Military of the European Union

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Military of the European Union
European Union.svg
Founded
1958
Organisations

European Union
  European Defence Agency
  EU Institute for Security Studies
  EU Military Staff
  EU Military Committee
  EU Battlegroup
Finabel
Eurocorps
European Gendarmerie Force
European Air Group
European Air Transport Command
European Maritime Force
Organisation for Joint Armament Cooperation
I. German/Dutch Corps

Combined Joint Expeditionary Force
Equipment 546 ships & 2,448 aircraft
Manpower
Active personnel 1,551,038 (2012)[1]
Expenditures
Budget €192.5 billion (2012)[1]
Percent of GDP 1.55% (2012)[1]
European Union
Flag of the European Union

This article is part of a series on the
politics and government
of the European Union

The military of the European Union is the various initiatives of cooperation between the armed forces of the member states of the union. While the policy area of defence has largely remained the domain of nation states, European integration has deepened in this field in recent years, with the framing of a Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) branch for the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) as well as the creation of separate international forces revolving around the EU's defence. A number of CSDP military operations have been deployed in recent years. The principal military alliance in Europe remains NATO, which includes 22 of the EU member states together with four non-EU European countries (Turkey, Albania, Iceland and Norway) as well as the United States and Canada.

Several prominent leaders, including former French President Nicolas Sarkozy, German Chancellor Angela Merkel, Italian Foreign Minister Franco Frattini and former Belgian Prime Minister Guy Verhofstadt, have voiced support for a common defence for the Union.[2][3][4] This possibility, requiring unanimous support among the member states, was formally laid down in Article 42 of the Treaty on European Union upon the entry into force of the Treaty of Lisbon on 1 December 2009.[5] Furthermore, the Treaty of Lisbon extended the enhanced co-operation provision to become available for application in the area of defence. This mechanism enables a minimum number of member states to deepen integration within the EUs institutional framework, without the necessity of participation for reluctant member states.[6]

Development[edit]

Further information: Military history of Europe

Following the end of World War II and the defeat of the Axis Powers, the Dunkirk Treaty was signed by France and the United Kingdom on 4 March 1947 as a Treaty of Alliance and Mutual Assistance against a possible German attack in the aftermath of World War II. The Dunkirk Treaty entered into force on 8 September 1947. The 1948 Treaty of Brussels established the military Western Union Defence Organisation with an allied European command structure under Field Marshal Montgomery. Western European powers, except for Ireland, Sweden, Finland and Austria, signed the North Atlantic Treaty alongside the United States and Canada which only created a passive defence association until 1951 when, during the Korean War, the existing and fully functioning Western Union Defence Organisation was augmented to form the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation, NATO.

Western European Union[edit]

Further information: Western European Union

In the early 1950s, France, Germany, Italy and the Benelux countries made an attempt to integrate the militaries of mainland western Europe, through the treaty establishing the European Defence Community (EDC). This scheme did however not enter into force, as it failed to obtain approval for ratification in the French National Assembly, where Gaullists feared for national sovereignty and Communists opposed a European military consolidation that could rival the Soviet Union. The failure to establish the EDC resulted in the 1954 amendment of the Treaty of Brussels at the London and Paris Conferences which in replacement of EDC established the political Western European Union (WEU) out of the earlier established military Western Union Defence Organisation and included West Germany and Italy in both WEU and NATO as the conference ended the occupation of West Germany and the defence aims had shifted from Germany to the Soviet Union.

Common Security and Defence Policy[edit]

Map showing European membership of the EU and NATO
  EU member only
  NATO member only
  Member of both

Out of the 28 EU member states, 22 are also members of NATO. Another 3 NATO members are EU Applicants and 1 is solely a member of the European Economic Area. In 1996, the Western European Union (WEU) was tasked by NATO to implement a European Security and Defence Identity within NATO, which later was passed over to the EU Common Security and Defence Policy as all Western European Union functions were transferred to the European Union through the Lisbon Treaty. The memberships of the EU and NATO are distinct, and some EU member states are traditionally neutral on defence issues. Several of the new EU member states were formerly members of the Warsaw Pact. The Berlin Plus agreement is a comprehensive package of agreements made between NATO and the EU in 2002; it allows the EU to draw on some of NATO's assets in its own peacekeeping operations, subject to a "right of first refusal" in that NATO must first decline to intervene in a given crisis.

