Eureka Flag

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The original Eureka Flag

The Eureka Flag is a flag design first flown by the rebel garrison at Ballarat, Victoria, Australia, during the 1854 Eureka Rebellion. A number of people swore allegiance to the flag as a symbol of defiance at its first flying at Bakery Hill on 29 November 1854. Over 22 miners were killed at the Eureka Stockade, along with six troopers and police. Another 125 miners were arrested and many others badly wounded.[1]

The flag has been loaned to the Museum of Australian Democracy at Eureka by the Art Gallery of Ballarat.[2]

The flag design has gained wider notability in Australian culture due to its adoption by radicals as a symbol of democracy and as a general purpose symbol of protest,[3][4] mainly in relation to a variety of anti-establishment, non-conformist causes.[5] It is listed as an object of state heritage significance on the Victorian Heritage Register[6] and was named as a Victorian Icon by the National Trust in 2006.[7]

In addition to the authenticated rebel battle flag there was reportedly a second "Eureka Jack" hoisted beneath as an additional Eureka flag on the day of the battle. [8]

History[edit]

Origin and symbolism[edit]

The flag is reputed to have been designed by a Canadian member of the Ballarat Reform League, Captain Henry Ross. Local legend claims that the flag was sewn by three local women - Anastasia Withers, Anne Duke and Anastasia Hayes.[1]

The theory that the Federation flag, which by then was already in customary use in the eastern colonies, was the starting point for the Eureka flag appears to be well supported by the fact that “borrowing of the general flag design from the country one is revolting against can be found in many instances of colonial liberation, including Haiti, Venezuela, Iceland, and Guinea”. [9] [10] However there also appears to be a strong resemblance with the Fleurdelisé flag of provincial Quebec, where Henry Ross who has been credited with the design concept was born. The tent where St Alipius chapel was founded also flew a blue and white flag bearing a couped cross. [11]

According to Frank Cayley's book, Flag of Stars, the flag's five stars represent the Southern Cross with the white cross joining the stars represents unity in defiance.[12]

The flag is silk, blue ground with large silver cross; no device or arms, but all exceedingly chaste and natural.

Oath swearing at Bakery Hill[edit]

The flag flew for the first (recorded) occasion on Bakery Hill as a symbol of the resistance of the gold miners during the Eureka Stockade rebellion in the year 1854. Beneath the flag, Peter Lalor, leader of the Ballarat Reform League, swore an oath to the affirmation of his fellow demonstrators: "We swear by the Southern Cross to stand truly by each other and fight to defend our rights and liberties."[citation needed]

According to the Ballarat Times, which first mentioned the flag a week earlier on 24 November 1854, at "about eleven o'clock the 'Southern Cross' was hoisted, and its maiden appearance was a fascinating object to behold."[citation needed]

Post-battle preservation of Eureka flag[edit]

A trooper, John King, retained the flag and it was held by his family for forty years until it was lent to the Ballarat Fine Art Gallery in 1895, where it remained in continued obscurity "under a cloud of skepticism and conservative disapproval"; bits of the flag were cut off and given to visiting dignitaries.[13] Approximately 31% of the original specimen is missing.

The flag was "re-discovered" by Len Fox during the 1940s,[14] but it took decades to convince authorities to properly authenticate the flag.[citation needed] it was found after World War II in a drawer at the gallery, discovered by members of the Australian Communist Party.[13] The final irrefutable validation of its authentication occurred when sketchbooks of Canadian Charles Doudiet were put up for sale at a Christies auction in 1996. Two sketches in particular show the flag design as contained in the tattered remains of the flag at the Ballarat Fine Art Gallery. The remnant of the original Eureka Flag remains today, preserved for public display at the Museum of Australian Democracy at Eureka. In 2001, legal ownership of the flag was transferred to the Ballarat Fine Art Gallery, which expects the King family and the gallery to be acknowledged every time a replica of the original flag is displayed. It is listed as an object of state heritage significance on the Victorian Heritage Register and was named as an icon by the National Trust in 2006.[15]

The restored original Eureka Flag (December 2011)

Customary usage[edit]

