||This article needs additional citations for verification. (February 2013)|
|Stylistic origins||Eurodisco, Hi-NRG, house, hip hop, dance-pop, techno, other electronic dance music|
|Cultural origins||Europe, late 1980s|
|Typical instruments||Synthesizer, Drum machine, keyboards, sequencer|
|Derivative forms||French House – Italodance – Bubblegum dance – Eurotrance – Latin Freestyle – Happy Hardcore – Super Eurobeat – UK Hardcore – Progressive Trance - Psychedelic Trance|
|Euro House - Euro Techno
|Europe - Japan - Latin America - Australia - Canada - New Zealand - South Korea - Africa - China - United States|
|List of Eurodance artists|
Eurodance (sometimes known as Euro-NRG or shortened as Euro) is a genre of electronic dance music that originated in the late 1980s primarily in Europe. It combines many elements from house, Hi-NRG, as well as Eurodisco. Eurodance production continues to evolve with a more modernized style that incorporates elements from trance and techno music.
This genre of music is heavily influenced by the utilization of rich melodic vocals, either exclusively by itself or inclusively with rapped verses. This, combined with cutting-edge synthesizer, strong bass rhythm and melodic hooks establishes the core foundation of Eurodance music.
The term "Eurodance" gradually became associated with a specific style of European dance music over time. During its golden years in the mid-1990s it was referred as "Euro-House" or "Euro-NRG"; in Europe it was often called "Dancefloor" or simply "Dance".
While some use a much broader definition of what is considered "Eurodance", over time, the term particularly came to refer to an NRG-based genre from the 1990s which included a solo vocalist or a rapper/vocalist duet.
Eurodance is nightclub-orientated music that is usually produced somewhere in Europe and sounds commercial enough to be played by radio stations and music television. Some of the more prominent Eurodance songs go international, especially if an act manages to score more than one hit.
Characteristics of the music 
Most Eurodance is characterized by synthesizer riffs, female or male vocals with simple chorus, male rap parts, sampling and a strong beat. Sometimes with female or male vocals singing throughout the whole song without rap.
Eurodance is often very positive and upbeat; the lyrics often involve issues of love and peace, dancing and partying, or expressing and overcoming difficult emotions. The early-mid-1990s Eurodance vocals were frequently done by a solo vocalist or a mixed rapper-vocalist duet.
Many projects used variations of the rapper-vocalist theme, such as a German rapper with American singers (Real McCoy), or the use of reggae rap as in Ice MC and Fun Factory, or scat singing as in Scatman John. Solo singing artists such as Alexia, Tess, Whigfield and Double You also contributed to the genre.
Eurodance lyrics are almost always sung in English, regardless of the artist's nationalities.
Almost all Eurodance emphasizes percussion and rhythm. Eurodance percussion is generally a "kick" bassdrum with some variations on a 4/4 time signature. While the percussion is always done by synthesizers, it is a sound more typical of dance music and not the "beat box" sound typical of rap music. The tempo is typically around 140 beats per minute, but may vary from 110 to 150 BPM.
Most Eurodance is also very melody-driven. Unlike most pop music which is usually written in major keys, most Eurodance songs are in minor keys. This along with positive lyrics helps contribute to the overall powerful and emotional sound of Eurodance. Besides the contribution of the female vocals, there is often a noticeable use of rapid synthesizer arpeggios. This is a very distinctive feature of Eurodance that separates it from Hi-NRG disco. The synthesizer often has a piano or barrel organ but sometimes mimics other instruments, such as calliope (e.g., "Touch the Sky" by Cartouche). There is often a short, repetitive riff, while other times there is a whole tour de force of synthesizers.
Characteristics of the bands and business 
Eurodance is widely commercialized. Some producers, like Max Martin or Larry Pignagnoli, have managed dozens of bands. From thousands of records released, only a few bands have existed in the mainstream beyond two records. Many acts, such as Captain Jack and Jonny Jakobsen (Dr. Bombay), had a carefully planned humorous image. A group called E-rotic received attention with sexually provocative lyrics and music videos.
