European emission standards

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Simplified chart showing the progression of European emission standards for Diesel cars.
Simplified chart showing the progression of European emission standards for Petrol cars. Note that until Euro 5, there were no PM limits.

European emission standards define the acceptable limits for exhaust emissions of new vehicles sold in EU member states. The emission standards are defined in a series of European Union directives staging the progressive introduction of increasingly stringent standards.

Currently, emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), total hydrocarbon (THC), non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC), carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter (PM) are regulated for most vehicle types, including cars, lorries, trains, tractors and similar machinery, barges, but excluding seagoing ships and aeroplanes. For each vehicle type, different standards apply. Compliance is determined by running the engine at a standardised test cycle. Non-compliant vehicles cannot be sold in the EU, but new standards do not apply to vehicles already on the roads. No use of specific technologies is mandated to meet the standards, though available technology is considered when setting the standards. New models introduced must meet current or planned standards, but minor lifecycle model revisions may continue to be offered with pre-compliant engines.

In the early 2000s, Australia began harmonising Australian Design Rule certification for new motor vehicle emissions with Euro categories. Euro III was introduced on 1 January 2006 and is progressively being introduced to align with European introduction dates.

Also see the EU-mandated European on-board diagnostics.

CO2 emission[edit]

See also: Global warming

Within the European Union, road transport is responsible for about 20% of all CO2 emissions, with passenger cars contributing about 12%.[1]

The target fixed at Kyoto Protocol was an 8% reduction of emissions in all sectors of the economy compared to 1990 levels by 2008-2012.

Relative CO2 emissions from transport have risen rapidly in recent years, from 21% of the total in 1990 to 28% in 2004,[1][2][3] but currently there are no standards for limits on CO2 emissions from vehicles.

EU transport emissions of CO2 currently account for about 3.5% of total global CO2 emissions.

Obligatory labelling[edit]

The purpose of Directive 1999/94/EC of the European Parliament and the Council of 13 December 1999 relating to the availability of consumer information on fuel economy and CO2 emissions in respect of the marketing of new passenger cars[4] is to ensure that information relating to the fuel economy and CO2 emissions of new passenger cars offered for sale or lease in the Community is made available to consumers in order to enable consumers to make an informed choice.

In the United Kingdom, the initial approach was deemed ineffective. The way the information was presented was too complicated for consumers to understand. As a result, car manufacturers in the United Kingdom voluntarily agreed to put a more “consumer-friendly,” colour-coded label displaying CO2 emissions on all new cars beginning in September 2005, with a letter from A (<100 CO2 g/km) to F ( 186+ CO2 g/km) . The goal of the new “green label” is to give consumers clear information about the environmental performance of different vehicles.[5]

Other EU member countries are also in the process of introducing consumer-friendly labels.

Obligatory vehicle CO2 emission limits[edit]

EU Regulation No 443/2009 sets an average CO2 emissions target for new passenger cars of 130 grams per kilometre. The target is gradually being phased in between 2012 and 2015. A target of 95 grams per kilometre will apply from 2021.

For light commercial vehicle, an emissions target of 175 g/km applies from 2017, and 147 g/km from 2020.[6]

Toxic emission: stages and legal framework[edit]

The stages are typically referred to as Euro 1, Euro 2, Euro 3, Euro 4 and Euro 5 for Light Duty Vehicle standards. The corresponding series of standards for Heavy Duty Vehicles use Roman, rather than Arabic numerals (Euro I, Euro II, etc.)

The legal framework consists in a series of directives, each amendments to the 1970 Directive 70/220/EEC.[7] The following is a summary list of the standards, when they come into force, what they apply to, and which EU directives provide the definition of the standard.

