List of European Commission portfolios

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A portfolio in the European Commission is an area of responsibility assigned to a European Commissioner, usually connected to one or several Directorates-General (DGs).

Current portfolios[edit]

Agriculture and Rural Development[edit]

The Commissioner for Agriculture and Rural Development is held by Dacian Cioloş and is in charge of rural issues including most notably the controversial Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) which represents 44% of the EU budget. The post used to be combined with Fisheries in the Jenkins and Thorn Commissions. The related DG is the Directorate-General for Agriculture and Rural Development

Name Country Period Commission
1 Sicco Mansholt  Netherlands 1958–1972 Hallstein Commission, Rey Commission, Malfatti Commission
2 Carlo Scarascia-Mugnozza  Italy 1972–1973 Mansholt Commission
3 Pierre Lardinois  Netherlands 1973–1981 Ortoli Commission
4 Finn Olav Gundelach  Denmark 1981–1985 Jenkins Commission, Thorn Commission
5 Frans Andriessen  Netherlands 1985–1989 Delors Commission I
6 Ray MacSharry  Ireland 1989–1992 Delors Commission II
7 René Steichen  Luxembourg 1992–1995 Delors Commission III
8 Franz Fischler  Austria 1995–2004 Santer Commission, Marín Commission, Prodi Commission
9 Sandra Kalniete  Latvia 2004 Prodi Commission
10 Mariann Fischer Boel  Denmark 2004–2010 Barroso Commission I
11 Dacian Cioloş  Romania 2010–2014 Barroso Commission II
12 Phil Hogan  Ireland 2014 onwards Juncker Commission

Climate Action[edit]

The post of Commissioner for Climate Action was created in February 2010, being split from the environmental portfolio to focus on fighting climate change. The first Commissioner to take the post is Connie Hedegaard who heads the Directorate-General for Climate Action.

Name Country Period Commission
1 Connie Hedegaard  Denmark 2010-2014 Barroso Commission II
2 Miguel Arias Cañete  Spain 2014 onwards Juncker Commission

Competition[edit]

The Commissioner for Competition, Joaquín Almunia (S&D), is the member responsible for commercial competition, company mergers, cartels, state aid, and anti-trust law. The position became the sole merger authority for the European Economic Area in September 1990. The Competition Commissioner is one of the most powerful positions in the Commission and is notable in affecting global companies.[1] For example the commissioner has been pursued a number of high-profile cases against anticompetitive behaviour; such as the case against the merger of Sony - BMG, against Apple Inc. regarding iTunes,[2] the ongoing case against Microsoft and in particular the GE-Honeywell merger attempt in 2001.[3] In 2007, Neelie Kroes (then Competition Commissioner) was the only Commissioner to make Forbes Magazine's List of The World's 100 Most Powerful Women; she held position 59.[4]

Name Country Period Commission
1 Hans von der Groeben  West Germany 1958–1967 Hallstein Commission
2 Maan Sassen  Netherlands 1967–1971 Rey Commission
3 Albert Borschette  Luxembourg 1971–1976 Malfatti Commission, Mansholt Commission, Ortoli Commission
4 Raymond Vouel  Luxembourg 1976–1981 Jenkins Commission
5 Frans Andriessen  Netherlands 1981–1985 Thorn Commission
6 Peter Sutherland  Ireland 1985–1989 Delors Commission I
7 Leon Brittan  United Kingdom 1989–1993 Delors Commission II
8 Karel Van Miert  Belgium 1993–1999 Delors Commission III, Santer Commission
9 Mario Monti  Italy 1999–2004 Prodi Commission
10 Neelie Kroes  Netherlands 2004–2010 Barroso Commission I
11 Joaquín Almunia  Spain 2010-2014 Barroso Commission II
12 Margrethe Vestager  Denmark 2014 onwards Juncker Commission

Development[edit]

The Commissioner for Development deals with promoting sustainable development in deprived regions (such as ACP countries and the EU's OCTs). It used to include humanitarian aid. The present commissioner is Andris Piebalgs. The related DG is Directorate-General for Development

Name Country Period Commission
1 Robert Lemaignen  France 1958–1962 Hallstein Commission
2 Henri Rochereau  France 1962–1970 Hallstein Commission, Rey Commission
3 Jean-François Deniau  France 1967–1973 Rey Commission, Malfatti Commission, Mansholt Commission
4 Claude Cheysson  France 1973–1981 Ortoli Commission, Jenkins Commission, Thorn Commission
5 Edgard Pisani  France 1981–1985 Thorn Commission
6 Lorenzo Natali  Italy 1985–1989 Delors Commission I
7 Manuel Marin  Spain 1989–1995 Delors Commission II & III
8 João de Deus Pinheiro  Portugal 1995–1999 Santer Commission
9 Poul Nielson  Denmark 1999–2004 Prodi Commission
10 Joe Borg  Malta 2004 Prodi Commission
11 Louis Michel  Belgium 2004–2009 Barroso Commission I
12 Karel De Gucht  Belgium 2009–2010 Barroso Commission I
13 Andris Piebalgs  Latvia 2010–2014 Barroso Commission II

Digital Agenda[edit]

The Commissioner for the Digital Agenda, previously the Commissioner for Information Society and Media, is responsible media and information issues such as telecoms and ICT. The commissioner from 2010 is Neelie Kroes.

