European exploration of Australia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from European Exploration of Australia)
Jump to: navigation, search
Exploration by Europeans until 1812
  1616 Dirk Hartog
  1644 Abel Tasman
  1770 James Cook
  1797–1799 George Bass
  1801–1803 Matthew Flinders

The European exploration of Australia encompasses several waves of seafarers and land explorers. The first documented encounter was that of Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon, in 1606. 164 years later Royal Navy Lieutenant (later Captain) James Cook, after an assignment to make observations of the 1769 Venus Transit, followed Admiralty instructions to explore the south Pacific for the reported Terra Australis and on 19 April 1770 sighted the south-eastern coast of Australia and became the first recorded European to explore the eastern coastline. Explorers by land and sea continued to survey the continent for many years after settlement.

Early European sightings[edit]

The first documented and undisputed European sighting of and landing on Australia was in late February or early March 1606, by the Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon aboard the Duyfken.[1][2][3] It is possible that Luís Vaz de Torres, working for the Spanish Crown, sighted Australia when he sailed through the Torres Strait several months later, in October 1606.[4]

Occasional claims have been made in support of earlier encounters, particularly for various Portuguese explorations. Evidence put forward in favour of this theory, particularly by Kenneth McIntyre,[5] is primarily based on interpretation of features of the Dieppe maps. However, this interpretation is not accepted by most historians.[6]

17th century Dutch exploration[edit]

Hollandia Nova, 1659 map prepared by Joan Blaeu

The most significant exploration of Australia in the 17th century was by the Dutch. The Dutch East India Company traded extensively with the islands which now form parts of Indonesia, and hence were very close to Australia already. In early 1606 Willem Janszoon encountered and then charted the shores of Australia's Cape York Peninsula. The ship made landfall at the Pennefather River in the Gulf of Carpentaria on 26 February 1606.[7] This was the first authenticated landing of a European on Australian soil. Other Dutch explorers include Dirk Hartog,[8] who landed on the Western Australian coast, leaving behind a pewter plate engraved with the date of his landing; and Abel Tasman, for whom Tasmania was eventually named—he originally called it Van Diemen's Land after a senior member of the Dutch East India Company.[9] Maps from this period and the early 18th century often have Australia marked as "New Holland" on account of the voyages of these Dutch explorers.[10][11] Joan Blaeu's 1659 map on the right shows the clearly recognizable outline of Australia based on the many Dutch explorations of the first half of the 17th century.

When Who Ship(s) Where
1606 Willem Janszoon Duyfken Gulf of Carpentaria, Cape York Peninsula (Queensland)
1616 Dirk Hartog Eendracht Shark Bay area, Western Australia
1619 Frederick de Houtman[12] and Jacob d'Edel Dordrecht and Amsterdam Sighted land near Perth, Western Australia
1623 Jan Carstensz[13] Pera and Arnhem Gulf of Carpentaria, Carpentier River
1627 François Thijssen[14] het Gulden Zeepaerdt 1800 km of the South coast (from Cape Leeuwin to Ceduna)
1642–1643 Abel Tasman Heemskerck and Zeehaen Van Diemen's Land, later called Tasmania
1696–1697 Willem de Vlamingh[15] Geelvink, Nyptangh and the Wezeltje Rottnest Island, Swan River, Dirk Hartog Island (Western Australia)

One Dutch captain of this period who was not really an explorer but who nevertheless bears mentioning was Francisco Pelsaert, captain of the Batavia, which was wrecked off the coast of Western Australia in 1629.[16]

17th and 18th century British exploration[edit]

Map of William Dampier's voyage.

The Australian mainland was first sighted by English sailors as early as 1622. On 1 May 1622, the Tryall, a British East India Company owned vessel of approximately 500 tons, under the command of John Brooke, sighted the coastline of Western Australia at Point Cloates, although they mistook it for an island sighted in 1618 by Willem Janszoon and in 1816 named Barrow Island by Phillip Parker King. They did not land there, and a few weeks later were shipwrecked on an uncharted reef northwest of the Montebello Islands; the reef is now known as Tryal Rocks. The shipwreck caused the death of 93 men, but the captain and nine men escaped, and made their way to Batavia by longboat, and later back to England. This was the first known shipwreck in Australian waters, and it was this wreck that William Dampier came looking for almost seven decades later. Dampier was the first Englishman to set foot on the Australian mainland, when his ship was marooned in King Sound in January 1688.