A modern variation was central to the landmark architecture of the Eureka Centre prior to its redevelopment as the Museum of Australian Democracy.
ALP policy launch before a huge crowd in the Sydney Domain on 24 November 1975. Eureka flags can be seen in the crowd and on tribune

According to the eminent Whitney Smith, writing in 1975, the Eureka flag “perhaps because of its association with labor riots and a time of political crisis in Australian history, was long forgotten. A century after it was first hoisted, however, Australian authors began to recognise that it had been an inspiration, both in spirit and design, for many banners up to and including the current official civil and state flags of the nation.”[16]

As vexillographer and former CEO of the Royal Australian Historical Society, John Vaughan, has stated that the 1854 rebel "stars and cross" blue and white edition was not the first concept for a continental flag for Australia, nor the first to symbolise Australia with the Southern Cross:

"It is a myth that the Eureka flag flown at the stockade rebellion in 1854 was the first Southern Cross emblem. The acknowledged designer, Henry Ross of Toronto, Canada, would have been influenced by the popularity of already existing starry flags and the 1831 design had its colours reversed to a blue field and white cross and the Union Jack deleted.
"The Eureka flag was lost to general public imagination until after WW2 when, for mainly political reasons it was re-discovered and promoted as a ‘rebel’ symbol. [17]

A similar flag was flown prominently above the Barcaldine strike camp of the 1891 Australian shearers' strike,[citation needed] and thus has had a strong association with the Australian labour movement from this time.[citation needed] Construction unions such as the Builders Labourers' Federation in particular adopted the Eureka flag, and it is one of the flags that flies permanently over the Melbourne Trades Hall.

The Eureka Flag was also used by supporters of Gough Whitlam after he was dismissed as Prime Minister of Australia.

Today the Eureka Flag has been adopted by a variety of groups, including the Builders Labourers Federation and the Australia First Party. The City of Ballarat and the University of Ballarat, for instance have used stylised versions of the Southern Cross in their official logo along with several trade unions and other associated groups.

Sporting clubs have also used the flag as a symbol including the Melbourne Victory and Melbourne Rebels. Melbourne Victory supporters adopted it as a club flag for its foundation year in 2004, however it was subsequently briefly banned[18] at A-League games by the Football Federation of Australia, but rescinded in the face of criticism from the Victorian general public. The Football Federation of Australia claimed that the ban was 'unintentional'.

The men and women of HMAS Ballarat, the second Royal Australian Navy ship to bear the name, wear Eureka Flag insignia on their uniforms.[19]

Eureka sesquicentenary[edit]

NSW Parliament Building, Macquarie Street, Sydney, 3 December 2004

The sesquicentenary of the Eureka Stockade occurred in December 2004, and the Eureka Flag was used extensively during the events that were organised to promote awareness of the occasion. It was flown within each State Parliament building in Australia, the Federal Senate, and most prominently atop the Sydney Harbour Bridge.

Deputy Prime Minister John Anderson made the Eureka flag a federal election campaign issue in 2004 saying "I think people have tried to make too much of the Eureka Stockade... trying to give it a credibility and standing that it probably doesn't enjoy."[20]

Proposed new national flag[edit]

In the event the design of the Australian National Flag is ever reviewed some republicans support the Eureka Flag being one of the options in a plebiscite.

Whilst some Australians view the Eureka Flag as a symbol of nationality[21] (see Australian flag debate), it is more often employed by historical societies and re-enactors and by political radicals as a general purpose symbol of protest for a wide variety of anti-establishment non-conformist causes. The flag has been used as a symbol of rebellion by groups on both sides of the political spectrum, such as noted nationalistic group National Action and neo-Nazis,[22] who see it as representative of the efforts of the miners to free themselves from what they view, depending on their political persuasion, as either political or economic oppression, and by white supremacists at flashpoints for racial confrontation (see Roll up banner).