Previous Commissioner, Viviane Reding, found a relatively popular policy in seeking to lower roaming charges of mobile phones when travelling within the EU, stating: "For years, mobile roaming charges have remained unjustifiably high. We are therefore tackling one of the last borders within Europe's internal market".[5] Her legislation to cap roaming charges was approved by the Parliament in April 2007[6] On 7 April 2006 the Commission launched the new ".eu" TLD for websites for EU companies and citizens wishing to have a non-national European internet address. This has proved popular with 2.5 being registered by April 2007. It is now the seventh most popular TLD worldwide, and third in Europe (after .de and .uk)[7]

In the previous Commission information society was linked with Enterprise (now linked with Industry).

Name Country Period Commission
1 Karl-Heinz Narjes  Germany 1985–1992 Delors Commission I & II
2 Antonio Ruberti  Italy 1992–1995 Delors Commission III
3 Martin Bangemann  Germany 1995–1999 Santer Commission
4 Erkki Liikanen  Finland 1999–2004 Prodi Commission
5 Ján Figeľ  Slovakia 2004 Prodi Commission
6 Viviane Reding  Luxembourg 2004–2010 Barroso Commission I
7 Neelie Kroes  Netherlands 2010-2014 Barroso Commission II
8 Andrus Ansip  Estonia 2014 onwards Juncker Commission

Economic and Monetary Affairs[edit]

The Commissioner for Economic and Monetary Affairs is responsible for the EU's economic affairs including the euro; it is often combined with similar portfolios. The current Commissioner is Olli Rehn (ALDE).

There have been calls for a strengthened economic portfolio with Ségolène Royal suggesting that there should be an economic government for the eurozone[8] and at the start of the first Barroso Commission Germany suggested an economic "super-commissioner"[9] - which could see a change in this position. That idea however was dropped but the Enterprise and Industry Commissioner was strengthened in response.[10]

Name Country Period Commission
1 Robert Marjolin  France 1958–1967 Hallstein Commission
2 Raymond Barre  France 1967–1970 Rey Commission
3 Raymond Barre  France 1970–1972 Malfatti Commission
4 Raymond Barre  France 1972–1973 Mansholt Commission
5 Wilhelm Haferkamp  West Germany 1973–1977 Ortoli Commission
6 François-Xavier Ortoli  France 1977–1981 Jenkins Commission
7 François-Xavier Ortoli  France 1981–1985 Thorn Commission
8 Henning Christophersen  Denmark 1985–1995 Delors Commission
9 Yves-Thibault de Silguy  France 1995–1999 Santer Commission
10 Yves-Thibault de Silguy  France 1999 Marín Commission
11 Pedro Solbes  Spain 1999–2004 Prodi Commission
12 Joaquín Almunia  Spain 2004 Prodi Commission
13 Siim Kallas  Estonia 2004 Prodi Commission
14 Joaquín Almunia  Spain 2004–2010 Barroso Commission I
15 Olli Rehn  Finland 2010-2014 Barroso Commission II
16 Pierre Moscovici  France 2014 onwards Juncker Commission

Education, Culture, Multilingualism and Youth[edit]

The Commissioner for Education, Culture, Multilingualism and Youth, Androulla Vassiliou, is responsible for policies in education and training, youth, sport, civil society, culture, translation, interpretation and relations with the Office for Official Publications of the European Communities.

The post was enlarged since the Prodi Commission with the addition of training and multilingualism (The Directorate-General is still just Directorate-General for Education and Culture). When Romania joined the EU in 2007, multilingualism was handed over to the new Romanian commissioner. In its place the portfolio included youth, sport and civil society. Multilingualism was reintroduced in 2010 under Barroso's second Commission.

The Commission has become increasingly active in education. The ERASMUS programme, which was established in 1987, is a student exchange programme promoting mobility of students between European universities. The Bologna process aims to create a European Higher Education Area where academic qualifications can be recognised across Europe. The European Institute of Technology is a proposed research university.

The previous portfolio to the current was Culture, merged with Audiovisual policy and EP relations.

Name Country Period Commission
1 Viviane Reding  Luxembourg 1999–2004 Prodi Commission
2 Dalia Grybauskaitė  Lithuania 2004 Prodi Commission
3 Ján Figeľ  Slovakia 2004–2009 Barroso Commission I
4 Maroš Šefčovič  Slovakia 2009–2010 Barroso Commission I
5 Androulla Vassiliou  Cyprus 2010-2014 Barroso Commission II
6 Tibor Navracsics  Hungary 2014 onwards Juncker Commission

Employment, Social Affairs and Inclusion[edit]

The Commissioner for Employment, Social Affairs and Inclusion is László Andor. He is responsible for matters including those relating to employment, discrimination and social affairs such as welfare. The post has had various alterations; under the first Barroso Commission it was known as Employment, Social Affairs and Equal Opportunities.