Dampier contributed to knowledge of Australia's coastline through his two-volume publication A Voyage to New Holland (1703, 1709). His book of adventures; "A New Voyage around the World," created a sensation when it was published in English in 1697.[17] Though he was briefly marooned on the NW Australian coast on the trip described in this book, only his second voyage seems to be of importance to Australian exploration.

Cook's 1770 voyage shown in red

In 1768 British Lieutenant James Cook was sent from England on an expedition to the Pacific Ocean to observe the transit of Venus from Tahiti, sailing westwards in HMS Endeavour via Cape Horn and arriving there in 1769. On the return voyage he continued his explorations of the South Pacific, in search of the postulated continent of Terra Australis.

He first reached New Zealand, and then sailed further westwards to sight the south-eastern corner of the Australian continent on 20 April 1770. In doing so, he was to be the first documented European expedition to reach the eastern coastline. He continued sailing northwards along the east coast, charting and naming many features along the way.

He identified Botany Bay as a good harbour and one potentially suitable for a settlement, and where he made his first landfall on 29 April. Continuing up the coastline, the Endeavour was to later run aground on shoals of the Great Barrier Reef (near the present-day site of Cooktown), where she had to be laid up for repairs.

The voyage then recommenced, eventually reaching the Torres Strait and thence on to Batavia in the Dutch East Indies (now Jakarta, Indonesia). The expedition returned to England via the Indian Ocean and Cape of Good Hope.[18]

Cook's expedition carried botanist Joseph Banks, for whom a great many Australian geographical features and at least one native plant are named. The reports of Cook and Banks in conjunction with the loss of England's penal colonies in America after they gained independence and growing concern over French activity in the Pacific, encouraged the later foundation of a colony at Port Jackson in 1788.[19]

18th century French exploration[edit]

In 1756, French King Louis XV sent Louis-Antoine de Bougainville to look for the Southern lands. After a stay in South America and the Falklands, Bougainville reached Tahiti in April 1768, where his boat was surrounded by hundreds of canoes filled with beautiful women. "I ask you," he wrote, "given such a spectacle, how could one keep at work 400 Frenchmen? He claimed Tahiti for the French and sailed westward, past Samoa and Vanuatu, until his passage was blocked by a mighty reef. With his men weak from scurvy and disease and no way through he sailed north. When he returned to France in 1769, he was the first Frenchman to circumnavigate the globe and the first European known to have seen the Great Barrier Reef.

In 1772, two French expeditions set out to find Terra Australis. The first, led by Marc-Joseph Marion Dufresne, found and named the Crozet Islands, and, in Blackmans Bay claimed Van Diemen's Land for France. He was the first to set foot there since Tasman and the first to make contact with the island's Aborigines. He sailed on to New Zealand where he and some crewmen were killed by Maori warriors. The survivors retreated to Mauritius.[20]

Also in 1772, the two ships of the second French expedition were separated by a storm. The leader turned back but the second in command, Louis Aleno de St Aloüarn, sighted Cape Leeuwin and followed the coast to Shark Bay. He landed on Dirk Hartog Island and claimed the land for the French king.

In 1788, Jean-François de Galaup, comte de La Pérouse visited Botany Bay,[21] and in 1792, Bruni d'Entrecasteaux landed and named Esperance in Western Australia. His expedition also resulted in the publication of the first general flora of New Holland.[22]

Later exploration from the sea[edit]

Voyages of George Bass
Voyages of Matthew Flinders

Once settlement in Sydney was established, the charting of Australia's coast continued into the 19th century. Matthew Flinders was one of the most important explorers of this period, and was the first to circumnavigate the continent,[23] however, due to his lengthy incarceration by the French on Mauritius, the first published map of the full outline of Australia was the Freycinet Map of 1811, a product of the Baudin expedition.

When Who Ship(s) Where
1773 Tobias Furneaux[24] Adventure South and east coasts of Tasmania
1776 James Cook Resolution Southern Tasmania
1788 Jean-François de Galaup, comte de Lapérouse Astrolabe and Boussole encountered First Fleet in Botany Bay
1796 Matthew Flinders Tom Thumb Coastline around Sydney
1798 Matthew Flinders and George Bass[25] Norfolk Circumnavigated Tasmania
1801–1802 Nicolas Baudin, accompanied by Thomas Vasse and numerous naturalists (see below)[26] Le Géographe and Le Naturaliste The first to explore Western coast; met Flinders at Encounter Bay
1801 John Murray[27] Lady Nelson Bass Strait; discovery of Port Phillip
1802 Matthew Flinders Investigator Circumnavigation of Australia
1817 King expedition of 1817Phillip Parker King[28] accompanied by Frederick Bedwell Mermaid Circumnavigation of Australia; charting of the north-western coasts