Following the Kosovo War in 1999, the European Council agreed that "the Union must have the capacity for autonomous action, backed by credible military forces, the means to decide to use them, and the readiness to do so, in order to respond to international crises without prejudice to actions by NATO". To that end, a number of efforts were made to increase the EU's military capability, notably the Helsinki Headline Goal process. After much discussion, the most concrete result was the EU Battlegroups initiative, each of which is planned to be able to deploy quickly about 1500 personnel.[7]

The EU currently has a limited mandate over defence issues, with a role to explore the issue of European defence agreed to in the Amsterdam Treaty, as well as oversight of the Helsinki Headline Goal Force Catalogue (the 'European Rapid Reaction Force') processes. However, some EU states may and do make multilateral agreements about defence issues outside of the EU structures.

On 20 February 2009 the European Parliament voted in favour of the creation of Synchronised Armed Forces Europe (SAFE) as a first step towards a true European military force. SAFE will be directed by an EU directorate, with its own training standards and operational doctrine. There are also plans to create an EU "Council of Defence Ministers" and "a European statute for soldiers within the framework of Safe governing training standards, operational doctrine and freedom of operational action".[8] EU forces have been deployed on peacekeeping missions from middle and northern Africa to Western Balkans and western Asia.[9] EU military operations are supported by a number of bodies, including the European Defence Agency, European Union Satellite Centre and the European Union Military Staff.[10] In an EU consisting of 28 members, substantial security and defence co-operation is increasingly relying on great power co-operation.[11]

Implications of the Treaty of Lisbon[edit]

The entry into force of the Treaty of Lisbon triggered member states of the Western European Union (WEU) to scrap the organisation, which had largely become dormant, but they have kept the mutual defence clause of the Treaty of Brussels as the basis for the EU mutual defence arrangement.

The Treaty of Lisbon also states that:

Forces and frameworks[edit]

Established under the EU institutions[edit]

The defence arrangements which have been established under the EU institutions are part of the Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP), a branch of the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP). It should be noted that Denmark has an opt-out from the CSDP.[1]

Separate initiatives[edit]

Separate initiatives by Member States that revolve around the defence of the European Union in some way or another, or acting as a European standing army.

Proposed initiatives[edit]

Militaries of Member States[edit]

Military expenditure and personnel[edit]

Military personnel of the Eurocorps in Strasbourg, France, during a change of command ceremony in 2013.

The following table presents the military expenditures of the members of the European Union in euros (€). The combined military expenditure of the member states amounts to just over is €192.5 billion.[1] This represents 1.55% of European Union GDP and is second only to the €503 billion military expenditure of the United States. The US figure represents 4.66% of United States GDP.[13] European military expenditure includes spending on joint projects such as the Eurofighter Typhoon and joint procurement of equipment. The European Union's combined active military forces in 2011 totaled 1,551,038 personnel. According to the European Defence Agency, the European Union had an average of 53,744 land force personnel deployed around the world (or 3.5% of the total military personnel). In a major operation the EU could readily deploy up-to 425,824 land force personnel and sustain 110,814 of those during an enduring operation.[13] In comparison, the US had on average 177,700 troops deployed in 2011. This represents 12.5% of US military personnel.[13]

In a speech in 2012, Swedish General Håkan Syrén criticised the spending levels of European Union countries, saying that in the future those countries' military capability will decrease, creating "critical shortfalls".[14]

Guide to table:

  • All figure entries in the table below are provided by the European Defence Agency. Figures from other sources are not included.
  • The table is split into two distinct parts (indicated by colors): red for data regarding expenditure and green for data regarding personnel.
  • The "operations & maintenance expenditure" category may in some circumstances also include finances on-top of the nations defence budget.
  • The categories "troops prepared for deployed operations" and "troops prepared for deployed and sustained operation" only include land force personnel.

The table[edit]