Specifications and construction[edit]

In vexillological terms, the Eureka flag is azure, a cross argent emblazoned with the five eight pointed stars of Crux Australis. Although more faithful replicas can only be seldom seen, to the be authentic, the dimensions of the original specimen are 260 cm x 400 cm (2:3.08 ratio). The horizontal cross is 37 cm wide and the vertical cross 36 cm wide. The central star is slightly larger than the others and is 65 cm tall (point to point) and the other stars 60 cm tall. [23] The number of points on the stars appears to have been a mere convenience being the easiest to manufacture in the abscense of sewing instruments. The field is Prussian blue with the stars of the southern cross being white and the arms an off-white. [24]

The fragment kept as a trophy flag by John King has 30.99% of its surface area missing which has been frayed, lost or in archives and private collections. These laborious calculations were made by leading authority Mrs Val D’Angri who led first conservation effort in the 1970s. Remarkably a mysterious ‘W’ marking found by D’Angri on the King fragment may stand for her great great grandmother Anastasia Catherine Withers, one of three women who according to family history were responsible for weaving the one true Eureka flag. [25]

D’Angri theorises that the Eureka flag was originally intended to be based on a cross throughtout, rather than a couped cross “however, when fitting the four stars to the cross ends they were not very prominent and the cross was shortened to the centre of the stars and blue inserts were added to extend to the background. This could also explain why the centre star is larger than the four other stars.” [26]

Of the materials used in the construction of the Eureka flag it has been determined that: “The flag is constructed of several pieces of a very fine blue 1850s woollen fabric ... Pieces of cotton twill were used for the cross, and pieces of fine cotton lawn for the stars.” [27]

The modern design of the Eureka flag seen today is an enhanced and different version from the 1854 original with D’Angri saying:

“Some of the flags being reproduced today leave a lot to be desired concerning the shape, size and location of the stars on the flag, and the fact that the centre star is 8.5% larger than the other stars is largely ignored”. There has been a move to standardise the flag which involves the creation of a small blue keylines around the five stars. [28]

Mystery Eureka flag sketches from 1963 Frank Cayley investigation[edit]

Mystery Eureka flag sketches from Frank Cayley's 1963 investigation.

During his investigations into the Bradford fragment of the Eureka flag, Frank Cayley claims to have found the following sketches, which may be of the design on the drawing board, saying:

“I first heard and saw of the Bradford fragment when I visited Ballarat in 1963. W. (Bill) Roff, who is a keen student of Eureka history, took me upstairs to a dusty room that was about to serve as the new headquarters for the Ballarat Museum. Most of the historic relics and papers was still in boxes, but I was given freedom to fossick.
And how rewarding that fossicking turned out to be! I came on a sketch pasted, in order to preserve it, on card, and inscribed: “Found in a Tent After the Affair at Eureka.” The drawing shows a flag - one with a simple cross adorned with five stars. The words “blue” and “white” are written on it to indicate the colours. It looks like a rough design of the so-called King Flag.
Another sketch pasted on the same piece of card shows the flag being carried by a bearded man. Beneath this were the beginnings of another sketch of the flag. Is the man portrayed in the sketch Eureka’s standard bearer, “Lieutenant” Ross? And is the design the one from which the Eureka Flag was made?” [29]

There has been an expert analysis of the Cayley sketches carried out by Ballarat militaria consultant Paul O’Brien who says:

“This sketch, once in the collection of the Ballarat Historical Society, location now unknown, was originally displayed with another sketch representing the ‘Eureka’ or ‘King’ flag and was labelled ‘Found in a Tent After the Affair at Eureka’. The sketches were first reproduced in Frank Cayley’s book Flag of Stars (Rigby, 1966). The assumption made in the accompanying text was that the sketch was a draft design for the making of the flag.
While this assumption is quite plausible, it would seem more likely that the sketch was made after the capture of the flag. Note the tattered leading edge and indistinct star. The number of points to the stars represented also does not tally with those on the surviving ‘King’ flag. This sketch was, perhaps, drawn after the flag was ‘brought in triumph’ to the government camp and while it was being savaged by eager souvenir hunters.
The two sketches have been drawn by different hands, and many details of design differ considerably (notably the hoist edge and number of star points). The size of the flag in the sketch with figure does not tally with the enormous size of the ‘King’ flag, and is probably a later, not contemporary, representation.” [30]

Eureka flag variants[edit]

Roll up banner[edit]

Main article: Lambing Flat riots
The Roll Up banner around which a mob of about 1,000 men rallied and attacked Chinese miners at Lambing Flat in June 1861. The banner is now on display in the museum at Young.