Name Country Period Commission
1 Lionello Levi Sandri  Italy 1967–1972 Rey Commission
2 Albert Coppé  Belgium 1972–1973 Malfatti Commission, Mansholt Commission
3 Patrick Hillery  Ireland 1973–1977 Ortoli Commission
4 Henk Vredeling  Netherlands 1977–1981 Jenkins Commission
5 Ivor Richard  United Kingdom 1981–1985 Thorn Commission
6 Peter Sutherland  Ireland 1985–1989 Delors Commission I
7 Vasso Papandreou  Greece 1989–1992 Delors Commission II
8 Pádraig Flynn  Ireland 1993–1999 Delors Commission III, Santer Commission, Marín Commission
9 Anna Diamantopoulou  Greece 1999–2004 Prodi Commission
10 Vladimír Špidla  Czech Republic 2004–2010 Barroso Commission I
11 László Andor  Hungary 2010-2014 Barroso Commission II
12 Marianne Thyssen  Belgium 2014 onwards Juncker Commission

Energy[edit]

The current Commissioner is Günther Oettinger (EPP) and holds responsibility for the European Union's energy policy as well as nuclear issues (Euratom). The Directorate-General for this portfolio is shared with the Commissioner for Transport as the Directorate-General for Mobility and Transport.

The EU is an active supporter of the Kyoto Protocol, which it signed alongside its member-states. In March 2007 the Union committed itself to cut CO2 emissions by 20 percent by 2020.[2] There is also a desire to reduce dependency on Russian energy supplies following the disputes between Russia and Belarus and Ukraine. (See also: Russia-Belarus energy dispute, Russia-Ukraine gas dispute.) In April 2007 five southern European countries signed a deal to build an oil pipeline from the Black Sea to Italy which will help diversify energy sources.[3]

Name Country Period Commission
1 Wilhelm Haferkamp  West Germany 1967–1970 Rey Commission
2 Wilhelm Haferkamp  West Germany 1970–1972 Malfatti Commission
3 Wilhelm Haferkamp  West Germany 1972–1973 Mansholt Commission
4 Henri François Simonet  Belgium 1973–1977 Ortoli Commission
5 Guido Brunner  West Germany 1977–1981 Jenkins Commission
6 Étienne Davignon  Belgium 1981–1985 Thorn Commission
7 Nicolas Mosar  Luxembourg 1985–1989 Delors Commission I
8 Antonio Cardoso e Cunha  Portugal 1989–1993 Delors Commission II
9 Marcelino Oreja  Spain 1993–1994 Delors Commission III
10 Abel Matutes  Spain 1994–1995 Delors Commission III
11 Christos Papoutsis  Greece 1995–1999 Santer Commission
12 Christos Papoutsis  Greece 1999 Marín Commission
13 Loyola de Palacio  Spain 1999–2004 Prodi Commission
14 Andris Piebalgs  Latvia 2004–2010 Barroso Commission I
15 Günther Oettinger  Germany 2010-2014 Barroso Commission II
16 Miguel Arias Cañete  Spain 2014 onwards Juncker Commission

Enlargement and European Neighbourhood Policy[edit]

The Commissioner for Enlargement and the European Neighbourhood Policy is concerned with foreign policy towards the EU's nearest neighbours. The enlargement portfolio began to be created out of the regionalised foreign policy posts. In particular the Santer Commission post for relations with central and eastern Europe as those countries began applying to join. The Neighbourhood Policy element was created in 2004 as part of the External Relations portfolio. When that portfolio was absorbed by the High Representative in 2009, Neighbourhood Policy was transferred to Trade and then to Enlargement in 2010 under the Second Barroso Commission. The present Commissioner, as of 2010, is Štefan Füle.

Name Country Period Commission
1 Günter Verheugen  Germany 1999–2004 Prodi Commission
2 Janez Potočnik  Slovenia 2004 Prodi Commission
3 Olli Rehn  Finland 2004–2010 Barroso Commission I
4 Štefan Füle  Czech Republic 2010-2014 Barroso Commission II
5 Johannes Hahn  Austria 2014 onwards Juncker Commission

Environment[edit]

The Commissioner for the Environment, Janez Potočnik, is responsible for protection of the European Union's environment. Specific actions relating to climate change are under the responsibility of the Climate Action commissioner as of 2010.

The EU has made a number of environmental moves, partially in regards to climate change. Most notably it signed the Kyoto Protocol in 1998, set up its Emission Trading Scheme in 2005 and is agreeing to unilaterally cut its emissions by 20% by 2020. (See: Energy policy of the European Union). Other policies include; the Natura 2000 a widespread and successful network of nature conservation sites, the Registration, Evaluation and Authorisation of Chemicals (REACH) directive requiring safety testing on widely used chemicals and the Water Framework Directive ensuring water quality reaches higher standards.

For more, see European Climate Change Programme, European Union Emission Trading Scheme, Renewable energy in the European Union and the Directorate-General for the Environment.