Country Military expenditure (€) Per capita (€) % of GDP Operations & maintenance expenditure (€) Active military personnel Land troops prepared for deployed operations Land troops prepared for deployed and sustained operations
European Union EU[1] €192,535,000,000 €387 1.55% €45,219,000,000 1,551,038 425,824 110,814
Austria Austria[1] €2,453,000,000 €291 0.82% €507,000,000 27,110 1,364
Belgium Belgium[1] €3,986,000,000 €363 1.08% €651,000,000 31,894 6,691 1,897
Bulgaria Bulgaria[1] €545,000,000 €73 1.42% €111,000,000 28,767 6,232 900
Croatia Croatia[1][15] €610,000,000 €146 1.41% 18,000
Cyprus Cyprus[1] €345,000,000 €400 1.92% €50,000,000 12,392 237
Czech Republic Czech Republic[1] €1,820,000,000 €173 1.17% €501,000,000 22,129 7,866 1,350
Denmark Denmark[1] €3,020,000,000 €535 1.16% 24,509
Estonia Estonia[1] €340,000,000 €254 2.00% €101,000,000 3,190 658 188
Finland Finland[1] €2,654,000,000 €493 1.40% €705,000,000 8,844 1,418
France France[1] €39,105,000,000 €597 1.93% €7,613,000,000 218,200 71,585 29,444
Germany Germany[1] €32,490,000,000 €397 1.23% 191,721
Greece Greece[1] €3,272,000,000 €290 1.69% €738,000,000 109,070 22,180 2,552
Hungary Hungary[1] €1,000,000,000 €100 1.00% €329,000,000 18,088 3,149 1,057
Republic of Ireland Ireland[1] €881,000,000 €196 0.55% €89,000,000 9,450 850 850
Italy Italy[1] €20,600,000,000 €338 1.32% €2,087,000,000 184,318
Latvia Latvia[1] €210,000,000 €102 1.04% €45,000,000 4,832 733 212
Lithuania Lithuania[1] €252,000,000 €83 0.82% €55,000,000 7,987 1,280 413
Luxembourg Luxembourg[1] €201,000,000 €386 0.47% €21,000,000 1057 234 44
Malta Malta[1] €40,000,000 €96 0.62% €6,000,000 1,698 159 30
Netherlands Netherlands[1] €8,156,000,000 €489 1.35% €2,128,000,000 44,655 16,853 5,050
Poland Poland[1] €6,754,000,000 €175 1.95% €1,331,000,000 120,000 24,947 4,946
Portugal Portugal[1] €2,669,000,000 €251 1.56% €253,000,000 35,254 10,206 2,254
Romania Romania[1] €1,713,000,000 €80 1.26% €189,000,000 68,340 10,957 2,953
Slovakia Slovakia[1] €763,000,000 €140 1.10% €168,000,000 13,501 3,760 722
Slovenia Slovenia[1] €478,000,000 €233 1.32% €81,000,000 7,107 1,756 454
Spain Spain[1] €10,059,000,000 €218 0.95% €1,742,000,000 124,561 45,921 7,850
Sweden Sweden[1] €4,331,000,000 €459 1.12% €1,847,000,000 13,949 3,122 1,966
United Kingdom UK[1] €43,696,000,000 €691 2.30% €17,052,000,000 205,810 68,400 19,000

Naval Forces of Member States[edit]

Charles de Gaulle aircraft carrier is the largest commissioned warship in the European Union.

The combined component strength of the European Naval Forces is some 544 commissioned warships. Of those in service, 3 are fleet carriers, the largest of which is the 42,000 tonne Charles de Gaulle. However two 70,600 tonne Queen Elizabeth-class carriers are projected to enter service in the Royal Navy starting 2017. The EU also has 5 amphibious assault ships and 13 amphibious support ships in service. Of the EU's 58 submarines, 21 are nuclear-powered submarines (11 UK and 10 French) while 37 are conventional attack submarines. Many European Navies do not classify destroyer sized vessels as destroyers, and instead classify them as frigates regardless of size and role. This would explain the relatively large difference between the number of destroyers and frigates in service.

Operation Atalanta (formally European Union Naval Force Somalia) is the first ever (and still ongoing) naval operation of the European Union. It is part of a larger global action by the EU in the Horn of Africa to deal with the Somali crisis. As of January 2011 twenty-three EU nations participate in the operation.

Britain and France have blue-water navies while Italy and Spain have green-water navies.

Guide to table:

  • Ceremonial vessels, research vessels, supply vessels, training vessels, and icebreakers are not included.
  • The table only counts warships that are commissioned (or equivalent) and active.
  • Surface vessels displacing less than 200 tonnes are not included, regardless of other characteristics.
  • The "amphibious support ship" category includes amphibious transport docks and dock landing ships.
  • The "anti-mine ship" category includes minesweepers and minehunters.
  • Generally, total tonnage of ships is more important than total number of ships, as it gives a better indication of capability.
  • The Franco-Italian Horizon-class frigates, with a displacement of 7,050 tonnes, are included under "Destroyers".

