European Bank for Reconstruction and Development
Founded in 1991, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) uses the tools of investment to help build market economies and democracies in 30 countries from central Europe to central Asia. Its mission was to support the formerly communist countries in the process of establishing their private sectors. By the seventh meeting, representatives of 40 nations and two European institutions had reached agreement on the bank's charter, its initial size, and the distribution of power among shareholders.
Headquartered in London, the EBRD is now owned by 64 countries and two intergovernmental instituitions. Despite its public sector shareholders, it invests mainly in private enterprises, usually together with commercial partners.
EBRD provides project financing for banks, industries and businesses, both new ventures and investments in existing companies. It also works with publicly owned companies to support privatisation, restructuring state-owned firms and improvement of municipal services.
The EBRD’s mandate stipulates that it must only work in countries that are committed to democratic principles. The EBRD is directed by its founding agreement to promote, in the full range of its activities, environmentally sound and sustainable development.
The following countries are members and recipients of investments: Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Estonia, Georgia, Hungary, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kosovo, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Mongolia, Montenegro, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Tajikistan, Tunisia, Turkmenistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan.
The following countries are financing members only: Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Cyprus, Czech Republic (receiving member until 2007-12-31), Denmark, Egypt, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Malta, Mexico, Morocco, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, the United Kingdom and the United States of America.
In 2006 the organisation stated that it would cease spending in the Baltic and central European nations by 2010, and funding would be shifted to Russia, Ukraine, Armenia, Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan. Due to the financial crisis this graduation process was postponed till 2015. Among the former communist countries only the Czech Republic has graduated within EBRD so far (this happened in 2007) and gained the status of the only ex-communist country that is a shareholder within EBRD and not a borrower any more.
The EBRD is not to be confused with the European Investment Bank (EIB) which is owned by the EU member states and supports EU policy.
Requirements for EBRD financing 
Direct investments generally range from €5 million to €230 million. Smaller projects are financed both directly by the EBRD and through financial intermediaries. By supporting local commercial banks, micro-business banks, equity funds and leasing facilities, the EBRD has helped finance over 1 million smaller projects.
The EBRD provides loan and equity finance, guarantees, leasing facilities and trade finance. The Bank also finances professional development through support programmes.
Smaller projects may be financed through financial intermediaries or through special programmes for smaller direct investments in the less advanced countries.
To be eligible for EBRD funding, the project must:
- be located in an EBRD country of operations
- have strong commercial prospects
- involve significant equity contributions in-cash or in-kind from the project sponsor
- benefit the local economy and help develop the private sector
- satisfy banking and environmental standards.
Project structure 
The EBRD tailors each project to the needs of the client and to the specific situation of the country, region and sector. The EBRD typically funds up to 35 per cent of the total project cost for a greenfield project or 35 per cent of the long-term capitalisation of the project company. The Bank requires significant equity contributions from the sponsors, which must equal or be greater than the EBRD’s investment.
There must be additional funding from the sponsors, other co-financiers or generated through the EBRD’s syndications programme.
Sectors supported by the EBRD 
The EBRD finances projects in most sectors. These include:
- energy efficiency
- financial institutions
- municipal and environmental infrastructure
- natural resources
- power and energy
- property and tourism
- telecommunications, information technology and media
- Jacques Attali (1991-1993)
- Jacques de Larosière (1993-1998)
- Horst Köhler (1998–2000)
- Jean Lemierre (2000-2008)
- Thomas Mirow (2008–2012)
- Suma Chakrabarti (2012– now)
United Nations Development Business 
The United Nations launched Development Business in 1978 with the support of the World Bank, and other major development banks from around the world. Today, Development Business is the primary publication for all major multilateral development banks including the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, United Nations agencies, and several national governments, many of whom have made the publication of their tenders and contracts in Development Business a mandatory requirement.
See also 
- "About the EBRD". European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. Archived from the original on 2008-08-22. Retrieved 2009-01-07.
- "The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development". ODI briefing paper. Overseas Development Institute. Retrieved 28 June 2011.
- Countries of Operations [EBRD - Basic facts]
- Czech Republic homepage [EBRD - Countries]
- "Business - EU-8 to ‘Graduate’ by 2010 as EBRD Moves Focus East". The St. Petersburg Times. Retrieved 2009-01-07.
- "Background Material On Capital Resources Review 4 2011-15, EBRD, 2010".
- "Czech Republic graduates from EBRD, Press release 23 October 2007". Retrieved 2011-01-25.
- "Key Dates (EBRD - Basic facts)". European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. Retrieved 2009-12-28.[dead link]
- United Nations Development Business' website