European Capital of Culture

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Riga (Latvia), the European Capital of Culture for 2014
Umeå (Sweden) is the European Capital of Culture for 2014 along with Riga.

The European Capital of Culture is a city designated by the European Union for a period of one calendar year during which it organises a series of cultural events with a strong European dimension.

Preparing a European Capital of Culture can be an opportunity for the city to generate considerable cultural, social and economic benefits and it can help foster urban regeneration, change the city's image and raise its visibility and profile on an international scale.

In 1985, former actress Melina Mercouri, then Greece’s Minister of Culture, and her French counterpart Jack Lang came up with the idea of designating an annual Capital of Culture to bring Europeans closer together by highlighting the richness and diversity of European cultures and raising awareness of their common history and values.

The Commission of the European Union manages the title and each year the Council of Ministers of the European Union formally designates European Capitals of Culture: more than 40 cities have been designated so far.

An international panel of cultural experts is in charge of assessing the proposals of cities for the title according to criteria specified by the European Union.

A 2004 study conducted for the European Commission demonstrated that the choice of European Capital of Culture served as a catalyst for the cultural development and the transformation of the city.[1] Consequently, the beneficial socio-economic development and impact for the chosen city are now also considered in determining the chosen cities.

History[edit]

The European Capital of Culture programme was initially called the European City of Culture and was conceived in 1983, by Melina Mercouri, then serving as Greek Minister of Culture. Mercouri believed that at the time, culture was not given the same attention as politics and economics and a project for promoting European cultures within the member states should be pursued. The European City of Culture programme was launched in the summer of 1985 with Athens being the first title-holder. During the German Presidency of 1999, the European City of Culture programme was renamed the European Capital of Culture.[2]

List of date of European Capital of Culture[edit]

European Capitals of Culture
Year # City Country Notes
1985 Athens  Greece
1986 Florence  Italy
1987 Amsterdam  Netherlands
1988 Berlin  Germany
1989 Paris  France
1990 Glasgow  United Kingdom
1991 Dublin  Ireland
1992 Madrid  Spain
1993 Antwerp  Belgium
1994 Lisbon  Portugal
1995 Luxembourg  Luxembourg
1996 Copenhagen  Denmark
1997 Thessaloniki  Greece
1998 Stockholm  Sweden
1999 Weimar  Germany
2000 Avignon  France
Bergen  Norway
Bologna  Italy
Brussels  Belgium
Helsinki  Finland
Kraków  Poland
Prague  Czech Republic
Reykjavík  Iceland
Santiago de Compostela  Spain
2001 Rotterdam  Netherlands
Porto  Portugal
2002 Bruges  Belgium
Salamanca  Spain
2003 Graz  Austria
2004 Genoa  Italy
Lille  France
2005 Cork  Ireland
2006 Patras  Greece
2007 Sibiu  Romania
Luxembourg  Luxembourg
2008 Liverpool  United Kingdom
Stavanger  Norway
2009 Vilnius  Lithuania
Linz  Austria
2010 Essen  Germany representing the Ruhr as Ruhr.2010
Istanbul  Turkey
Pécs  Hungary
2011 Turku  Finland
Tallinn  Estonia
2012 Guimarães  Portugal
Maribor  Slovenia
2013 Marseille  France (French)https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marseille-Provence_2013 French Wikipedia article
Marseille 2013
Košice  Slovakia Košice 2013
2014 Riga  Latvia Rīga 2014 [3]
Umeå  Sweden Umeå 2014
Term: 1 (January-April), 2 (May-August) and 3 (September-December)
2015 1 Mons  Belgium
2 Plzeň  Czech Republic Plzeň 2015
3 TBA TBA
2016 1 San Sebastián  Spain
2 Wrocław  Poland [4]
3 TBA TBA
2017 1 Aarhus  Denmark [5]
2 Pafos  Cyprus [6]
3 Moura  Portugal
2018 1 Leeuwarden  Netherlands
2 Valletta  Malta
3 TBA TBA
2019 1 TBA  Italy candidates cities: Reggio Calabria, Cagliari, Lecce, Matera, Perugia, Ravenna, Siena [7]
2 TBA  Bulgaria candidates cities: Veliko Tarnovo, Varna, Sofia, Plovdiv [8]
3 TBA TBA
2020 1 TBA  Croatia
2 TBA  Ireland
3 TBA  Serbia candidates cities: Belgrade, Novi Sad
2021 1 TBA  Romania candidates cities: Iași, Cluj-Napoca, Craiova, Timișoara, Arad
2 TBA  Greece
3 TBA TBA
2022 1 TBA  Lithuania
2 TBA  Luxembourg
3 TBA TBA
2023 1 TBA  Hungary
2 TBA  United Kingdom
3 TBA TBA
2024 1 TBA  Estonia
2 TBA  Austria
3 TBA TBA
2025 1 TBA  Slovenia
2 TBA  Germany
3 TBA  Montenegro candidates cities: Cetinje
2026 1 TBA  Slovakia
2 TBA  Finland
3 TBA TBA
2027 1 TBA  Latvia
2 TBA  Portugal
3 TBA TBA
2028 1 TBA  Czech Republic
2 TBA  France
3 TBA TBA
2029 1 TBA  Poland
2 TBA  Sweden
3 TBA TBA
2030 1 TBA  Cyprus
2 TBA  Belgium
3 TBA TBA
2031 1 TBA  Malta
2 TBA  Spain
3 TBA TBA
2032 1 TBA  Bulgaria
2 TBA  Denmark
3 TBA TBA
2033 1 TBA  Netherlands
2 TBA  Italy
3 TBA TBA

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Palmer, Robert. "Study on the European Cities and Capitals of Culture and the European Cultural Months (1995-2004)". European Commission. Retrieved 24 January 2010. 
  2. ^ Kiran Klaus Patel, ed., The Cultural Politics of Europe: European Capitals of Culture and European Union since the 1980s (London: Routledge, 2013)
  3. ^ Sarajevo: With Sarajevo as Europe's Capital of Culture 2014 we could send an... - 12/05/2011 - EPP Group
  4. ^ San Sebastián and Wroclaw are the European Capitals of Culture for 2016!
  5. ^ Press release from the Danish Ministry of Culture on the Selection Committee’s decision August 24, 2012 (in Danish)
  6. ^ [1]
  7. ^ cities candidates for 2019
  8. ^ Veliko Tarnovo - Tourist Information Centre

External links[edit]