instruments of 'jihad' without any of the continent's press or elected institutions being aware of it. Nowhere in this ideologically driven interpretation of European-Arab relations does Ye'or come close to proving the 'secret history' that she professes to reveal."[65]

Arun Kundnani, writing for the International Centre for Counter-terrorism, notes that "Eurabia" fulfills the Counterjihad-movement's "structural need" for a conspiracy theory, and compares "Eurabia" to The Protocols of the Elders of Zion,[62] while Carr compares it to the Zionist Occupation Government claim.[65]

Post 9/11 significance[edit]

After the September 11 attacks Muslims and the Arab world emerged as a perceived threat.[35] Muslim minority populations and Muslim immigration gained new political significance. Scholar José Pedro Zúquete notes that

the threat that the Crescent will rise over the continent and the spectre of a Muslim Europe have become basic ideological features and themes of the European extreme right [5]

Eurabia had then re-entered into the vocabulary through Bat Ye'Or's work, most notably the book published in 2005, Eurabia: The Euro-Arab Axis,[3] although she first used the term in 2002.[9][66] Subsequently, the coining of the term has been attributed to her.[10]

2011 Norway attacks[edit]

2083: A European Declaration of Independence, the manifesto of Anders Behring Breivik, the perpetrator of the 2011 Norway attacks, includes a lengthy discussion of and support for the "Eurabia" theory. It also contains several articles on the Eurabia theme by Bat Ye'Or and Peder Are Nøstvold Jensen (Fjordman). [67] As a result, the theory received widespread mainstream media attention following the attacks.[68] In the verdict against Breivik, the court noted that "many people share Breivik's conspiracy theory, including the Eurabia theory. The court finds that very few people, however, share Breivik's idea that the alleged "Islamization" should be fought with terror."[69]

U.S. politics[edit]

In the United States, the theories have found strong proponents in the counterjihad movement, among them the president of Stop Islamization of America, Robert Spencer[70] and right-wing political commentators Daniel Pipes[71] and Mark Steyn.[72] In his 2011–2012 run for the Republican presidential nomination, senator Rick Santorum warned that Europe was "creating an opportunity for the creation of Eurabia", and that the continent was "losing, because they are not having children."[73]