During the Lambing Flat riots in 1861, a series of violent anti-Chinese demonstrations that took place in the Burrangong region, in New South Wales, Australia, on the goldfields at Spring Creek, Stoney Creek, Back Creek, Wombat, Blackguard Gully, Tipperary Gully, and Lambing Flat (now Young, New South Wales), the Lambing Flat 'roll up' banner was painted in canvas on a tent flap by a Scottish man as a public relations device for a meeting held prior to the goldfields era rioting. It has been said to be a tribute to the Eureka flag, with five stars positioned as they are on the 1854 original, with a diagonal St. Andrew's cross and the inscription "Roll Up - No Chinese”. [31] [32] [33] The miners local vigilante committee was known as the Miner’s Protection League. On 12 December 1860, seven hundred miners led by a brass band went about sacking the grog-shops which were havens for thieves before turning their attention to the Chinese section. Most fled, but two Chinese who stayed to fight were killed and 10 others badly injured. There was further unrest throughout 1861, with the Chinese who returned being again set upon. A large gathering called for 14th July, Bastille Day, was eventually read the riot act and had shots fired over their heads before being dispersed by mounted troopers. The trouble gradually subsided as more soldiers and marines were called in from Sydney. In 1870 the town was renamed in honour of governor Sir John Young. [34]

It is of interest to note that according to the Australia First Party it is part of nationalist folklore that the Eureka flag was seen on display outside NSW parliament house in 1878 at a protest brought about by the use of Chinese labour on ships at circular quay. [35]

Vintage star spangled Eureka flag[edit]

Oath swearing scene from the 1949 motion picture Eureka Stockade.

With respect to the provenance of the star spangled Eureka flag, Withers published in the Ballarat Star on 1 May 1896 an article which contained a quote from John McNeil, who recalled a meeting on Bakery Hill where one Robert McCandlish “unbuttoned his coat and took out an unfurled a light blue flag with some stars on it, but there was no cross on it”. [36]

It appears from all reports that Harry Watt, producer of the 1949 feature film Eureka Stockade, had went as far as engaging experts to examine the then unauthenicated King remnant held by the Ballarat Fine Art Gallery. Such doubts had been raised as that the apparent bullet holes were actually caused by moths, with others saying the ecclesiastical cross was a later adaptation, and that the King flag was made for a footballers picnic. In the end most probably realising that the general public was no longer conscious of the original 1854 pattern, Watt opted to use a design featuring the free floating stars of the traditional Australian flag, which was the only Southern Cross audiences had any familiarity with by the late 1940s. [37]

Artist Angus McBride used the star spangled Eureka flag in his The Defence of the Eureka Stockade, which would be featured on the front cover of the 14 February 1970 Eureka Stockade Australian edition of the London based Look and Learn magazine for school students. [38]

Red Eureka flag[edit]

A Red Eureka Flag was used by communists during the late 1970s early 1980s. As the design was little seen and the group using it was on fringe of the communist movement the Red Eureka flag soon disappeared from view. The Red Eureka flag has since been adopted by the Australian Manufacturing Workers Union. The AMWU, however, has no links to communism and is instead affiliated with the Australian Labor Party.

Standardised design[edit]

Standardised design

The modern design of the Eureka flag is an enhanced and different version from the 1854 original with blue key lines around each of five equal stars. It is frequently made in the proportions of 20:13. Although the flag is designed as a representation of the Southern Cross, a constellation located in southern skies and thus only visible to viewers in the southern hemisphere, the stars are arranged differently from the arrangement of stars in the constellation itself. The "middle" star (Epsilon Crucis) in the constellation is off-centre, and near to the edge of the "diamond", while the Eureka flag shows it in the centre. The Eureka flag is only a stylised version of the more widely known pattern.

