Eurasian Coot

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Eurasian Coot
Feeding in Tasmania, Australia
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Gruiformes
Family: Rallidae
Genus: Fulica
Species: F. atra
Binomial name
Fulica atra
Linnaeus, 1758
Range of F. atra      Breeding range     Year-round range     Wintering range
Synonyms
  • Fulica prior De Vis, 1888[2]

The Eurasian Coot (Fulica atra), also known as Coot, is a member of the rail and crake bird family, the Rallidae. The Australian subspecies is known as the Australian Coot.

Distribution[edit]

The Coot breeds across much of the Old World on freshwater lakes and ponds. It occurs and breeds in Europe, Asia, Australia, and Africa. The species has recently expanded its range into New Zealand. It is resident in the milder parts of its range, but migrates further south and west from much of Asia in winter as the waters freeze

Description[edit]

The Eurasian Coot is 32–42 cm (13–17 in) long and weighs 585–1,100 g (1.290–2.425 lb), and is largely black except for the white frontal shield (which gave rise to the phrase "as bald as a coot", which the Oxford English Dictionary cites in use as early as 1430).[3] As a swimming species, the Coot has partial webbing on its long strong toes.

The juvenile is paler than the adult, has a whitish breast, and lacks the facial shield; the adult black plumage develops when about 3–4 months old, but the white shield is only fully developed at about one year old.

This is a noisy bird with a wide repertoire of crackling, explosive, or trumpeting calls, often given at night.

Behaviour[edit]

The Eurasian Coot is much less secretive than most of the rail family, and can be seen swimming on open water or walking across waterside grasslands. It is an aggressive species, and strongly territorial during the breeding season, and both parents are involved in territorial defence.[4] During the non-breeding season they may form large flocks, possibly related to predator avoidance.[5]

It is reluctant to fly and when taking off runs across the water surface with much splashing. They do the same, but without actually flying, when travelling a short distance at speed in territorial disputes. As with many rails, its weak flight does not inspire confidence, but on migration, usually at night, it can cover surprisingly large distances. It bobs its head as it swims, and makes short dives from a little jump.

Breeding[edit]

This species builds a nest of dead reeds or grasses, but also pieces of paper or plastic near the water's edge or on underwater obstacles protruding from the water, laying up to 10 eggs, sometimes 2 or 3 times per season. Usually only a few young survive. They are frequent prey for birds such as herons and gulls.

Coots can be very brutal to their own young under pressure such as the lack of food. They will bite young that are begging for food and repeatedly do this until it stops begging and starves to death. If the begging continues, they may bite so hard that the chick is killed.[6]

Diet[edit]

The Coot is an omnivore, and will take a variety of small live prey including the eggs of other water birds, as well as algae, vegetation, seeds and fruit.[7] It shows considerable variation in its feeding techniques, grazing on land or in the water. In the water it may upend in the fashion of a Mallard or dive in search of food.[8]

Status[edit]

The Eurasian Coot is one of the species to which the Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds (AEWA) applies.

Fossil record[edit]

An extinct subspecies (Fulica atra pontica) has been described from the Eneolithic (around 4800-4400 BP) of Bulgarian Black Sea Coast[9]

Gallery[edit]

The call of a Eurasian Coot, recorded in Homebush Bay

Problems playing this file? See media help.






References[edit]

  1. ^ BirdLife International (2012). "Fulica atra". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013. 
  2. ^ Condon, H. T. (1975) Checklist of the Birds of Australia: Non-Passerines Royal Australasian Ornithologists Union, 57:311
  3. ^ CRC Handbook of Avian Body Masses by John B. Dunning Jr. (Editor). CRC Press (1992), ISBN 978-0-8493-4258-5.
  4. ^ Cave,A.J.; J.Visser; A.C. Perdeck. (1989). "Size and quality of the Coot (Fulica atra) territory in relation to age of its tenants and neighbours". Ardea 77: 87 - 97
  5. ^ van den Hout PJ (2006) "Dense foraging flotillas of Eurasian coots Fulica atra explained by predation by Ganges soft-shell turtle Aspideretus gangeticus?". Ardea 94 (2): 271-274
  6. ^ Attenborough, David (1998 Episode 9, 12 mins ff.). The Life of Birds. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-01633-7. 
  7. ^ Martin R. Perrow, J. Hans Schutten, John R. Howes, Tim Holzer, F. Jane Madgwick and Adrian J. D. Jowitt (1997) "Interactions between coot (Fulica atra) and submerged macrophytes: the role of birds in the restoration process". Hydrobiologia 342/343: 241–255 doi:10.1023/A:1017007911190
  8. ^ Brigitte J. Bakker and Robin A. Fordham (1993) "Diving behaviour of the Australian Coot in a New Zealand lake". Notornis 40 (2): 131–136
  9. ^ Boev, Z., E. Karaivanova 1998. Fulica atra pontica subsp. n. from the Middle Holocene on the South Black Sea Coast, Bulgaria. - Historia naturalis bulgarica, 9: 53-69.

External links[edit]