Land exploration 1788–1900[edit]

Blaxland's expedition to cross the Blue Mountains
John Oxley's expeditions
Route of the Sturt, Hume and Hovell expeditions

The opening up of the interior to European settlement occurred gradually throughout the colonial period, and a number of these explorers are very well known. Burke and Wills are the best known for their failed attempt to cross the interior of Australia, but such men as Hamilton Hume and Charles Sturt are also notable—if only because major geographical features, landmarks, and institutions have been named after them. For many years, plans of westward expansion from Sydney were thwarted by the Great Dividing Range, a large range of mountains which shadows the east coast from the Queensland-New South Wales border to the south coast. The part of the range near Sydney is called the Blue Mountains. Governor Philip Gidley King declared that they were impassable, but despite this, Gregory Blaxland successfully led an expedition to cross them in 1813. He was accompanied by William Lawson, William Wentworth and four servants. This trip paved the way for numerous small expeditions which were undertaken in the following few years.[29]

In 1824, Governor Thomas Brisbane asked Hamilton Hume and William Hovell to travel from Hume's station near modern-day Canberra, to Spencer Gulf (west of modern-day Adelaide). However, they were required to pay their own costs. Hume and Hovell decided that Western Port was a more realistic goal, and they left with a party of six men. After discovering and crossing the Murrumbidgee and Murray rivers, they eventually reached a site near modern-day Geelong, somewhat west of their intended destination.[30][31]

Inland Sea[edit]

After the Great Dividing Range had been crossed at numerous points a great many rivers discovered; the Darling, Macquarie, Murray and Murrumbidgee rivers. All of these rivers flowed west. A theory was developed of a vast inland sea into which these rivers flowed. Another reason behind the idea of an inland sea was that Matthew Flinders, who had very carefully mapped much of Australia's coast had discovered no great river delta where these rivers should have emerged by had they reached the coast. The Murray-Darling basin actually drains into Lake Alexandrina. Matthew Flinders had noted this on his maps but viewed from the sea does not look like the outfall of a large watershed, but instead as a gentle tidal basin.

The mystery was solved by Charles Sturt, who in 1829–30 undertook an expedition similar to the one which Hume and Hovell had refused: a trip to the mouth of the Murray River. They followed the Murrumbidgee until it met the Murray, and then found the junction of the Murray and the Darling before continuing on to the mouth of the Murray. The search for an inland sea was an inspiration for many early expeditions west of the Great Dividing Ranges. This quest drove many explorers to extremes of endurance and hardship. Charles Sturt's expedition explained the mystery. It also led to the opening of South Australia to settlement.[32]

The theory of the inland sea had many adherents. Major Thomas Mitchell, the Scottish born Surveyor-General of New South Wales, set out in 1836 to disprove Sturt's claims and in doing so made a significant discovery. He led an expedition along the Lachlan River, down to the Murray River. He then set off for the southern coast, mapping what is now western Victoria. There he discovered the richest grazing land ever seen to that time and named it Australia Felix. He was knighted for this discovery in 1837. When he reached the coast at Portland Bay, he was surprised to find a small settlement. It had been established by the Henty family, who had sailed across Bass Strait from Van Diemen's Land in 1834, without the authorities being informed.[33]

Eyre's expeditions on the Nullarbor Plain and to the Flinders Ranges
Kennedy's expeditions in the interior of Queensland
Leichhardt's exploration
The ill fated expedition of Burke and Wills

Perhaps the most famous Australian explorers were Robert O'Hara Burke and William John Wills who in 1860–61 led a well equipped expedition from Melbourne to the Gulf of Carpentaria. Due to an unfortunate run of bad luck, oversight and poor leadership, Burke and Wills both died on the return trip.[34]

Expeditions (in chronological order):

When Who Where
1804 William Paterson Port Dalrymple, Tamar River, North Esk River (Tasmania)
1813 Blaxland, Wentworth, and Lawson From Sydney across the Great Dividing Range via the Blue Mountains; first penetration into inland New South Wales
1817–1818 John Oxley[35] Interior of New South Wales; discovered Lachlan River and Macquarie River
1818 Throsby, Meehan, Hume and Wild Throsby and Wild discovered an overland route from Sydney to Jervis Bay via the Kangaroo and Lower Shoalhaven rivers