Eurabia theories have also been espoused by less typical conservatives, for example, Bruce Bawer, an American expatriate who has lived in Europe since the 1990s, and supported Ye'Or's allegations that there was a deliberate, coordinated effort to create Eurabia. Bawer argued that many European politicians and policy makers, in efforts to gain approval of Muslim voters or to appeal to multiculturalism, were effectively allowing the creation of Muslim-only enclaves where basic human rights were ignored and events like honor killings had become commonplace.[74][75][76]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Eurabia (item listing)". Worldcat. Retrieved May 11, 2012. , OCLC 5966570
  2. ^ The word is a portmanteau of Europe and Arabia. It was first used as a name for the newsletter of a Euro-Arab friendship committee in the 1970s.[1] See wikt:Eurabia and Eurabia (newsletter) (fr).
  3. ^ a b Ye'or, Bat (2005). Eurabia: The Euro-Arab Axis. New Jersey, USA: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press. ISBN 978-0838640777. 
  4. ^ a b c Marján, Attila; André Sapir (2010). Europe's Destiny. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 161. ISBN 0-8018-9547-2. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f Zúquete, José Pedro (October 2008). "The European Extreme Right and Islam: New directions?". Journal of Political Ideologies 13 (3): 321–344. doi:10.1080/13569310802377019. Retrieved April 22, 2012. 
  6. ^ a b "Eurabiske vers" [Eurabian verses] (in Norwegian). Morgenbladet. August 19, 2011. Retrieved April 27, 2012. 
  7. ^ Anti-Europeanism and Euroscepticism in the United States, Patrick Chamorel No 25, EUI-RSCAS Working Papers from European University Institute (EUI), Robert Schuman Centre of Advanced Studies (RSCAS) 2004
  8. ^ "Euro-Arab dialogue". MEDEA. [dead link] [1]
  9. ^ a b c Bat Ye'or (December 2002). "Le dialogue Euro-Arabe et la naissance d'Eurabia" [The Euro-Arab Dialogue and the Birth of Eurabia] (PDF) (in French). Observatoire du monde juif. Retrieved May 11, 2012.  English translation
  10. ^ a b c d Fekete, Liz (2012). "The Muslim conspiracy theory and the Oslo massacre". Race & Class 53 (3): 30–47. doi:10.1177/0306396811425984. 
  11. ^ a b Justin Vaïsse (January–February 2010). "Eurabian Follies". Foreign Policy. The FP Group, a Washington Post subsidiary. Retrieved July 17, 2012. 
  12. ^ a b Simon Kuper (October 11, 2007). "The Crescent and the Cross.". Financial Times. Retrieved May 13, 2012. 
  13. ^ Melanie Phillips (2006). Londonistan: How Britain is creating a terror state within. London: Encounter. ISBN 9781594031441. 
  14. ^ Oriana Fallaci (2004). La forza della ragione [The Force of Reason] (in Italian). Milano: Rizzoli. ISBN 9788817002967. 
  15. ^ Bruce Bawer (2007). While Europe Slept. New York: Anchor/Random House. ISBN 978-0767920056. 
  16. ^ Tunku Varadarajan (June 23, 2005). "Prophet of Decline". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved none. "Europe is no longer Europe, it is 'Eurabia,' a colony of Islam"  Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  17. ^ Dopo Londra (September 15, 2006). "Il nemico che trattiamo da amico". Corriere della Sera. Retrieved May 13, 2012. "Fallaci says (Italian) "Sono quattr' anni che parlo di nazismo islamico, di guerra all' Occidente, di culto della morte, di suicidio dell' Europa. Un' Europa che non è più Europa ma Eurabia e che con la sua mollezza, la sua inerzia, la sua cecità, il suo asservimento al nemico si sta scavando la propria tomba." ("Since four years I am talking about the Islamic Nazism, the war to the West, the cult of death, the suicide of Europe. A Europe that is no longer Europe but Eurabia, which with its softness, its inertia, its blindness, its servitude to the enemy is digging its own grave.")" 
  18. ^ Mark Steyn (2006). America Alone: The End of the World as We Know It. Washington, D.C.: Regnery Publishing Inc. ISBN 978-0847827534. 
  19. ^ Mark Steyn (January 2, 2006). "It's the Demography, stupid". The New Criterion. Retrieved May 13, 2012. 
  20. ^ Mark Steyn (October 10, 2006). "The future belongs to Islam". Macleans.ca. Retrieved May 13, 2012. 