Eureka Flag Bill 2004[edit]

There was a private members bill tabled in parliament on 23 March 2004 by Victorian Senator Gavin Marshall, which adopted the standardised Eureka flag pattern, and sought to “amend the Flags Act 1953 to recognise the Eureka Flag as an official flag of Australia, and for related purposes”. [39]

The ostensible cause of this legislative remedy, which had also been floated by The Eureka Stockade Memorial Trust in 1997, was the impending sesquicentenary of the Eureka Stockade in 2004 and the need to put the legality of Eureka flag flying on public buildings beyond all doubt, with petitions presented to both house of parliament calling for such recognition under the Flags Act 1953 (Cth). [40] It was claimed in parliament that former immigration minister Al Grassby had attested to a precedent where the Eureka flag was flown from old parliament house in 1972. [41]

Beyond saying that "the events at Eureka 150 years ago were central to the development of Australia as an independent democratic country" in a magazine interview, Prime Minister John Howard refused all invitations to attend any events held for the anniversary, and disapproved of attempts by parliamentarians Catherine King MP and Senator Gavin Marshall, to have the Eureka flag fly over Capitol Hill. [42] Eventually a compromise was reached with the presiding officers where the Eureka flag was allowed to stand in the foyer to both chambers on the day. [43]

Case for an unofficial Eureka flag[edit]

There were several legal and vexillological counter arguments made at the time as to why the Eureka flag should not be accorded this legislative recognition. Unlike the Australian national flag and the Australian red ensign, which are both defined in the statute, the Eureka flag could not recently been seen as a flag of state, being described by critics as an “obsolete symbol of division” [44] and the proposed amendment "politically motivated". [45]

The Eureka flag has a somewhat unsavoury connotation in some quarters on account of, among other things, the Eurekaphillic nature of some of the more partisan trades unions in Australia. The Eureka flag does have some resonance among their membership, and is almost always in evidence at union pickets and marches, including the infamous 1948 Saint Patricks day clash between police and 500 communist affiliated unionists, where two blood splattered members were taken to hospital after a melee described as “a fight for the Eureka flag”. [46] Research published in 2013 found "the Eureka flag eliciting the mixed response with 1 in 10 (10%) being extremely proud while 1 in 3 (35%) are uncomfortable with its use." [47]

It was argued at the time that it would be more usual for the Governor-General to appoint flags and ensigns of Australia under the existing legislative provisions, as section 5 of the Flags Act provides, “The Governor-General may, by Proclamation, appoint such other flags and ensigns of Australia as he or she thinks fit.” Section 6 deals with warrants to use flags, and allows that, “The Governor-General may, by warrant, authorize a person, body or authority to use a flag or ensign referred to in, or appointed under, this Act, either without defacement or defaced in the manner specified in the warrant.” [48]

Former chief justice of the High Court of Australia, Sir Harry Gibbs, also cited obsolescence in his legal opinion saying:

“The object of s.5 of the Flags Act is no enable the Governor-General to appoint flags or ensigns for the special services e.g. the RAAF or for a particular regiment.
"It is arguable that the power given by s.5 is wide enough to allow the Governor-General to appoint historical flags such as the Eureka flag.
"However, it is doubtful whether it would be appropriate to do so, since s.6 indicates that the flags appointed under s.5 are such as may be put to current use.” [49]

Subsequently, in the order of precedence, there was criticism from the Australian Flag Society that it would be the case that a former de facto national symbol such as the Australian Federation Flag, would be outranked by the Eureka flag. [50]

Indeed, should such a similar bill ever be enacted, then as framed a Eureka flag which adhered to the specifications of the unique flag in dimension, proportions and device would not be afforded any protection or status compared to that which would be enjoyed by the unfaithful, modern Eureka flag replicas, an outcome potentially enforceable by the courts.

Other flags of the Eureka rebellion[edit]

There has been direct and circumstantial evidence uncovered by historians and vexillological investigators as to the existence of additional flags associated with the Eureka rebellion.

Bendigo Digger's Banner[edit]

At a mass meeting held in Bendigo on 13 August 1853, over 10,000 people would assemble under a 'Diggers’ Flag' designed by William Dexter. The design features such mining symbolism as a pick, shovel and cradle. Other devices include the scales of justice, a bundle of sticks (a Roman symbol for unity) and Australian native animals.