Name Country Period Commission
1 Ioannis Paleokrassas  Greece 1993–1995 Delors Commission
2 Ritt Bjerregaard  Denmark 1995–1999 Santer Commission
3 Margot Wallström  Sweden 1999–2004 Prodi Commission
4 Stavros Dimas  Greece 2004–2010 Barroso Commission I
5 Janez Potočnik  Slovenia 2010-2014 Barroso Commission II
6 Karmenu Vella  Malta 2014 onwards Juncker Commission

Financial Programming and Budget[edit]

The Commissioner for Financial Programming and Budget is Janusz Lewandowski and is primarily responsible for the management of the budget of the European Union and related finaincial issues except for budgetary discharge which falls under the Commissioner for administration commissioner. Previously simply for the budget, the position expanded under the Prodi Commission to include financial programming. The related DG is the Directorate-General for Budget.

Under Commissioner Grybauskaitė, Commissioner's 121.6 billion euro 2008 budget proposed that for the first time funding for sustainable growth (€57.2 billion) would be higher than that of the Common Agricultural Policy (€56.3 billion), traditionally the largest source of expenditure in the EU. There would be an increase in cohesion funds, energy and transport of 14%, research by 11% and lifelong learning by 9%. There would also be an increase in the administrative budget, aid to Kosovo and Palestinian institutions and funds towards the Galileo project. [4]

Name Country Period Commission
1 Albert Coppé  Belgium 1967–1973 Malfatti Commission, Mansholt Commission
2 Wilhelm Haferkamp  Germany 1973–1977 Ortoli Commission
3 Christopher Tugendhat  United Kingdom 1977–1985 Jenkins Commission, Thorn Commission
4 Henning Christophersen  Denmark 1985–1989 Delors Commission I
5 Peter Schmidhuber  Germany 1989–1995 Delors Commission II & III
6 Erkki Liikanen  Finland 1995–1999 Santer Commission, Marín Commission
7 Michaele Schreyer  Germany 1999–2004 Prodi Commission
8 Marcos Kyprianou  Cyprus 2004 Prodi Commission
9 Dalia Grybauskaitė  Lithuania 2004–2009 Barroso Commission I
10 Algirdas Šemeta  Lithuania 2009–2010 Barroso Commission I
11 Janusz Lewandowski  Poland 2010-2014 Barroso Commission II
12 Kristalina Georgieva  Bulgaria 2014 onwards Juncker Commission

Health and Consumer Policy[edit]

The Commissioner for Health and Consumer Policy is responsible for matters of public health, food safety, animal health, welfare and consumer affairs. It is held by John Dalli. Between 2007 and 2010 it was split into a Commissioner for Health and a Commissioner for Consumer Protection - in order to give a portfolio for the incoming Bulgarian Commissioner. It was recombined under the second Barroso Commission.

Name Country Period Commission
1 Richard Burke  Ireland 1977–1981 Jenkins Commission
2 Karl-Heinz Narjes  West Germany 1981–1985 Thorn Commission
3 Stanley Clinton Davis  United Kingdom 1985–1989 Delors Commission I
4 Grigoris Varfis  Greece 1985–1989 Delors Commission I
5 Karel Van Miert  Belgium 1989–1992 Delors Commission II
6 Christiane Scrivener  France 1992–1994 Delors Commission II
7 Emma Bonino  Italy 1995–1999 Santer Commission
8 David Byrne  Ireland 1999–2004 Prodi Commission
9 Pavel Telička  Czech Republic 2004 Prodi Commission (Parallel to Byrne)
10 Markos Kyprianou  Cyprus 2004–2010 Barroso Commission I (Health only)
11 Meglena Kuneva  Bulgaria 2007–2010 Barroso Commission I (Consumer protection only)
12 John Dalli  Malta 2010-2014 Barroso Commission II
13 Vytenis Andriukaitis  Lithuania 2014 onwards Juncker Commission

High Representative[edit]

The High Representative became a Commissioner on 1 December 2009, replacing the External Relations Commissioner (see historical below). Although other external relations posts continue to exist, such as trade, the High Representative is the most senior foreign affairs post in the EU. The position is held by Catherine Ashton.

Home Affairs[edit]

The Commissioner for Home Affairs was created in 2010 by dividing the previous Justice, Freedom and Security portfolio into a security orientated post and a post centred on justice, on individual and fundamental rights orientated post. The Commissioner as of 2010 is Cecilia Malmström. Its DG is the Directorate-General for Home Affairs (DG HOME).

Industry and Entrepreneurship[edit]

The Commissioner for Enterprise and Industry is Antonio Tajani. The post was enlarged from the Commissioner for Enterprise and Information Society portfolio in the Prodi Commission to include Industry. At the start of the first Barroso Commission, Germany, backed by Britain and France suggested an economic "super-commissioner"[9] to fight for competitiveness. Although rejected, this idea though has been taken on by Verheugen, as the Enterprise and Industry portfolio was enlarged and was made a Vice President.[10]

As Commissioner, he indicates his aim to increase the competitiveness of Europe, there is a separate Commissioner for Competition dealing with competition between companies within Europe. However with the numerous economic portfolios, there is a degree of overlap which has been a matter of concern for him along with the purported difficulty of firing director-generals. This Commissioner also chairs the Competitiveness Council Commissionners Group and is the vice chair of the Group of Commissioners on the Lisbon Strategy. He is expected to be the European chair of the new Transatlantic Economic Council. The relevant DG is Directorate-General for Enterprise and Industry.