  21. ^ including Gates of Vienna, Paul Beliën's Brussels Journal, Free Republic, Front Page Magazine, Richard Landes's Eurabia article, Fjordman's The Eurabia Code article and his Defeating Eurabia compilation.
  22. ^ Peder Are Nøstvold Jensen (2008). Defeating Eurabia. Lulu.com. ISBN 9781409247159.  (available online)
  23. ^ Sandvik, Siv (3 August 2011). "Fjordman hevder han vil hjelpe politiet i terroretterforskningen". Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 8 August 2011. 
  24. ^ Muslims 'about to take over Europe'
  25. ^ Will Islam Become the Religion of Europe?
  26. ^ "Europa wird islamisch" (original interview with Bernhard Lewis in the german newspaper "Die Welt")
  27. ^ Walter Laqeur (2007). The Last Days of Europe. New York: Thomas Dunne Books. ISBN 9780312368708. 
  28. ^ Geert Wilders. "speech in the Dutch parliament, September 16, 2009". Retrieved May 12, 2012. 
  29. ^ Bhandar, Davina (2010). "Cultural politics: disciplining citizenship". Citizenship Studies 14 (3): 331–343. doi:10.1080/13621021003731963. 
  30. ^ Mepschen, Paul; Duyvendak, Jan Willem; Tonkens, Evelien H. (2010). "Sexual Politics, Orientalism and Multicultural Citizenship in the Netherlands". Sociology 44 (5): 962–979. doi:10.1177/0038038510375740. Retrieved 23 November 2011. 
  31. ^ Niall Ferguson (April 4, 2004). "The way we live now: Eurabia?". New York Times. Retrieved February 1, 2013. 
  32. ^ Culture of Fascism: Visions of the Far Right in Britain, Julie V. Gottlieb, Thomas P. Linehan.B.Tauris, 31.12.2003, p.75
  33. ^ DRÁBIK, Jakub. Oswald Mosley´s Concept of a United Europe. A Contribution to the Study of Pan-European Nationalism. In. The Twentieth Century, 2/2012, s. 53-65, Prague : Charles University in Prague, ISSN 1803-750X
  34. ^ a b See:
  35. ^ a b Simon Kuper (September 9, 2011). "The end of Eurabia". Financial Times. Retrieved May 11, 2012. 
  36. ^ Roy, Olivier (2008). The Politics of Chaos in the Middle East. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-80043-3. 
  37. ^ Gardell, Mattias (2011). Islamofobi (in Norwegian). Oslo: Spartacus. ISBN 9788243006683. 
  38. ^ "Advarer mot å ta Breivik seriøst" [Warns against taking Breivik seriously] (in Norwegian). Norsk Rikskringkasting. Norsk Telegrambyrå. May 2, 2012. Retrieved May 12, 2012. 
  39. ^ Peo Hansen/Stefan Jonsson: BRINGING AFRICA AS A ‘DOWRY TO EUROPE’. In: Interventions: International Journal of Postcolonial Studies. Nr. 13:3, 2011, S. 448f.
  40. ^ Caudenhove-Kalergi: Paneuropa-Manifest. Paneuropa. Nr. 9, 1933.
  41. ^ Thomas Moser: Europäische Integration, Dekolonisation, Eurafrika. Eine historische Analyse über die Entstehungsbedingungen der eurafrikanischen Gemeinschaft von der Weltwirtschaftskrise bis zum Jaunde-Vertrag, 1929-1963., 2000, p. 104.
  42. ^ Eurafrica: The Untold History of European Integration and Colonialism, Peo Hansen, Stefan Jonsson, Bloomsbury Publishing, 23.10.2014
  43. ^ Guy Martin: Africa and the Ideology of Eurafrica: NeoColonialism or PanAfricanism?. In: The Journal of Modern African Studies. Nr. 20, 1982, S. 221.
  44. ^ Martin Rempe: Decolonization by Europeanization? The Early EEC and the Transformation of French-African Relations. In: KFG Working Paper Series. Nr. 27, 2011, S. 5.
  45. ^ When Israel and France Broke Up, NYT GARY J. BASS, March 31, 2010
  46. ^ Bilder von Europa: Innen- und Aussenansichten von der Antike bis zur Gegenwart, Benjamin Drechsel, transcript Verlag, 2010, p. 260
  47. ^ The Myth of the Muslim Tide: Do Immigrants Threaten the West? Doug Saunders Knopf Canada, 21.08.2012
  48. ^ a b Europas muslimische Eliten: Wer sie sind und was sie wollen Jytte Klausen, Campus Verlag, 13.03.2000
  49. ^ Brian Grim quoted in Richard Greene, World Muslim population doubling, report projects, CNN, 2011-01-27
  50. ^ Simon Kuper (August 19, 2007). "Head count belies vision of 'Eurabia'". Financial Times. Retrieved August 12, 2011. 
  51. ^ Kaufmann, Eric (20 March 2010). "Europe's Muslim Future", Prospect, Issue 169.