Eureka flags[edit]

Illustration of Eureka flag from the front cover of Raffaello Carboni's 1855 "The Eureka Stockade" featuring diamond shaped stars.

In 1885, John W. Wilson, who was employed by the Victorian Works Department at Ballarat as a foreman, was sympathetic to the rebel cause, and would claim that he had originally conceptualised the Eureka flag, which he then had constructed by a tarpaulin maker, before enlisting the help of prisoners to procure a flag pole upon which was flown his design of “five white stars on a blue ground, [which] floated gaily in the breeze”. [51] However it is possible this rebel battle flag was only one of several constructed at Eureka, with Withers revealing that two women, Mrs Morgan and Mrs Oliver, claimed to have sewn a starry banner around the time, but “they could not positively identify it as the one flown at Eureka”. Cayley also concludes that “There seems little doubt that more than one flag was made at Eureka”, [52] with his colleague and fellow Eureka investigator, Melbourne journalist Len Fox, also stating “Flags were popular on the goldfields, and it may well be that among the diggers at Ballarat were smaller (and different) versions of the Eureka flag.” [53]

If spare Eureka flags were also kept in and around the stockade, it may also be the case that one of these facsimiles was the source of Sergeant John McNeil’s claim that he shredded a flag at the time - if indeed he did - and may be the reason for the differing description in Carboni’s book, which could be him recalling one of these additional Eureka flags which most suited his design preferences.

Eureka Jacks[edit]

Main article: Eureka Jack
There is a possibility based on the first reports of the battle that a second, Union Flag, was being flown on 3 December 1854 by the rebels besieged at the Eureka Stockade.

When the first reports of the clash appeared in Melbourne the next day, readers of The Argus newspaper were told:

"The flag of the diggers, 'The Southern Cross,' as well as the 'Union Jack,' which they had to hoist underneath, were captured by the foot police."[54][55]

There is some debate over whether this sole contemporaneous report of an otherwise unaccounted for Union Jack being flown over the Eureka Stockade on the morning of 3 December 1854 is accurate. [56] In 2012 Peter FitzSimons in Eureka: The Unfinished Revolution would reach the conclusion that:

"In my opinion, this report of the Union Jack being on the same flagpole as the flag of the Southern Cross is not credible. There is no independent corroborating report in any other newspaper, letter, diary or book, and one would have expected Raffaello Carboni, for one, to have mentioned it had that been the case. The paintings of the flag ceremony and battle by Charles Doudiet, who was in Ballarat at the time, depicts no Union Jack. During the trial for High Treason, the flying of the Southern Cross was an enormous issue, yet no mention was ever made of the Union Jack flying beneath." [57]
A folk cartoon entitled "Fall back with the Eureka Jack". Two flag theorists have speculated that the Union Jack like flag captured on the person of a rebel prisoner was seized from the Eureka Stockade flag pole.

Private Hugh King of the 40th regiment which was part of the besieging forces, swore in a signed affidavit made at the time that he recalls:

"...three or four hundred yards a heavy fire from the stockade was opened on the troops and me. When the fire was opened on us we received orders to fire. I saw some of the 40th wounded lying on the ground but I cannot say that it was before the fire on both sides. I think some of the men in the stockade should - they had a flag flying in the stockade; it was a white cross of five stars on a blue ground. - flag was afterwards taken from one of the prisoners like a union jack – we fired and advanced on the stockade, when we jumped over, we were ordered to take all we could prisoners..."[58]

Gregory Black, military historian and author of Eureka Stockade: A Ferocious and Bloody Battle, concedes two flags may have been flown on the day of the battle, as the miners were claiming to be defending their British rights. [59] It has been said the flag taken from the prisoner may have been souvenired from the flag pole as they were on the retreat. There was another report of two flags having been captured at the stockade which appeared in The Argus on 9 December 1854 following a committal hearing which stated: “The great topic of interest to-day has been the proceedings in reference to the state prisoners now confined in the Camp. As the evidence of the witnesses in these cases is more reliable information than that afforded by most reports, I shall endeavor to give you an abstract of it.” Hugh King had been called upon to give further testimony live under oath in the matter of Timothy Hayes and in doing so went into more detail than in his affidavit, as it was reported the Union Jack like flag was found:

"...rollen up in the breast of a[n] [unidentified] prisoner. He [King] advanced with the rest, firing as they advanced ... several shots were fired on them after they entered [the stockade]. He observed the prisoner [Hayes] brought down from a tent in custody."