Name Country Period Commission
1 Erkki Liikanen  Finland 1999–2004 Prodi Commission
2 Ján Figeľ  Slovakia 2004 Prodi Commission
3 Günter Verheugen  Germany 2004–2010 Barroso Commission I
4 Antonio Tajani  Italy 2010-2014 Barroso Commission II
5 Elżbieta Bieńkowska  Poland 2014 onwards Juncker Commission

Internal Market and Services[edit]

The Commissioner for Internal Market and Services concerns the development of the 480 million strong European single market, promoting free movement of people, goods, services and capital. It is occupied by Michel Barnier. The related DG is Directorate-General for Internal Market and Services and it is also related to the Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market.

Commissioner Frits Bolkestein (Netherlands) served in the Prodi Commission between 1999 and 2004. In addition to holding the Internal Market portfolio he also held Taxation and Customs Union. Bolkestein is most notable for the Directive on services in the internal market, which is commonly called the "Bolkestein Directive". The directive aimed at enabling a company from a one member-state to recruit workers in another member-state under the law of the company's home state. It was to help the development of the internal market for services, the development of which has lagged behind that for goods. However there was a great deal of concern about its effect on social standards and welfare, triggering competition between various parts of Europe. This led to significant protests across Europe against the directive including a notable protest at the European Parliament in Strasbourg by port workers which led to damage to the building. MEPs eventually reached a compromise on the text and the Parliament adopted it on 12 December 2006; 2 years after Bolkestein left office, under the Barroso Commission.

Name Country Period Commission
1 Piero Malvestiti  Italy 1958–1959 Hallstein Commission I
2 Giuseppe Caron  Italy 1959–1963 Hallstein Commission I & II
3 Guido Colonna di Paliano  Italy 1964–1967 Hallstein Commission II
4 Hans von der Groeben  West Germany 1967–1970 Rey Commission
5 Wilhelm Haferkamp  West Germany 1970–1973 Malfatti Commission, Mansholt Commission
6 Finn Olav Gundelach  Denmark 1973–1977 Ortoli Commission
7 Étienne Davignon  Belgium 1977–1981 Jenkins Commission
8 Karl-Heinz Narjes  Germany 1981–1985 Thorn Commission
9 Lord Cockfield  United Kingdom 1985–1989 Delors Commission I
10 Martin Bangemann  Germany 1989–1994 Delors Commission II & III
11 Raniero Vanni d'Archiraf  Italy 1992–1994 Delors Commission III
12 Mario Monti  Italy 1994–1999 Santer Commission
13 Frits Bolkestein  Netherlands 1999–2004 Prodi Commission
14 Charlie McCreevy  Ireland 2004–2010 Barroso Commission I
15 Michel Barnier  France 2010–2014 Barroso Commission II
16 Elżbieta Bieńkowska  Poland 2014 onwards Juncker Commission

International Cooperation, Humanitarian Aid and Crisis Response[edit]

The Commissioner for International Cooperation, Humanitarian Aid and Crisis Response was created under the second Barroso Commission in 2010 and is occupied by Kristalina Georgieva. It deals in party with dealing with humanitarian disasters and humanitarian aid: the EU is the largest supplier of aid in the world.

Name Country Period Commission
1 Robert Lemaignen  France 1958–1962 Hallstein Commission
2 Henri Rochereau  France 1962–1970 Hallstein Commission, Rey Commission
3 Jean-François Deniau  France 1967–1973 Rey Commission, Malfatti Commission, Mansholt Commission
4 Claude Cheysson  France 1973–1981 Ortoli Commission, Jenkins Commission, Thorn Commission
5 Edgard Pisani  France 1981–1985 Thorn Commission
6 Lorenzo Natali  Italy 1985–1989 Delors Commission I
7 Manuel Marin  Spain 1989–1995 Delors Commission II & III
8 João de Deus Pinheiro  Portugal 1995–1999 Santer Commission
9 Poul Nielson  Denmark 1999–2004 Prodi Commission
10 Joe Borg  Malta 2004 Prodi Commission
11 Louis Michel  Belgium 2004–2009 Barroso Commission I
12 Karel De Gucht  Belgium 2009–2010 Barroso Commission I
13 Kristalina Georgieva  Bulgaria 2010-2014 Barroso Commission II
14 Neven Mimica  Croatia 2014 onwards Juncker Commission

Inter-Institutional Relations and Administration[edit]

The Commissioner for Inter-Institutional Relations and Administration is responsible for the administration of the Commission, including management of some of the Commission's Internal Services; in particular consolidation of administrative reform, personnel and administration, European Schools and security. The Commissioner is also responsible for the following departments; the Directorate-General for Personnel and Administration, the Office for the Administration and Payment of Individual Entitlement, the Directorate-General for Informatics, the Office of Infrastructure and Logistics, and relations with the European Personnel Selection Office.[11] The current Commissioner is Maroš Šefčovič.

Prior to 2010 it was also responsible for Audit and Anti-Fraud, now merged with taxation, but gain responsibility for relations with the other EU institutions.