  • Euro 1 (1993):
    • For passenger cars - 91/441/EEC.[8]
    • Also for passenger cars and light trucks - 93/59/EEC.
  • Euro 2 (1996) for passenger cars - 94/12/EC (& 96/69/EC)
    • For motorcycle - 2002/51/EC (row A)[9] - 2006/120/EC
  • Euro 3 (2000) for any vehicle - 98/69/EC[10]
    • For motorcycle - 2002/51/EC (row B)[9] - 2006/120/EC
  • Euro 4 (2005) for any vehicle - 98/69/EC (& 2002/80/EC)
  • Euro 5 (2008/9) and Euro 6 (2014) for light passenger and commercial vehicles - 715/2007/EC[11]

These limits supersede the original directive on emission limits 70/220/EEC.

The classifications for vehicle category are defined by:[12]

  • Commission Directive 2001/116/EC of 20 December 2001, adapting to technical progress Council Directive 70/156/EEC on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to the type-approval of motor vehicles and their trailers[13][14]
  • Directive 2002/24/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 March 2002 relating to the type-approval of two or three-wheeled motor vehicles and repealing Council Directive 92/61/EEC

In the area of fuels, the 2001 Biofuels Directive requires that 5.75% of all transport fossil fuels (petrol and diesel) should be replaced by biofuels by 31 December 2010, with an intermediate target of 2% by the end of 2005. However, MEPs have since voted to lower this target in the wake of new scientific evidence about the sustainability of biofuels and the impact on food prices. In a vote in Strasbourg, the European parliament’s environment committee supported a plan to curb the EU target for renewable sources in transport to 4% by 2015. They also said that a thorough review would be required in 2015 before the EU could progress to an 8-10% mark by 2020.

Emission standards for passenger cars[edit]

Exhaust gases are far less toxic than they were years ago.

Emission standards for passenger cars and light commercial vehicles are summarised in the following tables. Since the Euro 2 stage, EU regulations introduce different emission limits for diesel and petrol vehicles. Diesels have more stringent CO standards but are allowed higher NOx emissions. Petrol-powered vehicles are exempted from particulate matter (PM) standards through to the Euro 4 stage, but vehicles with direct injection engines will be subject to a limit of 0.005 g/km for Euro 5 and Euro 6. A particulate number standard (P) or (PN) is part of Euro 5 and 6, but is not final. The standard is to be defined as soon as possible and at the latest upon entry into force of Euro 6.[11]

All dates listed in the tables refer to new type approvals. The EC Directives also specify a second date — one year later — which applies to first registration (entry into service) of existing, previously type-approved vehicle models.

European emission standards for passenger cars (Category M*), g/km

Tier Date CO THC NMHC NOx HC+NOx PM P***
Diesel
Euro 1† July 1992 2.72 (3.16) - - - 0.97 (1.13) 0.14 (0.18) -
Euro 2 January 1996 1.0 - - - 0.7 0.08 -
Euro 3 January 2000 0.64 - - 0.50 0.56 0.05 -
Euro 4 January 2005 0.50 - - 0.25 0.30 0.025 -
Euro 5 September 2009 0.50 - - 0.180 0.230 0.005 -
Euro 6 September 2014 0.50 - - 0.080 0.170 0.005 -
Petrol (Gasoline)
Euro 1† July 1992 2.72 (3.16) - - - 0.97 (1.13) - -
Euro 2 January 1996 2.2 - - - 0.5 - -
Euro 3 January 2000 2.3 0.20 - 0.15 - - -
Euro 4 January 2005 1.0 0.10 - 0.08 - - -
Euro 5 September 2009 1.0 0.10 0.068 0.060 - 0.005** -
Euro 6 September 2014 1.0 0.10 0.068 0.060 - 0.005** -
* Before Euro 5, passenger vehicles > 2500 kg were type approved as light commercial vehicles N1-I
** Applies only to vehicles with direct injection engines
*** A number standard is to be defined as soon as possible and at the latest upon entry into force of Euro 6
† Values in brackets are conformity of production (COP) limits

Emission standards for light commercial vehicles[edit]

European emission standards for light commercial vehicles ≤1305 kg (Category N1-I), g/km