While Eurodance singles regularly went to Gold, Platinum or multi-Platinum status, it had been more difficult to get a full length album to get to the same level of success. Typical problems cited include the album as a whole not up to the strength of the singles, the performers not being charismatic enough to hold the attention of millions of people past a song or two, or weak promotion of the remainder of the album after the singles have become hits.
Hi-NRG and Italo-Disco 
Hi-NRG started in the United Kingdom and United States as an underground, faster form of disco after disco had lost mainstream popularity. In the late 1980s, it became associated with British record producers Stock, Aitken and Waterman, and by the early 1990s, bands such as Masterboy & 2 Unlimited were producing a Continental version of Hi-NRG.
Eurodance shows a strong Hi-NRG influence, such as the high BPM and the strong use of female vocals. Eurodance can also be seen as a more technologically advanced form of Euro disco, just as Hi-NRG is the more technologically advanced form of disco.
Italo Disco and its later evolution, Eurobeat, are sometimes thought to be sub-genres of Eurodance, but rather they are offshoots of the European version of Hi-NRG, called "Space Disco". Italo was influential on the production of Eurodance in general, while Italian-produced Eurodance artists, such as Alexia, Cappella, CO.RO, and Double You, tended to preserve features such as operatic female vocals. Later artists such as Eiffel 65 adopted a sort of "marching" beat in their productions. The term "Eurobeat" appears to be more common in Japan, where this style of music is featured in the video game Dance Dance Revolution, as well as in some Anime soundtracks, for example the street racing scenes in Initial D.
House music 
House music, an underground genre in the United States, has been mainstream in Europe first, even though it had initially come from the US to the UK and continental Europe with the rise of acid house and "rave" techno in the late 1980s. By the early 1990s, with the rise of the Belgian New Beat, house then became associated with Belgium and the Netherlands.
Some of the first songs with elements of what would later be called Eurodance are house music. For example, "C'mon and Get My Love" by D Mob (1989), "Strike It Up" by Black Box (1990) and "Get Ready For This" by 2 Unlimited (1991) all have the duet characteristic of Eurodance, and "Everybody's Free (To Feel Good)" by Rozalla (1991) has the characteristic synthesizer riff.
Not all European house music was absorbed into the Eurodance genre. By the early 2000s (decade), it remained a style distinct from Eurodance with harder synthesis and a slower tempo, for example "Satisfaction" by Benny Benassi (2003).
Hip hop music 
Rap verse has been one of the main distinguishing elements of Eurodance. While Eurodance makes use of rap vocals, it does not contain the lyrical themes of "gangster rap", nor does it follow many of the instrumental conventions of rap music, such as turntable scratching or heavy basslines. It does however focus on danceability similar to funk music which was a critical basis to the hip hop genre since many songs from that genre were sampled by hip hop artists.
Eurodance has, however, served to popularize rap music in Europe. While rap had been made in Europe at least as far back as Falco's Einzelhaft album (1982), the American variety only gained a more widespread acceptance when Technotronic landed their hit "Pump Up the Jam" and Snap! scored the hit single "The Power" (I've got the power). The combination of house music with rap vocals in general came to be referred to as Hip house or "house rap".
In the late 1990s, blending elements of reggae also became a trend in Eurodance music. The origin was "All That She Wants" by Ace of Base. The success of this song led to others such as "Coco Jamboo" by Mr. President, "Sweet Sweet Smile" by Tatjana, and "Ole Ole Singin' Ole Ola" by Rollergirl.
Techno always had an important influence on Eurodance music, which at times was basically its more commercial counterpart.[dubious ] Contemporarily to the rise of the second generation of Eurodance artists in the late 1990s and early 2000s (decade), Trance began to take more influence from Eurodance as well (see Euro-Trance), and, by 2006, it started slowly losing popularity as quality releases declined. The interest in Eurodance reignited in the late 2000s (decade), and this time the comeback was largely helped by interests through music and video websites, which includes significant support from media sharing and online networking sites.