Name Country Period Commission
1 Michael O'Kennedy  Ireland 1981–1982 Thorn Commission
2 Richard Burke  Ireland 1982–1985 Thorn Commission
3 Henning Christophersen  Denmark 1985–1988 Delors Commission
4 Peter Schmidhuber  Germany 1988–1994 Delors Commission
5 Erkki Liikanen  Finland 1994–1999 Santer Commission
6 Neil Kinnock  United Kingdom 1999–2004 Prodi Commission
7 Siim Kallas  Estonia 2004–2009 Barroso Commission I
8 Maroš Šefčovič  Slovakia 2010-2014 Barroso Commission II
9 Frans Timmermans  Netherlands 2014 onwards Juncker Commission

Justice, Fundamental Rights and Citizenship[edit]

The Commissioner for Justice, Fundamental Rights and Citizenship was created in 2010 by dividing the previous Justice, Freedom and Security portfolio into a security orientated post and a justice and fundamental rights orientated post (as a concession to the liberals). The Commissioner, with the ranking of vice-president, as of 2010 is Viviane Reding.

Maritime Affairs and Fisheries[edit]

The current Maritime affairs and Fisheries Commissioner is Maria Damanaki. She is responsible for policies such as the Common Fisheries Policy, which is largely a competence of the EU rather than the members. The Union has 66,000 km of coastline[12] and the largest Exclusive Economic Zone in the world, covering 25 million km².[13]

On 7 June 2006 the Commission published a green paper for a Maritime Policy and consultation will end in June 2007.[14] The document addresses a number of issues such as sustainable development, protection of the environment, skills and employment, technology and resources, coastal safety and tourism, financial support and heritage.[15] The Commission came under fire in May 2007 for not penalise French fishermen after over-fishing the threatened bluefin tuna by 65% while backing penalties on Irish fishermen for over-fishing mackerel.[16]

Name Country Period Commission
1 Franz Fischler  Austria 1999–2004 Prodi Commission
2 Sandra Kalniete  Latvia 2004 Prodi Commission
3 Joe Borg  Malta 2004–2010 Barroso Commission I
4 Maria Damanaki  Greece 2010-2014 Barroso Commission II
5 Karmenu Vella  Malta 2014 onwards Juncker Commission

Regional Policy[edit]

The Regional Policy Commissioner, occasional Regional Affairs Commissioner, is responsible for managing the regional policy of the EU which takes up a third of the EU's budget; it includes the European Regional Development Fund, Structural Funds and Cohesion Funds, Instrument for Structural Policies for Pre-Accession and the European Social Fund. The related DG is Directorate-General for Regional Policy. The present Commissioner is Johannes Hahn.

Name Country Period Commission
1 Hans von der Groeben  Germany 1967–1970 Rey Commission
2 Albert Borschette  Luxembourg 1970–1973 Malfatti Commission, Mansholt Commission
3 George Thomson  United Kingdom 1973–1977 Ortoli Commission
4 Antonio Giolitti  Italy 1977–1985 Jenkins Commission, Thorn Commission
5 Grigoris Varfis  Greece 1985–1989 Delors Commission I
6 Bruce Millan  United Kingdom 1989–1994 Delors Commission II & III
7 Monika Wulf-Mathies  Germany 1994–1999 Santer Commission, Marín Commission
8 Michel Barnier  France 1999–2004 Prodi Commission
9 Jacques Barrot  France 2004 Prodi Commission
10 Danuta Hübner  Poland 2004–2009 Barroso Commission I
11 Paweł Samecki  Poland 2009–2010 Barroso Commission I
12 Johannes Hahn  Austria 2010-2014 Barroso Commission II
13 Corina Crețu  Romania 2014 onwards Juncker Commission

Research, Innovation and Science[edit]

The Commissioner for Research, Innovation and Science is Máire Geoghegan-Quinn. The previous Commissioner, Potočnik, aimed to create a European Research Area.[17]

Its name has had several variations, under the first Barroso Commission it was Science and Research, under Prodi it was simply "Research", Santer was "Research, Science and Technology" and under Delors it was combined with others as "Industry, information technology and science and research" and other various names and combinations prior. The related DG is the Directorate-General for Research.

Name Country Period Commission
1 Fritz Hellwig  West Germany 1967–1970 Rey Commission
2 Ralf Dahrendorf  West Germany 1973–1977 Ortoli Commission
3 Guido Brunner  West Germany 1977–1981 Jenkins Commission
4 Filippo Maria Pandolfi  Italy 1989–1993 Delors Commission
5 Antonio Ruberti  Italy 1993–1995 Delors Commission III
6 Édith Cresson  France 1995–1999 Santer Commission
7 Philippe Busquin  Belgium 1999–2004 Prodi Commission
8 Louis Michel  Belgium 2004 Prodi Commission
9 Janez Potočnik  Slovenia 2004–2010 Barroso Commission I
10 Máire Geoghegan-Quinn  Ireland 2010-2014 Barroso Commission II
11 Carlos Moedas  Portugal 2014 onwards Juncker Commission

Taxation, Customs, Statistics, Audit and Anti-Fraud[edit]

The Commissioner for Taxation, Customs, Statistics, Audit and Anti-Fraud is responsible for the EU's customs union and taxation policy. The European Union has had a customs union since the creation of the European Economic Community and that union extends to the non-EU members of the European Economic Area and to Turkey, Andorra and San Marino. Since 2010 it gained responsibility for audit (budgetary discharge, internal audit, counter fraud): in particular the Internal Audit Service and the European Anti-fraud Office. The current Commissioner is Algirdas Šemeta.