And once captured by John King the Eureka flag would be stored beneath his tunic in the same way as the suspected Union Jack was discovered on the prisoner. [60]

In 2013 the Australian Flag Society announced a worldwide quest and A$10,000 reward for information leading to the discovery of the Union Jack which was reportedly hoisted as a second flag at the Battle of the Eureka Stockade. [61]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "The flag of the Southern Cross (Eureka Flag)". Art Gallery of Ballarat. Retrieved March 2014. 
  2. ^ "Eureka Flag". Museum of Australian Democracy at Eureka. Retrieved March 2014. 
  3. ^ Huxley, John Eureka? An answer to that Jack in the corner gets a little bit warmer Sydney Morning Herald. 26 January 2011
  4. ^ Thousands march for Labour Day across Queensland Australian Broadcasting Commission. 3 May 2011
  5. ^ http://www.flagsociety.org.au/historical_flags.pdf
  6. ^ "Eureka Flag, Victorian Heritage Register (VHR) Number H2097". Victorian Heritage Database. Heritage Victoria. Retrieved 2011-11-28. 
  7. ^ "2006 Icons | National Trust of Australia (Victoria)". Nattrust.com.au. Retrieved 2011-11-29. 
  8. ^ "By Express. Fatal Collision at Ballaarat.". The Argus (Melbourne, Vic.). 4 December 1854. p. 5. 
  9. ^ Whitney Smith, The Flag Book of the United States: The Story of the Stars and Stripes and the Flags of the Fifty States (William Morrow, New York, 1975) 60.
  10. ^ "Flag History – Other Australian Flags – Eureka Flag". Australianflag.com.au. Retrieved 2011-11-29. 
  11. ^ Dorothy Wickham, Clare Gervasoni, Val D’Angri, The Eureka Flag: Our Starry Banner (Ballarat Heritage Services, Ballarat, 1996) 11.
  12. ^ Eureka flag history
  13. ^ a b "Reclaiming the Radical Spirit of the Eureka Rebellion and Eureka Stockade of 1854". Takver.com. Retrieved 2011-11-29. 
  14. ^ Walshe, R. D He Found and Raised Eureka's Trampled Flag: a Tribute to Len Fox
  15. ^ National Trust, First Victorian Icons Named
  16. ^ Whitney Smith, Flags Through the Ages and Across the World (McGraw-Hill, Maidenhead, 1975) 78.
  17. ^ Vaughan, John. "Flags under the Southern Cross and the Eureka Myth". Australian National Flag Association. 
  18. ^ Ham, Larissa (27 October 2008). "Soccer bosses flag end to Eureka moments". The Age (Melbourne). 
  19. ^ [1][dead link]
  20. ^ http://www.abc.net.au/news/2004-09-10/anderson-flags-eureka-debate/2041414
  21. ^ "Our Own Flag". Ausflag. Retrieved 2011-11-29. 
  22. ^ Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet. 2006. Australian Flags. Australian Government Publishing Service ISBN 0-642-47134-7.
  23. ^ Corfield, Wickham, Gervasoni, 188.
  24. ^ Wickham, Gervasoni, D’Angri, 61-62.
  25. ^ Ibid, 56-57, 66, 76.
  26. ^ Ibid 76.
  27. ^ Ibid, 55.
  28. ^ 83 Ibid, 59, 64.
  29. ^ Frank Cayley, Flag of Stars (Rigby, Adelaide, 1966) 82 - 83.
  30. ^ Bob O’Brien, Massacre at Eureka: The untold story (Australian Scholarly Publishing, Kew, 1992) 81.
  31. ^ Frank Cayley, Flag of Stars (Rigby, Adelaide, 1966) 87 - 90.
  32. ^ Whitney Smith, Flags Through the Ages and Across the World (McGraw-Hill, Maidenhead, 1975) 78.