Tier Date CO THC NMHC NOx HC+NOx PM P
Diesel
Euro 1 October 1994 2.72 - - - 0.97 0.14 -
Euro 2 January 1998 1.0 - - - 0.7 0.08 -
Euro 3 January 2000 0.64 - - 0.50 0.56 0.05 -
Euro 4 January 2005 0.50 - - 0.25 0.30 0.025 -
Euro 5 September 2009 0.500 - - 0.180 0.230 0.005 -
Euro 6 September 2014 0.500 - - 0.080 0.170 0.005 -
Petrol (Gasoline)
Euro 1 October 1994 2.72 - - - 0.97 - -
Euro 2 January 1998 2.2 - - - 0.5 - -
Euro 3 January 2000 2.3 0.20 - 0.15 - - -
Euro 4 January 2005 1.0 0.10 - 0.08 - - -
Euro 5 September 2009 1.000 0.100 0.068 0.060 - 0.005* -
Euro 6 September 2014 1.000 0.100 0.068 0.060 - 0.005* -
* Applies only to vehicles with direct injection engines

European emission standards for light commercial vehicles 1305 kg – 1760 kg (Category N1-II), g/km

Tier Date CO THC NMHC NOx HC+NOx PM P
Diesel
Euro 1 October 1994 5.17 - - - 1.4 0.19 -
Euro 2 January 1998 1.25 - - - 1.0 0.12 -
Euro 3 January 2001 0.80 - - 0.65 0.72 0.07 -
Euro 4 January 2006 0.63 - - 0.33 0.39 0.04 -
Euro 5 September 2010 0.630 - - 0.235 0.295 0.005 -
Euro 6 September 2015 0.630 - - 0.105 0.195 0.005 -
Petrol (Gasoline)
Euro 1 October 1994 5.17 - - - 1.4 - -
Euro 2 January 1998 4.0 - - - 0.6 - -
Euro 3 January 2001 4.17 0.25 - 0.18 - - -
Euro 4 January 2006 1.81 0.13 - 0.10 - - -
Euro 5 September 2010 1.810 0.130 0.090 0.075 - 0.005* -
Euro 6 September 2015 1.810 0.130 0.090 0.075 - 0.005* -
* Applies only to vehicles with direct injection engines

European emission standards for light commercial vehicles >1760 kg max 3500 kg. (Category N1-III & N2), g/km

Tier Date CO THC NMHC NOx HC+NOx PM P
Diesel
Euro 1 October 1994 6.9 - - - 1.7 0.25 -
Euro 2 January 1998 1.5 - - - 1.2 0.17 -
Euro 3 January 2001 0.95 - - 0.78 0.86 0.10 -
Euro 4 January 2006 0.74 - - 0.39 0.46 0.06 -
Euro 5 September 2010 0.740 - - 0.280 0.350 0.005 -
Euro 6 September 2015 0.740 - - 0.125 0.215 0.005 -
Petrol (Gasoline)
Euro 1 October 1994 6.9 - - - 1.7 - -
Euro 2 January 1998 5.0 - - - 0.7 - -
Euro 3 January 2001 5.22 0.29 - 0.21 - - -
Euro 4 January 2006 2.27 0.16 - 0.11 - - -
Euro 5 September 2010 2.270 0.160 0.108 0.082 - 0.005* -
Euro 6 September 2015 2.270 0.160 0.108 0.082 - 0.005* -
* Applies only to vehicles with direct injection engines

Emission standards for trucks and buses[edit]

Whereas for passenger cars, the standards are defined by vehicle driving distance, g/km, for lorries (trucks) they are defined by engine energy output, g/kWh, and are therefore in no way comparable. The following table contains a summary of the emission standards and their implementation dates. Dates in the tables refer to new type approvals; the dates for all type approvals are in most cases one year later (EU type approvals are valid longer than one year).

The official category name is heavy-duty diesel engines, which generally includes lorries and buses.