Name Country Period Commission
1 Frits Bolkestein  Netherlands 1999–2004 Prodi Commission (Taxation)
2 Neil Kinnock  United Kingdom 1999–2004 Prodi Commission (Audit)
3 László Kovács  Hungary 2004–2009 Barroso Commission I (Taxation)
4 Siim Kallas  Estonia 2004–2010 Barroso Commission I (Audit)
5 Algirdas Šemeta  Lithuania 2010-2014 Barroso Commission II
6 Pierre Moscovici  France 2014 onwards Juncker Commission

Trade[edit]

The Commissioner for Trade is responsible for the EU's external trade policy. The portfolio is held by Karel De Gucht. Due to the size of the European economy, being the world's largest market and having a huge slice of world trade, this position can be very important in dealing with other world economic powers such as China or the United States. Former Commissioner Leon Brittan commented that “Frankly, it is more important than most [national] cabinet jobs”.[18] The Commissioner leads Europe in organisations such as the World Trade Organisation (WTO). Concluding WTO talks after the collapse of the Doha Development Round has been a contentious point, with the EU not willing to cut agricultural subsidies without similar action by the United States. The related DG is Directorate-General for Trade.

Name Country Period Commission
1 Leon Brittan  United Kingdom 1994–1999 Santer Commission
2 Pascal Lamy  France 1999–2004 Prodi Commission
3 Danuta Hübner  Poland 2004 Prodi Commission
4 Peter Mandelson  United Kingdom 2004–2008 Barroso Commission I
5 Catherine Ashton  United Kingdom 2008–2010 Barroso Commission I
6 Karel De Gucht  Belgium 2010-2014 Barroso Commission II
7 Cecilia Malmström  Sweden 2014 onwards Juncker Commission

Transport[edit]

The Commissioner for Transport is Siim Kallas. The portfolio is responsible for the development of transport infrastructure in the EU such as road and rail networks but also navigation systems such as the Galileo positioning system.

Name Country Period Commission
1 Victor Bodson  Luxembourg 1967–1970 Rey Commission
2 Albert Coppé  Belgium 1970–1973 Malfatti Commission, Mansholt Commission
3 Carlo Scarascia-Mugnozza  Italy 1973–1977 Ortoli Commission
4 Richard Burke  Ireland 1977–1981 Jenkins Commission
5 Giorgios Contogeorgis  Greece 1981–1985 Thorn Commission
6 Stanley Clinton Davis  United Kingdom 1985–1989 Delors Commission
7 Karel Van Miert  Belgium 1989–1992 Delors Commission II
8 Abel Matutes  Spain 1993–1994 Delors Commission III
9 Marcelino Oreja  Spain 1994–1995 Delors Commission III
10 Neil Kinnock  United Kingdom 1995–1999 Santer Commission, Marín Commission
11 Loyola de Palacio  Spain 1999–2004 Prodi Commission
12 Jacques Barrot  France 2004–2008 Barroso Commission I
13 Antonio Tajani  Italy 2008–2010 Barroso Commission I
14 Siim Kallas  Estonia 2010-2014 Barroso Commission II
15 Maroš Šefčovič  Slovakia 2014 onwards Juncker Commission

Historical portfolios[edit]

Many portfolios have been combined and split under different president's, below is a few of the previous posts that have since been abolished.

Administrative Affairs, Audit and Anti-Fraud[edit]

The Commissioner for Administrative Affairs, Audit and Anti-Fraud was in the first Barroso Commission and was responsible for the Commission's internal administration and anti-fraud efforts.

Its administrative duties include management of some of the Commission's Internal Services; in particular consolidation of administrative reform, personnel and administration, European Schools and security. The Commissioner is also responsible for the following departments; the Directorate-General for Personnel and Administration, the Office for the Administration and Payment of Individual Entitlement, the Directorate-General for Informatics, the Office of Infrastructure and Logistics, and relations with the European Personnel Selection Office.[11] Its other responsibilities are for audit (budgetary discharge, internal audit, counter fraud): in particular the Internal Audit Service and the European Anti-fraud Office.

Name Country Period Commission
Michael O'Kennedy  Ireland 1981–1982 Thorn Commission
Richard Burke  Ireland 1982–1985 Thorn Commission
Henning Christophersen  Denmark 1985–1988 Delors Commission
Peter Schmidhuber  Germany 1988–1994 Delors Commission
Erkki Liikanen  Finland 1994–1999 Santer Commission
Neil Kinnock  United Kingdom 1999–2004 Prodi Commission (Audit)
Siim Kallas  Estonia 2004–2009 Barroso Commission

Administrative Reform[edit]

A position created for the Prodi Commission in the wake of the Santer Commission corruption scandal.