The table[edit]

Country Fleet carrier Amphibious assault ship Amphibious support ship Destroyer Frigate Corvette Patrol boat Anti-mine ship Missile sub. Attack sub. Total Tonnage
European Union EU 3 5 13 21 107 44 133 161 8 50 546
Austria Austria
Belgium Belgium[16] 2 2 5 9
Bulgaria Bulgaria 4 3 1 10 18 15,160
Croatia Croatia 5 2 7
Cyprus Cyprus
Czech Republic Czech Republic
Denmark Denmark[17] 9 9 18
Estonia Estonia 1 7 8 4,518
Finland Finland 4 17 21 5,429
France France[18] 1 3 1 11 12 9 12 18 4 6 78 319,195
Germany Germany[19] 12 5 8 15 4 44 82,790
Greece Greece[20] 13 26 4 8 51
Hungary Hungary
Republic of Ireland Ireland[21] 8 8 10,306
Italy Italy[22] 2 3 4 14 6 10 10 6 55
Latvia Latvia 4 4
Lithuania Lithuania[23] 4 4 8
Luxembourg Luxembourg
Malta Malta[24] 7 7 400
Netherlands Netherlands[25] 2 6 4 6 4 22
Poland Poland[26] 2 1 3 19 5 28 19,724
Portugal Portugal[27] 5 7 7 2 23
Romania Romania[28] 3 7 6 5 21
Slovakia Slovakia
Slovenia Slovenia[29] 2 2 900
Spain Spain[30] 1 2 11 18 7 3 42
Sweden Sweden[31] 6 11 5 22
United Kingdom UK[32] 1 5 6 13 6 15 4 7 75 367,850

Land Forces of Member States[edit]

The Leopard 2 main battle tank

Combined, the member states of the European Union maintain large numbers of various land-based military vehicles and weaponry.

Guide to table:

  • The table is not exhaustive and primarily includes vehicles and EU-NATO member countries under the Conventional Armed Forces in Europe Treaty (CFE treaty). Unless otherwise specified.
  • The CFE treaty only includes vehicles stationed within Europe, vehicles overseas on operations are not counted.
  • The "main battle tank" category also includes tank destroyers (such as the Italian B1 Centauro) or any self-propelled armoured fighting vehicle, capable of heavy firepower. According to the CFE treaty.
  • The "armoured fighting vehicle" category includes any armoured vehicle primarily designed to transport infantry and equipped with an automatic cannon of at least 20 mm calibre. According to the CFE treaty.
  • The "artillery" category includes self-propelled or towed howitzers and mortars of 100 mm calibre and above. Other types of artillery are not included regardless of characteristics. According to the CFE treaty.
  • The "attack helicopter" category includes any rotary wing aircraft armed and equipped to engage targets or equipped to perform other military functions (such as the Apache or the Wildcat). According to the CFE treaty.
  • The "military logistics vehicle" category includes logistics trucks of 4-tonne, 8-tonne, 14-tonne or larger, purposely designed for military tasking. Not under CFE treaty.

The table[edit]

Country Main battle tank Armoured fighting vehicle Artillery Attack helicopter Military logistics vehicle
European Union EU[33] 7,695 18,819 9,817 963
Austria Austria
Belgium Belgium[33] 92 226 133 27
Bulgaria Bulgaria[33] 362 681 1,035 12
Croatia Croatia[34] 75 283 127 10
Cyprus Cyprus
Czech Republic Czech Republic[33] 123 501 182 24
Denmark Denmark[33] 46 229 56 12
Estonia Estonia
Finland Finland
France France[33] 525 2,876 638 237
Germany Germany[33] 815 1,774 401 158
Greece Greece[33] 1,622 2,187 1,920 29
Hungary Hungary[33] 155 597 30 23
Republic of Ireland Ireland
Italy Italy[33] 1,176 3,145 1,446 107
Latvia Latvia
Lithuania Lithuania
Luxembourg Luxembourg
Malta Malta
Netherlands Netherlands[33] 634 135 21
Poland Poland[33] 892 1,570 1,007 83
Portugal Portugal[33] 220 425 377
Romania Romania[33] 857 1,272 1,273 23
Slovakia Slovakia[33] 30 327 68 12
Slovenia Slovenia
Spain Spain[33] 484 1,007 811 27
Sweden Sweden
United Kingdom UK[33] 296 1,368 305 190 10,004

Air Forces of Member States[edit]

