European green toad
|European green toad|
The species group of the green toads (Bufo viridis or Pseudepidalea viridis subgroup) is an anuran group toad found in mainland Europe, Asia, and Northern Africa. They live in many areas, including steppes, mountainous areas, semi-deserts, and urban areas. They comprise at least 12 major evolutionary lineages, and there are variations in the colors and patterns of these toads across their range. The spots on their backs are usually anything from green to dark brown and sometimes red spots appear, too. Most toads have white or very lightly colored stomachs.
European green toads will change their colour in response to heat and light changes, but to a greater degree than others. Female toads are larger than males and can lay 9,000 to 15,000 eggs at a time. They can reach a maximum size of 6 inches, but growth to this size is rare.
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- C. Colliard, A. Sicilia, G.F. Turrisi, M. Arculeo, N. Perrin and M. Stöck: Strong reproductive barriers in a narrow hybrid zone of West-Mediterranean green toads (Bufo viridis subgroup) with Plio-Pleistocene divergence. BMC Evolutionary Biology 10 (2010): 232 (16 pp.) http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/10/232
- Stöck, Matthias; Craig Moritz, Michael Hickerson, Daniel Frynta, Tatjana Dujsebayeva, Valery Eremchenko, J. Robert Macey, Theodore J. Papenfuss and David B. Wake (02-06-06). "Evolution of mitochondrial relationships and biogeography of Palearctic green toads (Bufo viridis subgroup) with insights in their genomic plasticity". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 41 (3): 663–689. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2006.05.026. PMID 16919484.
- Stöck, Matthias; Alessandra Sicilia; Natalia M Belfiore; David Buckley; Sabrina Lo Brutto; Mario Lo Valvo; Marco Arculeo (23-02-08). "Post-Messinian evolutionary relationships across the Sicilian channel: Mitochondrial and nuclear markers link a new green toad from Sicily to African relatives". BMC Evolutionary Biology 56: 56. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-8-56. ISSN 1471-2148. OCLC 47657384. PMC 2276203. PMID 18294389.
- "IUCN Red List - Pseudepidalea virdis (green toad)". Retrieved 2009-09-12.
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