Such groups as Basic Element (active in the 1990s as well), Alcazar, Scooter, Ian Van Dahl, Milk Inc., Merzedes Club, Infernal, Special D, Groove Coverage, Santamaria, Cascada, Sylver, Danijay, Eiffel 65, Colonia, and solo artists such as Madonna (e.g. Hung Up single), Kate Ryan, Luca Zeta, Gabry Ponte, DJ Aligator, Máni Svavarsson, Lucas Prata and O-Zone, represent some of the most successful of the second generation of Eurodance artists. Most of them have released hit singles or albums stateside.
Some US-based musicians are now heavily influenced by Eurodance, prominently Lady Gaga.
One of the most popular groups of the 2000s (decade), Cascada, has moved towards electro with their 2011 album, "Original Me". Generally Eurodance lives on with old hits and remixes, as new dance music is often closer to electro and techno.
In Europe 
From early to mid-1990s, eurodance was highly popular in Europe, due to extensive airplay given by the radios and television shows, leading to see many singles on the charts. For example, in Italy there were seven singles into the top ten of the chart as of the end of May 1995. The popularity, which was similar to that of the disco in the middle-to-late 1970s, also led many non-Eurodance artists, such as Ivana Spagna, to create this type of music.
By the late 1990s, the popularity of this genre started to decline slowly. Today, eurodance is generally an underground genre, and it does not receive airplay on mainstream radio.
North America 
Canada was a major Eurodance market, the largest outside Europe, which produced its own variant called Candance. From about 1992 to 2000, acts such as Capital Sound, Emjay, Love Inc., Temperance, Jefferson Project, Kim Esty, The Boomtang Boys, Solina, Roxxy, and BKS among others; originating mainly in major cities of Central Canada such as Toronto, Montreal and Ottawa were hitting the airwaves. Eurodance received significant airplay on radio stations in the Greater Toronto Area such as Power 88.5, Energy 108 and Hot 103.5.
By the late 1990s, the popularity of this genre was in decline. Today, Eurodance receives little airtime on Canadian radio stations, however Z103.5 plays the genre in rotation almost daily. Some nightclubs in the Toronto area have dedicated nights to this genre including the long running live to air. On Z103.5, "Wayback Wednesdays" plays this type of music since April 2002. Eurodance in Toronto is often referred to as nickname: Euro or Gino Beats.
United States 
Eurodance is not well known in the United States outside of the major cities such as New York City, Los Angeles, Chicago, Miami, etc. A few Eurodance artists (including La Bouche, 2 Unlimited, Real McCoy, and Ace of Base) made the Rhythmic Top 40, Top 40 Mainstream and the Billboard Hot 100 during the early to mid-1990s. However, the sound tended to be more house and the rap-oriented artists received airplay. For instance, the German hip-house project Snap! received quite a bit of airplay early on.
The more Hi-NRG-orientated artists were typically played only during special "mix" shows, and it was often necessary to go to a club to hear Eurodance music. While Eurodance did become popular with club DJ's in the United States, radio stations were cautious about playing anything that sounded too much like disco during most of the 1980s and 1990s. By the end of the 1990s, however, some of the later acts such as Italian group Eiffel 65 and Danish group Aqua did receive extensive airplay.
Compilation albums, such as the DMA Dance: Eurodance series of compilation albums (1995–1997) from Interhit Records and Dance Music Authority magazine, were popular and helped to define the genre as well as to make it accessible in the U.S. and Canada.
The songs "S&M" and "Only Girl (In the World)" by Barbadian singer Rihanna are strongly influenced by Eurodance music. Both songs peaked atop the Billboard Hot 100 in 2010 and 2011. In 2012, a large number of songs by American artists featured quintessential Eurodance elements (especially synthesizer and strong beats during the chorus, mixed with rapping or vocals for verses). Examples are Chris Brown, Usher, Nicki Minaj, Jennifer Lopez at others that traditionally attributed to more established American genres such as R'n'B, Soul and Pop.