Meehan and Hume followed the Shoalhaven upriver and discovered Lake Bathurst and the Goulburn Plains[36]

1820 Joseph Wild[37] discovered Lake George[38]
1823 Currie, Ovens and Wild Region south of Lake George;[39] discovered Isabella Plains (now a suburb of Canberra), charted the upper reach of the Murrumbidgee River and discovered Monaro[40]
1824 Hume and Hovell expedition Sydney to Geelong; discovered Murray River
1828–1829 Charles Sturt and Hamilton Hume Macquarie River area; discovered Darling River
1829 Currie, Drummond, Dr Simmons and Lieut Griffin South of Fremantle; explored region, now Rockingham and Baldivis, and sighted the Serpentine River[41]
1829 Dr Collie and Lieut.Preston discovered Harvey, Collie and Preston rivers
1829–1830 Charles Sturt Along the Murrumbidgee River; found and named Murray River, and determined that western-flowing rivers flowed into the Murray-Darling basin
1830 John Molloy Blackwood River, Western Australia
1830–1834 Alfred and John Bussell Blackwood River and the Vasse, Western Australia
1831 Robert Dale and George Fletcher Moore Avon River area in Western Australia
1831 Collet Barker Mount Lofty and the Murray Mouth
1834 Frederick Ludlow Augusta to Perth; discovered Capel River
1834–1836 George Fletcher Moore Avon River and Swan River; discovered that they are the same river; discovered rich pastoral land near the Moore River
1839–1841 Edward John Eyre[42] The Flinders Ranges and Nullarbor Plain
1840 Paweł Strzelecki[43] Ascended and named Mount Kosciuszko, New South Wales
1840 Patrick Leslie Condamine River, New South Wales
1840–1842 Clement Hodgkinson[44] North-eastern New South Wales, from Port Macquarie to Moreton Bay
1844 Charles Sturt North-western New South Wales and north-eastern South Australia; discovered the Simpson Desert
1847 Anthony O'Grady Lefroy and Alfred Durlacher Gingin, Western Australia
1854 Austin expedition of 1854Robert Austin, Kenneth Brown Geraldton, Mount Magnet, Murchison River
1858–1860 John McDouall Stuart[45] North-western South Australia; discovered water sources used as staging points for later expeditions; found and named Finke River, MacDonnell Ranges, Tennant Creek
1860 Burke and Wills expedition including Robert O'Hara Burke, William John Wills Melbourne to Gulf of Carpentaria (traversing Australia south to north); determined non-existence of inland sea
1897 Frank Hann[46] Pilbara region of Western Australia; named Lake Disappointment

Other 19th-century explorers[edit]

Other explorers by land (in alphabetical order):

Stuart was the first to cross the country from south to north successfully.
Map of John Forrest's expeditions

20th-century explorers[edit]

By the turn of the 20th century, most of the major geographical features of Australia had been discovered by European explorers. However, there are some 20th-century people who are considered explorers. They include:

Indigenous Australians participating in European exploration[edit]

A number of Indigenous Australians participated in the European exploration of Australia. They include:

Naturalists and other scientists[edit]

There are a number of naturalists and other scientists closely associated with European exploration of Australia. They include:

Uncategorised explorers[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ George Collingridge (1895) The Discovery of Australia. P.240. Golden Press Facsimile Edition 1983. ISBN 0-85558-956-6
  2. ^ Ernest Scott (1928) A Short History of Australia. P.17. Oxford University Press
  3. ^ Heeres, J. E. (1899). The Part Borne by the Dutch in the Discovery of Australia 1606–1765, London: Royal Dutch Geographical Society, section III.B
  4. ^ Brett Hilder (1980) The Voyage of Torres. P.87–101. University of Queensland Press, St. Lucia, Queensland. ISBN 0-7022-1275-X
  5. ^ K.G. McIntyre (1977) The Secret Discovery of Australia; Portuguese discoveries 200 years before Captain Cook. Souvenir Press, Medindie, South Australia. ISBN 0-285-62303-6
  6. ^ For a survey of most writers and their interpretations, see the Dieppe maps entry.
  7. ^ Davison, Graeme; Hirst, John; Macintyre, Stuart (1999). The Oxford Companion to Australian History. Melbourne, Vic.: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-553597-9. 
  8. ^ Phillip E. Playford (2005) "Hartog, Dirk (1580–1621)"[1] Australian Dictionary of Biography
  9. ^ J. W. Forsyth (1967) "Tasman, Abel Janszoon (1603?–1659)" [2] Australian Dictionary of Biography
  10. ^ J.P.Sigmond and L.H.Zuiderbaan (1976) Dutch Discoveries of Australia. Rigby Australia. ISBN 0-7270-0800-5
  11. ^ Thomas Suarez (2004) Early Mapping of the Pacific. Chapter 5. Periplus Editions, Hong Kong.ISBN 0-7946-0092-1
  12. ^ J. van Lohuizen (1966) "Houtman, Frederik de (1571?–1627)" [3] Australian Dictionary of Biography
  13. ^ J.P.Sigmond and L.H.Zuiderbaan (1976), P.43–50
  14. ^ J.P.Sigmond and L.H.Zuiderbaan (1976), P.52
  15. ^ J. van Lohuizen (1967) "Vlamingh, Willem de (fl. 1697)" [4] Australian Dictionary of Biography
  16. ^ J.P.Sigmond and L.H.Zuiderbaan (1976) P.54–69.
  17. ^ William Dampier (1697) A New Voyage around the World. Reprinted 1937 with an introduction by Sir Albert Gray, President Hakluyt Society. Adam and Charles Black, London. Project Gutenberg [5]
  18. ^ For a full record of the log and journals of the entire voyage, see Ray Parkin, (1997) H.M. Bark Endeavour. Reprinted 2003. The Miegunyah Press, Carlton, Australia. ISBN 0-522-85093-6
  19. ^ C.M.H. Clark (1963) A Short History of Australia. P.20–21. Signet Classics, A Mentor Book.
  20. ^ Edward Duyker (2005) "Marion Dufresne, Marc-Joseph (1724–1772)." [6] Australian Dictionary of Biography
  21. ^ See extract from La Perouse's journal published in 1799 as; "A Voyage Around the world," p. 179–180 in Frank Crowley (1980), Colonial Australia. A Documentary History of Australia 1, 1788–1840. P.3–4, Thomas Nelson, Melbourne. ISBN 0-17-005406-3
  22. ^ Leslie R. Marchant, (1966). "Bruny D'Entrecasteaux, Joseph-Antoine Raymond (1739–1793)." [7] Australian Dictionary of Biography.
  23. ^ Matthew Flinders (1814), A Voyage to Terra Australis; Undertaken for the purpose of completing the discovery of that vast country. G. and W. Nichol, London. Project Gutenberg [8]
  24. ^ Dan Sprod (2005) "Furneaux, Tobias (1735–1781)" [9] Australian Dictionary of Biography
  25. ^ K. M. Bowden (1966) "Bass, George (1771–1803)" [10]Australian Dictionary of Biography
  26. ^ Leslie Marchant, J. H. Reynold.(1966) "Baudin, Nicolas Thomas (1754–1803)" [11] Australian Dictionary of Biography
  27. ^ Vivienne Parsons (1967) "Murray, John (1775?–1807?)" [12] Australian Dictionary of Biography
  28. ^ P.Serle (1967) "King, Phillip Parker (1791–1856)" [13] Australian Dictionary of Biography
  29. ^ Gregory Blaxland:"A Journal of a Tour of Discovery across the Blue Mountains, New South Wales in the Year 1813," in George Mackaness (Ed.)(1965) Fourteen Journeys Over the Blue Mountains of New South Wales 1813–1841, Horwitz Publications, The Grahame Book Company, Sydney, Australia.
  30. ^ See full article Hume and Hovell expedition and numerous summaries such as; Jan Bassett (1986) The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Australian History. P.136. Oxford University Press, Melbourne ISBN 0-19-554422-6