  52. ^ Grim, Brian J.; Karim, Mehtab S.; Cooperman, Alan; Hackett, Conrad; Connor, Phillip; Chaudhry, Sahar; Hidajat, Mira; Hsu, Becky; Andrew J. Gully, Noble Kuriakose, Elizabeth A. Lawton, Elizabeth Podrebarac (January 2011). Stencel, Sandra; Rosen, Anne Farris; Yoo, Diana; Miller, Tracy; Ramp, Hilary, eds. The Future of the Global Muslim Population (Projections for 2010-2030) (PDF). Washington, D.C.: Pew Research Center. Retrieved May 12, 2012.  Summary about Europe0, retrieved 18 September 2012.
  53. ^ See also Randy McDonald, France, its Muslims, and the Future, 2004-04-13, Doug Saunders, "The 'Eurabia' myth deserves a debunking", The Globe and Mail, 2008-09-20, Fewer differences between foreign born and Swedish born childbearing women, Statistics Sweden, 2008-11-03, Mary Mederios Kent, Do Muslims have more children than other women in western Europe?, Population Reference Bureau, prb.org, February 2008; for fertility of Muslims outside Europe, see the sentence "The dramatic decline in Iran's fertility provides a recent example of how strict Islamic practices can coexist with widespread use of family planning.", and (the articles) Farzaneh Roudi-Fahimi and Mary Mederios Kent, Fertility Declining in the Middle East and North Africa, prb.org, April 2008, especially the figure 2, Mohammad Jalal Abbasi-Shavazi, Recent changes and the future of fertility in Iran, especially the figure 1;
  54. ^ See also "Merely speaking of a 'Muslim community in France' can be misleading and inaccurate: like every immigrant population, Muslims in France exhibit strong cleavages based on the country of their origin, their social background, political orientation and ideology, and the branch or sect of Islam that they practice (when they do)." in Justin Vaisse, Unrest in France, November 2005, 2006-01-12
  55. ^ See also Justin Vaïsse, La France et les musulmans: une politique étrangère sous influence?, April 2007 (French)
  56. ^ Walter Laqueur (2009). Best of Times, Worst of Times. University Press of New England. p. 211.
  57. ^ Barker, Isabelle V. (2005). "Engendering Charismatic Economies: Pentecostalism, Global Political Economy, and the Crisis of Social Reproduction". American Political Science Association. pp. 2, 8 and footnote 14 on page 8. Retrieved March 25, 2010. [dead link]
  58. ^ China: the future of Christianity? | Antonio Weiss | Comment is free | guardian.co.uk
  59. ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-14838749
  60. ^ David Aaronovitch (2005-11-15). "It's the latest disease: sensible people saying ridiculous things about Islam". London: The Times. Archived from the original on 7 September 2008. Retrieved 2008-03-08. 
  61. ^ "Tales from Eurabia". The Economist. June 22, 2006. Retrieved December 19, 2008. "Integration will be hard work for all concerned. But for the moment at least, the prospect of Eurabia looks like scaremongering." 
  62. ^ a b Arun Kundnani (June 2012). "Blind Spot? Security Narratives and Far-Right Violence in Europe" (PDF). International Centre for Counter-terrorism. Retrieved July 23, 2012. 
  63. ^ For instance in:
  64. ^ Peters, Ralph (2007). Wars of Blood and Faith: The Conflicts That Will Shape the Twenty-First Century. Stackpole Books. pp. 333–334. ISBN 978-0-8117-0274-4. 
  65. ^ a b Carr, M. (2006). "You are now entering Eurabia". Race & Class 48: 1–0. doi:10.1177/0306396806066636.  edit
  66. ^ Bat Ye'or (2002-10-09). "Eurabia". National Review. 
  67. ^ See:
  68. ^ "Psykiater om Breivik: – Så komplisert at vi først i historiens lys kan få svar" [Psychiatrist on Breivik: - So complicated that answers will only come in light of history] (in Norwegian). Tv2.no. July 28, 2011. Retrieved August 7, 2011. 
  69. ^ Smilende Breivik fornøyd med dommen, nettavisen.no, 24.08.12
  70. ^ see for instance:
  71. ^ see for instance:
  72. ^ "New Statesman Apocalypse now". 12 March 2007. 
  73. ^ Max Blumenthal (January 5, 2012). "Santorum warns of 'Eurabia,' issues call to 'evangelize and eradicate' Muslims". Al-Akhbar English. Retrieved May 12, 2012. 
  74. ^ Bawer, Bruce (Winter 2006). "Crisis in Europe". The Hudson Review 58 (4). , [2] [3]
  75. ^ Bruce Bawer, Surrender: Appeasing Islam, Sacrificing Freedom, Doubleday, 2009-05-19, ISBN 978-0-385-52398-1
  76. ^ Bruce Bawer, The New Quislings: How the International Left Used the Oslo Massacre to Silence Debate About Islam, Broadside Books, 2012-01-31, ISBN 9780062188694

External links[edit]