Agriculture and Fisheries[edit]

This position used deal with the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) and the Common Fisheries Policy (CFP). It existed when the CFP was created in the Jenkins until the Thorn Commission when it was split into Agriculture and Rural Affairs and Fisheries and Maritime Affairs.

Communication strategy[edit]

The Communication strategy portfolio in the first Barroso Commission existed between 2004 and 2010 combined with Institutional Relations. Under the second Barroso Commission this was dropped as it had no powers and was open to allegations of propaganda.

Consumer Protection[edit]

The Commissioner for Consumer Protection was responsible for protecting the rights of consumers vs corporations between 2007 and 2010. The only Commissioner was Meglena Kuneva (ALDE).

This specific portfolio was created in 2007, separated from the Health portfolio. However it first appeared in the Jenkins Commission as "Consumer Affairs" though the Barroso Commission was the first time it has been an independent portfolio. The independent portfolio was created when Bulgaria and Romania joined the European Union on 1 January 2007. It used to be part of the Health and Consumer Protection portfolio which was held by Markos Kyprianou. Unlike the Multilingualism portfolio that was created for Leonard Orban, this post was welcomed due to the large size of the combined portfolio. The Directorate-General is still merged with that office. In 2010 it was recombined with Health in the second Barroso Commission.

External Relations[edit]

The Commissioner for External Relations, known as the Commissioner for External Relations and the European Neighbourhood Policy at its demise dealt with general foreign relations and representation of the Commission abroad. It occasionally took on related responsibilities such as enlargement or neighbourhood policy, though most of the time other separate external relations portfolios existed such as development or trade. Early on external relations were split according to geography between various Commissioners. On 1 December 2009 its responsibilities were merged into the High Representative.

Energy, Euratom Supply Agency, SMEs and Tourism[edit]

An expanded version of the Energy portfolio in the Santer Commission, including parts of Industry (SMEs) and Tourism which has only appeared under Santer.

Health[edit]

The Commissioner for Health existed between 2007 and 2010 when it was split off from Consumer Protection for the new Bulgarian Commissioner. It was recombined under the succeeding Commission in 2010.

Justice, Freedom and Security[edit]

The Justice, Freedom and Security portfolio was roughly on the former third pillar: Police and Judicial Co-operation in Criminal Matters. The position covers such matters as judicial matters, human rights, equality laws, immigration control, policing and citizenship (see Area of freedom, security and justice). The relevant DG was Directorate-General for Justice, Freedom and Security.

As a concession to the liberals, Barroso split the post in 2010 into the Commissioner for Home Affairs (the security aspect) and the Commissioner for Justice, Fundamental Rights and Citizenship (the human rights aspect).

Previous commissioners:

Name Country Period Commission
Anita Gradin  Sweden 1995–1999 Santer Commission, Marín Commission
António Vitorino  Portugal 1999–2004 Prodi Commission
Franco Frattini  Italy 2004–2008 Barroso Commission
Jacques Barrot  France 2008–2010 Barroso Commission

Multilingualism[edit]

The Commissioner for Multilingualism was responsible for language policy of the European Union, i.e., promoting multilingualism for the citizens and the institutions of the EU. It was created on 1 January 2007 during the Barroso Commission. The only commissioner is Leonard Orban (2007–2010). The post was created on 1 January 2007, in the enlarged Barroso Commission after the accession of Bulgaria and Romania to the EU. Multilingualism had been a responsibility of the European Commissioner for Education, Training, Culture and Multilingualism (held by Ján Figeľ between 2004 and 2007). Under the second Barroso Commission, the post was re-merged into the education and culture portfolio (held by Androulla Vassiliou).

The new portfolio was criticised for vagueness and ambiguity, it has been claimed that the post overlaps with responsibilities of other Commissioners. The Conference of Presidents of the European Parliament has asked the current president of the Commission José Manuel Barroso to clarify the mandate of Commissioner for Multilingualism[19] and of other members of the Commission with regards to the “intercultural dialogue”.

European Parliament Socialist Group (PES) leader Martin Schulz suggested a portfolio for the protection of ethnic minorities instead. His party suggested the introduction of the protection of the Roma minority.[20] Barroso turned down the PES proposal and defended the post. He stated that Commissioner for Education, Training and Culture Ján Figeľ "will remain responsible for the management of actions to directly promote the inter-cultural dialogue".[5]

Politically, the portfolio is mainly focused on promoting foreign languages learning as means for worker's mobility and business competitiveness rather than emphasizing language rights of speakers of regional, minority, lesser-used and migrant languages. Commissioner for Multilingualism is also responsible, alongside the President of the Commission, Barroso, and the European Commissioner for Education, Training and Culture, Ján Figeľ to work on "intercultural dialogue", including the 2008 European Year of Intercultural Dialogue.

Administratively, Commissioner for Multilingualism is in charge of the Directorate-General for Translation, the DG for Interpretation and the Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, as well as for the Multilingualism policy unit (EAC-C-5) in the DG for Education and Culture, with 3,400 staff in total - about 15 per cent of the Brussels executive's workforce- and with about 1 percent of the EU budget.

References[edit]