EU Emission Standards for HD Diesel Engines, g/kWh (smoke in m−1)

Tier Date Test cycle CO HC NOx PM Smoke
Euro I 1992, < 85 kW

ECE R-49

4.5 1.1 8.0 0.612
1992, > 85 kW 4.5 1.1 8.0 0.36
Euro II October 1996 4.0 1.1 7.0 0.25
October 1998 4.0 1.1 7.0 0.15
Euro III October 1999 EEVs only ESC & ELR 1.0 0.25 2.0 0.02 0.15
October 2000

ESC & ELR

2.1 0.66 5.0 0.10
0.13*
0.8
Euro IV October 2005 1.5 0.46 3.5 0.02 0.5
Euro V October 2008 1.5 0.46 2.0 0.02 0.5
Euro VI 31 December 2013[15] 1.5 0.13 0.4 0.01
* for engines of less than 0.75 dm³ swept volume per cylinder and a rated power speed of more than 3,000 per minute. EEV is "Enhanced environmentally friendly vehicle".

Emission standards for large goods vehicles[edit]

Euro norm emissions for category N3, EDC, (2000 and up)
Standard Date CO (g/kWh) NOx (g/kWh) HC (g/kWh) PM (g/kWh)
Euro 0 1988–1992 12.3 15.8 2.6 NA
Euro I 1992–1995 4.9 9.0 1.23 0.40
Euro II 1995–1999 4.0 7.0 1.1 0.15
Euro III 1999–2005 2.1 5.0 0.66 0.1
Euro IV 2005–2008 1.5 3.5 0.46 0.02
Euro V 2008–2012 1.5 2.0 0.46 0.02
Euro norm emissions for (older) ECE R49 cycle
Standard Date CO (g/kWh) NOx (g/kWh) HC (g/kWh) PM (g/kWh)
Euro 0 1988–1992 11.2 14.4 2.4 NA
Euro I 1992–1995 4.5 8.0 1.1 0.36
Euro II 1995–1999 4.0 7.0 1.1 0.15

Enhanced environmentally friendly vehicle[edit]

Enhanced environmentally friendly vehicle or EEV is a term used in the European emission standards for the definition of a "clean vehicle" > 3.5 tonne in the category M2 and M3. The standard lies between the levels of Euro V and Euro VI.

Emission standards for non-road mobile machinery[edit]

The term non-road mobile machinery (NRMM) is a term used in the European emission standards to control emissions of engines that are not used primarily on public roadways. This definition included off road vehicles as well as railway vehicles.

European standards for non-road diesel engines harmonize with the US EPA standards, and comprise gradually stringent tiers known as Stage I-IV standards. The Stage I/II was part of the 1997 directive (Directive 97/68/EC). It was implemented in two stages with Stage I implemented in 1999 and Stage II implemented between 2001 and 2004. In 2004, the European Parliament adopted Stage III/IV standards. The Stage III standards were further divided into Stage III A and III B were phased in between 2006 and 2013. Stage IV standards will be enforced in 2014.

Cycle beating[edit]

For the emission standards to deliver real emission reductions it is crucial to use a test cycle that reflects real-world driving style. It was discovered that engine manufacturers would engage in what was called 'cycle beating' to optimise emission performance to the test cycle, while emissions from typical driving conditions would be much higher than expected, undermining the standards and public health. In one particular instance, research from two German technology institutes found that for diesel cars no 'real' NOx reductions have been achieved after 13 years of stricter standards (2006 report).[16]

Electrification[edit]

As Europe's requirements for its vehicle fleets head toward a goal of 98 grams of CO
2
per kilometer by 2020, Christian Maloney of the German office of consulting group McKinsey & Co. says the only way the automakers can get there and make money is with plug-in vehicles.[17][18]

