The Europa trilogy is a film trilogy written and directed by Lars von Trier, comprising his three feature films The Element of Crime (1984), Epidemic (1987) and Europa (1991). The films are not a narrative trilogy, but rather are linked by common themes and stylistic explorations. The overarching subject of the trilogy may be taken to be the social crises and traumas of Europe in the future. Each of the three films follows a character whose idealistic actions ultimately perpetuate the very problem he seeks to solve. Von Trier's later USA - Land of Opportunities Trilogy also deals with both apparent social collapse, and the ill-effects of the interventions of idealistic individuals. The trilogy also experiments with film noir conventions, and explores hypnosis and the relationship between reality and unreality.