  33. ^ Anne Beggs Sunter, ‘Contesting the Flag: the mixed messages of the Eureka Flag’, paper for Eureka Seminar, University of Melbourne History Department, 1 December 2004, published in Eureka: reappraising an Australian Legend, edited by Alan Mayne, Network Books, Perth, 2007.
  34. ^ Ray Wenban, The Romance of Gold in Australia (Australian Visual Education, Sydney, 1958), 19 - 23.
  35. ^ Anne Beggs Sunter, ‘Contesting the Flag: the mixed messages of the Eureka Flag’, paper for Eureka Seminar, University of Melbourne History Department, 1 December 2004, published in Eureka: reappraising an Australian Legend, edited by Alan Mayne, Network Books, Perth, 2007.
  36. ^ William Withers, 'The Eureka Stockade Flag', The Ballarat Star, 1 May 1896, 1.
  37. ^ ‘Eureka Stockade flag not holed by moths’, 2 August 1947, Sydney Morning Herald, 15.
  38. ^ Look and Learn, 14 February 1970, 6.
  39. ^ Flags Amendment (Eureka Flag) Bill 2004. A mirror bill had previously been introduced into the House of Representatives by member for Ballarat Catherine King in 2003.
  40. ^ Anne Beggs Sunter, ‘Contesting the Flag: the mixed messages of the Eureka Flag’, paper for Eureka Seminar, University of Melbourne History Department, 1 December 2004, published in Eureka: reappraising an Australian Legend, edited by Alan Mayne, Network Books, Perth, 2007.
  41. ^ Commonwealth, Questions to the Speaker, House of Representatives, 13 May 2004, 28666 (Catherine King).
  42. ^ Gerard Henderson, ‘Libs should battle for Eureka’, Sydney Morning Herald, 30 November 2004, 13.
  43. ^ Commonwealth, Questions to the Speaker, House of Representatives, 1 December 2004, 91, (Catherine King).
  44. ^ "Eureka: An historic distraction - On Line Opinion - 3/12/2004". On Line Opinion. Retrieved 2012-05-22. 
  45. ^ Best, Catherine (2003-03-05). "Liberal MP rubbishes Eureka flag proposal - Local News - News - General". The Courier. Retrieved 2012-05-22. 
  46. ^ ‘Police in serious clash with strikers: Battle over Eureka flag’, The Argus, 18 March 1948, 3.
  47. ^ mccrindle.com.au/ResearchSummaries/2013/Aussie-Pride-Australia-Day-2013_McCrindle-Research.pdf
  48. ^ "Eureka flag proposal puts critics in a flap - Local News - News - General". The Courier. 2004-07-21. Retrieved 2012-05-22. 
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  51. ^ J.W. Wilson, The Starry Banner of Australia: An Episode in Colonial History (Brian Donaghey, Brisbane, 1963) 6 - 8.
  52. ^ Cayley, Flag of Stars, 80.
  53. ^ Len Fox, 32.
  54. ^ "ergo | Research, resources and essay writing". Slv.vic.gov.au. Retrieved 2011-11-29. 
  55. ^ "By Express. Fatal Collision at Ballaarat.". The Argus (Melbourne, Vic.). 4 December 1854. p. 5. 
  56. ^ Morris, Nigel. "What happened to the Eureka Jack?". Australian Flag Society. 
  57. ^ Peter FitzSimons, Eureka: The Unfinished Revolution (Random House Australia, Sydney, 2012) 654 - 655, note 56.
  58. ^ http://wiki.prov.vic.gov.au/index.php/Eureka_Stockade:Depositions_VPRS_5527/P_Unit_2,_Item_9
  59. ^ Gregory Blake, Eureka Stockade: A ferocious and bloody battle (Big Sky Publishing, Newport, 2012) 243 - 244, note 78.
  60. ^ FitzSimons, 477.
  61. ^ http://www.thecourier.com.au/story/1858615/10000-reward-to-track-down-the-other-eureka-flag

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