  31. ^ Hamilton Hume and William Hovell (1831) Journey of Discovery to Port Phillip District at Project Gutenberg [14]
  32. ^ H.J. Gibbney (1967) "Sturt, Charles (1795–1869)" Australian Dictionary of Biography [15]
  33. ^ D.W.A. Baker (1967) "Sir Thomas Livingstone (1792–1855)" [16] Australian Dictionary of Biography
  34. ^ Alan Moorehead (1963) Cooper's Creek. MacMillan, Melbourne and Sydney. ISBN 0-333-22909-6
  35. ^ E.W. Dunlop (1967) "Oxley, John Joseph William Molesworth (1784?–1828)" [17] Australian Dictionary of Biography
  36. ^ Year Book Australia 1931 – Canberra Past and Present
  37. ^ Vivienne Parsons (1967)"Wild, Joseph (1773?–1847)" [18] Australian Dictionary of Biography
  38. ^ NSW Government Collections, Joseph Wild
  39. ^ M.J.Currie, Journal of an excursion to the south of Lake George 1823
  40. ^ The Discovery of Monaro
  41. ^ Reference to the Serpentine in Murray River (Western Australia)
  42. ^ Geoffrey Dutton (1966) "Eyre, Edward John (1815–1901)" [19] Australian Dictionary of Biography
  43. ^ Helen Heney (1967) "Strzelecki, Sir Paul Edmund de [Count Strzelecki] (1797–1873)" [20], Dictionary of Australian Biography
  44. ^ K.A. Patterson (1972) "Hodgkinson, Clement (1818–1893)" [21] Dictionary of Australian Biography
  45. ^ Deirdre Morris (1976) "Stuart, John McDouall (1815–1866)" [22] Dictionary of Australian Biography
  46. ^ G.C.Bolton (1972) "Hann, Frank Hugh (1846–1921)" [23] Dictionary of Australian Biography
  47. ^ G.C.Bolton (1981) "Forrest, Alexander (1849–1901)" [24] Dictionary of Australian Biography
  48. ^ F.K.Crowley (1981) "Forrest, Sir John [Baron Forrest] (1847–1918)" [25] Dictionary of Australian Biography
  49. ^ Louis Green (1972) "Giles, Ernest (1835–1897)" [26] Dictionary of Australian Biography
  50. ^ P.Serle. (1961) "Grey, Sir George (1812–1898)" [27] Dictionary of Australian Biography
  51. ^ Edgar Beale (1967) "Kennedy, Edmund Besley Court (1818–1848)" [28] Dictionary of Australian Biography
  52. ^ E.W. Dunlop (1967) "Lawson, William (1774–1850)" [29] Dictionary of Australian Biography
  53. ^ Renee Erdos (1967) "Leichhardt, Friedrich Wilhelm Ludwig (1813–1848)" [30] Dictionary of Australian Biography
  54. ^ Tim Flannery (Ed) (1996) Watkin Tench, 1788; Comprising a narrative of the expedition to Botany Bay and a complete account of the settlement at Port Jackson. Text Publishing, Melbourne. ISBN 1-875847-27-8
  55. ^ Denison Deasey (1976) "Warburton, Peter Egerton (1813–1889)" [31] Dictionary of Australian Biography
  56. ^ C. J. Horne (1993) "Colson, Edmund Albert (1881–1950)" [32] Australian Dictionary of Biography
  57. ^ David Carment, (1986) "Mackay, Donald George (1870–1958) [33] Australian Dictionary of Biography
  58. ^ L. W. Parkin (1986) "Madigan, Cecil Thomas (1889–1947)" [34] Australian Dictionary of Biography
  59. ^ ABC TV, George Negus Tonight. Broadcast 21/06/2004
  60. ^ Edgar Beale (1967) "Jackey Jackey ( –1854)" [35] Australian Dictionary of Biography
  61. ^ L.A. Gilbert (1967) "Solander, Daniel (1733–1782)" [36] Australian Dictionary of Biography
  62. ^ T.M.Perry (1967) "Cunningham, Allan (1791–1839)" [37] Australian Dictionary of Biography
  63. ^ Deirdre Morris (1974) "Mueller, Sir Ferdinand Jakob Heinrich von [Baron von Mueller] (1825–1896)" [38] Australian Dictionary of Biography
  64. ^ G.P.Whitley (1974) "Lhotsky, John (1795?–1866?)" [39] Australian Dictionary of Biography
  65. ^ G. P. Whitley, Martha Rutledge(1974) "Krefft, Johann Ludwig Gerard (Louis) (1830–1881)"[40] Australian Dictionary of Biography
  66. ^ Julie Marcus (2002) "Pink, Olive Muriel (1884–1975)" [41] Australian Dictionary of Biography
  67. ^ Treasures of the Museum Victoria
  68. ^ A.H. Chisholm (1969) "Calvert, James Snowden (1825–1884)" [42] Australian Dictionary of Biography
  69. ^ See numerous books by Michael Terry, dating from (1925) Across Unknown Australia, Herbert Jenkins, London, to (1974) War of the Warramullas. Rigby Limited, Australia. ISBN 0-85179-790-3

External links[edit]