Many EU member states have responded to this problem by exploring the possibility of including electric vehicle-related infrastructure into their existing road traffic system, with some even having begun implementation. The UK has begun its "plugged-in-places" scheme which sees funding go to several areas across the UK in order to create a network of charging points for electric vehicles.[19]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "European Commission plans legislative framework to ensure the EU meets its target for cutting CO2 emissions from cars. Ref: IP/07/155 07/02/2007". Europa.eu. Retrieved 2011-02-02. 
  2. ^ Mulvey, Stephen (2007-02-07). "7 February 2007, EU car CO2 fight only beginning. by Stephen Mulvey". BBC News. Retrieved 2011-02-02. 
  3. ^ Suellentrop, Chris (2013-06-29). "International Herald Tribune. EU to compromise on auto emissions - by Dan Bilefsky, Published: February 6, 2007". International Herald Tribune. Retrieved 2013-07-15. 
  4. ^ "Directive 1999/94/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 December 1999 relating to the availability of consumer information on fuel economy and CO2 emissions in respect of the marketing of new passenger cars". Eur-lex.europa.eu. Retrieved 2011-02-02. 
  5. ^ "Resources for the Future, Resources Magazine, Weathervane, One Car At A Time". Rff.org. 2006-01-10. Retrieved 2011-02-02. 
  6. ^ International Council on Clean Transportation (January 2014). "EU CO2 standards for passenger cars and light-commercial vehicles". Retrieved 5 February 2014. 
  7. ^ "European Commission > Enterprise and Industry > Sectors > Automotive > Reference documents > Directives and regulations > Directive 70/220/EEC". Ec.europa.eu. 2010-08-31. Retrieved 2011-02-02. 
  8. ^ "91/441/EEC Council Directive 91/441/EEC of 26 June 1991 amending Directive 70/220/EEC on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to measures to be taken against air pollution by emissions from motor vehicles". Eur-lex.europa.eu. Retrieved 2011-02-02. 
  9. ^ a b "Directive 2002/51/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 July 2002 on the reduction of the level of pollutant emissions from two- and three-wheel motor vehicles and amending Directive 97/24/EC". Eur-lex.europa.eu. Retrieved 2011-02-02. 
  10. ^ "Directive 98/69/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 October 1998 relating to measures to be taken against air pollution by emissions from motor vehicles and amending Council Directive 70/220/EEC". Eur-lex.europa.eu. Retrieved 2011-02-02. 
  11. ^ a b "Regulation (EC) No 715/2007 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 June 2007 on type approval of motor vehicles with respect to emissions from light passenger and commercial vehicles (Euro 5 and Euro 6) and on access to vehicle repair and maintenance information". Eur-lex.europa.eu. Retrieved 2011-02-02. 
  12. ^ "EUROPA > Summaries of EU legislation > Internal market > Single Market for Goods > Motor vehicles > Technical harmonisation for motor vehicles". Europa.eu. 2010-10-29. Retrieved 2011-02-02. 
  13. ^ "Council Directive 70/156/EEC of 6 February 1970 on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to the type-approval of motor vehicles and their trailers". Eur-lex.europa.eu. Retrieved 2011-02-02. 
  14. ^ "Commission Directive 2001/116/EC of 20 December 2001 adapting to technical progress Council Directive 70/156/EEC on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to the type-approval of motor vehicles and their trailers". Eur-lex.europa.eu. Retrieved 2011-02-02. 
  15. ^ "COMMISSION REGULATION (EU) No 582/2011 (Euro VI), date is for new registrations". Retrieved 2013-07-15. 
  16. ^ "Transport Environment.org Transport & Environment, Bulletin - News from the European Federation for Transport and Environment, No 146, March 2006, WHO adds pressure for stricter Euro-5 standards" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-02-02. 
  17. ^ "The California Cars Initiative. The Ultimate Posting on Plug-In Hybrid Developments: Sep 22, 2009". Calcars.org. Retrieved 2011-02-02. 
  18. ^ "03 Sep 2009 McKinsey: EU CO2 Regs Are a Death Sentence to Car Makers - But There's a Solution ... SYNOPSIS: Consultants McKinsey in Germany says there is only one way for car makers to reach the EU's ambitious CO2 targets: by selling lots of electric cars". Evworld.com. Retrieved 2011-02-02. 
  19. ^ "Recharging infrastructure". Department for Transport. Retrieved 22 December 2011. 

External links[edit]

In the media[edit]