Notable Eurodance artists 
Some examples of "original" Eurodance acts are 2 Brothers On The 4th Floor, 2 Unlimited, Alcazar, Alexia, Bad Boys Blue, Cappella, Captain Jack, Captain Hollywood Project, Centory, Corona, Culture Beat, Dee Monk, Double You, DJ Bobo, Dr. Alban, E-rotic. E-Type, Eiffel 65, Electro Team, First Base, Fun Factory, Ice MC, Imperio, Indra, Infernal, La Bouche, Lobby, Le Click, Magic Affair, Masterboy, Maxx, Playahitty, Real McCoy, Santamaria, Vengaboys and Whigfield.
These bands included emphasis of the combo female chorus together with male rap performances, leading directly to the duo revival. Each group featured their own signature sound, persona, visual imagery, and vocal approach.
Solo artists who performed Eurodance include Amber and Haddaway. Rozalla supported Michael Jackson during his European "Dangerous" tour. In 1994, Amber made history becoming the first singer in Eurodance history to be signed to a label as a solo artist, not a singer who is bound to a producer.
After the early 1990s, Eurodance music had split into several categories:
- "Classic" Eurodance (1990s) – As noted, often a female vocalist and a male rapper were used for songs within this genre. The music features thicker and more detailed production and is slightly slower than most Eurodance that appeared afterward. This sound features arrangements, production touches, synths, and basslines unique to the early and mid-1990s, and is strongly favoured by those who were fans of Eurodance during that time.
- Bubblegum Dance – Essentially the Danish Eurodance version of bubblegum pop. While the instrumental style is similar to "classic" Eurodance, the lyrics tend towards a tongue-in-cheek humour very different from typical "disco" lyrics. Topics tend to be such things as toys, cartoons or video games, with double-entendres and fairytale motifs (for example, Aqua's "Barbie Girl"). Bubblegum may use either a chorus or a male rapper/female singer duet, though it tends not to make use of American rappers as classic Eurodance does.
- Euro-Trance – Has a more open-ended structure compared to the tightly knit vocals and melodies of "classic" Eurodance. The vocals are sometimes vague or repetitive without verse/chorus structure, often with echo and other effects. Often Euro-Trance has a strong synth line with ethereal chords and strong percussion.
- Synthpop – This style emerged during the late 1970s. A type of dance music with futuristic synths and a lighter electro aesthetic resembling New Wave or early electro pioneers but with a simpler pop/rock template often centring around a vocal part. Synthpop somewhat lost its popularity in the mainstream by the early 1990s but has never been dormant. It continues to be a popular style having seen a major resurgence in the 2000s, and remains even more popular to the present day.
- Europop – Popular music related to dance-pop with elements of classic Eurodance or trance but is not a lot like one or the other. Chorus and verse structure prevalent. Nearly always incessantly catchy with infectious melodies, synths and beats.
See also 
- Bogdanov, Vladimir (2001). All Music Guide to Electronica: The Definitive Guide to Electronic Music (4th ed.). Backbeat Books. pp. x. ISBN 978-0879306281.
- Allmusic: Euro-Dance
- About.com Top 10 Lists – Eurodance Artists
- "Eurodance Dominates Charts 06/24/95". Billboard (Nielsen Business Media) 107 (25): 82. 24 June 1995. ISSN 0006-2510.
- The Eurodance Encyclopaedia – FAQ: What is Eurodance?
- http://www.hitparadeitalia.it/hp_weeks/95/hp950527.htm Hit Parade Italia – settimana del 27/05/95
- http://www.discogs.com/Spagna-I-Always-Dream-About-You/master/139976 Spagna – I always dream about you at Discogs
- Aguilera, Teresa. "Mexican Radio." Billboard 108.39 (1996): 39. ProQuest Research Library. 4 March 2012.]
- Discogs.com: DMA Dance Vol. 1: Eurodance
- Gajarsky, Bob (May 19, 1997). "Review: Various Artists, DMA Dance Volume 3". Consumable Online (Hoboken, NJ) (109).
- Amber, The Eurodance Encyclopaedia
- Hands up(EuroDance) music
- The Eurodance Encyclopedia
- Dance Artists Info
- DMOZ: Styles: Euro Dance