The Air Forces of Europe operate a wide range of military systems and hardware. This is primarily due to the independent requirements of each member state and also the national defence industries of some member states. However such programmes like the Eurofighter Typhoon and Eurocopter Tiger have seen many European nations design, build and operate a single weapons platform. 60% of overall combat fleet was developed and manufactured by member states, 32% are US-origin, but some of these were assembled in Europe, while remaining 8% are soviet-made aircraft. As of 2014, it is estimated that the European Union had around 2,000 serviceable combat aircraft (fighter aircraft and ground-attack aircraft).[35]

The EUs air-lift capabilities are evolving with the future introduction of the Airbus A400M (another example of EU defence cooperation). The A400M is a tactical airlifter with strategic capabilities.[36] Around 140 are initially expected to be operated by 6 member states (UK, Luxembourg, France, Germany, Spain and Belgium).

Guide to tables:

  • The tables are sourced from figures provided by Flight International for the year 2014.
  • Aircraft are grouped into three main types (indicated by colors): red for combat aircraft, green for aerial refueling aircraft, and grey for strategic and tactical transport aircraft.
  • The two "other" columns include additional aircraft according to their type sorted by colour (i.e. the "other" category in red includes combat aircraft, while the "other" category in grey includes both aerial refueling and transport aircraft). This was done because it was not feasible allocate every aircraft type its own column.
  • Other aircraft such as trainers, helicopters, UAVs and reconnaissance or surveillance aircraft are not included in the below tables or figures.

The tables[edit]

Fighter and ground-attack
Country Typhoon Tornado Mirage 2000 Gripen F-16 F/A-18 MiG-29 MiG-21 Harrier II F-35 Other Total
European Union EU[35] 363 301 189 108 439 147 58 46 33 6 335 2,025
Austria Austria[35] 15 15
Belgium Belgium[35] 59 59
Bulgaria Bulgaria[35] 15 12 Su-25 27
Croatia Croatia[35] 10 10
Cyprus Cyprus[35]
Czech Republic Czech Republic[35] 14 23 L-159 33
Denmark Denmark[35] 46 46
Estonia Estonia[35]
Finland Finland[35] 61 61
France France[35] 146 104 Rafale
26
274
Germany Germany[35] 94 123 217
Greece Greece[35] 43 166 50 F-4
28 A-7
287
Hungary Hungary[35] 14 14
Republic of Ireland Ireland[35]
Italy Italy[35] 85 76 16 55 AMX 232
Latvia Latvia[35]
Lithuania Lithuania[35] 1 L-39 1
Luxembourg Luxembourg[35]
Malta Malta[35]
Netherlands Netherlands[35] 74 2 76
Poland Poland[35] 48 31 36 Su-22 115
Portugal Portugal[35] 34 34
Romania Romania[35] 12 36 48
Slovakia Slovakia[35] 12 12
Slovenia Slovenia[35]
Spain Spain[35] 45 86 17 148
Sweden Sweden[35] 80 80
United Kingdom UK[35] 124 102 4 230
Aerial refueling and transport
Country A330 MRTT A310 MRTT KC-135/707 C-17 C-130 C-160 C-27J CN-235/C-295 An-26 A400M Other Total
European Union EU[35] 10 4 16 8 107 107 30 81 16 4 40 423
Austria Austria[35] 5 5
Belgium Belgium[35] 11 1 A321 12
Bulgaria Bulgaria[35] 2 2 1 A319 5
Croatia Croatia[35] 4 2 An-32B 6
Cyprus Cyprus[35]
Czech Republic Czech Republic[35] 4 6 2 A319 12
DenmarkDenmark[35] 4 4
Estonia Estonia[35]
Finland Finland[35] 2 1 F27 3
France France[35] 14 14 36 27 2 3 A310
3 A340
99
Germany Germany[35] 4 71 1 1 A310
2 A319
76
Greece Greece[35] 13 8 21
Hungary Hungary[35] 4 4
Republic of Ireland Ireland[35]
Italy Italy[35] 16 12 4 KC-767
3 KC-130J
3 A319
38
Latvia Latvia[35]
Lithuania Lithuania[35] 3 3
Luxembourg Luxembourg[35]
Malta Malta[35]
Netherlands Netherlands[35] 4 2 (K)DC-10 6
Poland Poland[35] 4 16 20
Portugal Portugal[35] 6 7 13
Romania Romania[35] 2 5 2 9
Slovakia Slovakia[35] 2 2
Slovenia Slovenia[35]
Spain Spain[35] 2 7 21 5 KC-130H
2 A310
37
Sweden Sweden[35] 7 1 KC-130H 1
United Kingdom UK[35] 10 8 24 1 4 BAe 146 47

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah Defence Data Portal, Official 2012 defence statistics from the European Defence Agency
  2. ^ Italy's Foreign Minister says post-Lisbon EU needs a European Army, The Times. 2009-11-15
  3. ^ Merkel's European Army: More Than a Paper Tiger? by Peter C. Glover, World Politics Review, 2007-04-25.
  4. ^ EU military at Bastille Day celebration. Irishtimes.com (7 July 2007). Retrieved on 2011-12-17.
  5. ^ Article 42, Treaty on European Union
  6. ^ Germond, Basil (2006). “The Naval and Maritime Dimension of the European Union”, in The EC/EU: a world security actor? An assessment after 50 years of the external actions of the EC/EU, European Union Institute for Security Studies (EUISS), Paris, 14-15 September 2006.
  7. ^ Council of the European Union (July 2009). "EU BATTLEGROUPS". Europa web portal. Retrieved 3 June 2013. 
  8. ^ Waterfield, Bruno (18 February 2009). "Blueprint for EU army to be agreed". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 2010-05-12. 
  9. ^ Council of the European Union (April 2003). "Overview of the missions and operations of the European Union". Europa web portal. Retrieved 3 June 2013. 
  10. ^ Council of the European Union. "CSDP structures and instruments". Europa web portal. Retrieved 3 June 2013. 
  11. ^ "The Russo-Georgian War and Beyond: towards a European Great Power Concert, Danish Institute of International Studies". Diis.dk. Retrieved 27 April 2010. 
  12. ^ "Treaty of Lisbon". EU. 
  13. ^ a b c EU-US Defence Data 2011, European Defence Agency, September 2013
  14. ^ Croft, Adrian (19 September 2012). "Some EU states may no longer afford air forces-general". Reuters. Retrieved 31 March 2013. 
  15. ^ [1]
  16. ^ Marinecomponent Hoofdpagina. Mil.be. Retrieved on 2011-12-17.
  17. ^ Jane's Fighting Ships 2009
  18. ^ "French Navy Ship List (defense.gouv.fr)".Navy Ship List, 22 October 2011.
  19. ^ (German) Offizieller Internetauftritt der Marine. www.marine.de. Retrieved on 2011-12-17.
  20. ^ Πολεμικό Ναυτικό – Επίσημη Ιστοσελίδα. Hellenicnavy.gr. Retrieved on 2011-12-17.
  21. ^ Home | Defence Forces. Military.ie. Retrieved on 2011-12-17.
  22. ^ Marina Militare. Marina.difesa.it. Retrieved on 2011-12-17.
  23. ^ (Lithuanian) Lithuanian Armed Forces :: Structure » Navy. Kariuomene.kam.lt (21 January 2010). Retrieved on 2011-12-17.
  24. ^ WWW.AFM.GOV.MT is currently under construction. Afm.gov.mt. Retrieved on 2011-12-17.
  25. ^ Koninklijke Marine | Ministerie van Defensie. Defensie.nl. Retrieved on 2011-12-17.
  26. ^ (Polish) Marynarka Wojenna. Mw.mil.pl. Retrieved on 2011-12-17.
  27. ^ Marinha Portuguesa. Marinha.pt. Retrieved on 2011-12-17.
  28. ^ (Romanian) Fortele Navale Române. Navy.ro. Retrieved on 2011-12-17.
  29. ^ Slovensko obalo bo varovala "Kresnica" :: Prvi interaktivni multimedijski portal, MMC RTV Slovenija. Rtvslo.si. Retrieved on 2011-12-17.
  30. ^ Presentación Buques Superficie – Ships – Armada Española. Armada.mde.es. Retrieved on 2011-12-17.
  31. ^ The Swedish Navy – Försvarsmakten. Forsvarsmakten.se (2 September 2008). Retrieved on 2011-12-17.
  32. ^ Home. Royal Navy. Retrieved on 2011-12-17.
  33. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Ministry of Defence - Vehicle & Aircraft Holdings within the scope of the Conventional Armed Forces in Europe Treaty: Annual: 2013 edition, gov.uk, (pp.10-13), Accessed 28 November 2014
  34. ^ [2]
  35. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg World Air Force 2014 - Flight International, Flightglobal.com, Accessed 23 November 2014
  36. ^ "RAF – A400m." RAF, MOD. Retrieved: 15 May 2010.

External links[edit]