EPR (nuclear reactor)
The EPR is a third generation pressurized water reactor (PWR) design. It has been designed and developed mainly by Framatome (now Areva NP), Electricité de France (EDF) in France, and Siemens AG in Germany. In Europe this reactor design was called European Pressurized Reactor, and the internationalized name was Evolutionary Power Reactor, but it is now simply named EPR by Areva.
Four EPR units are under construction. The first two, in Finland and France, are both facing costly construction delays (to at least 2017). Construction commenced on two additional Chinese units in 2009 and 2010. The Chinese units were to start operation in 2014 and 2015, but are now expected to come online in 2016 and 2017.
- 1 Design
- 2 Olkiluoto 3 (Areva's first plant)
- 3 Flamanville 3 (EDF's first plant)
- 4 Taishan 1 & 2 (CGNPC's first plants)
- 5 Possible future power plants
- 6 Lost opportunities
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 External links
The main design objectives of the third generation EPR design are increased safety while providing enhanced economic competitiveness through improvements to previous PWR designs scaled up to an electrical power output of around 1650 MWe (net) with thermal power 4500 MWt. The reactor can use 5% enriched uranium oxide fuel, reprocessed uranium fuel and 100% mixed uranium plutonium oxide fuel. The EPR is the evolutionary descendant of the Framatome N4 and Siemens Power Generation Division "Konvoi" reactors.
The EPR design has several active and passive protection measures against accidents:
- Four independent emergency cooling systems, providing the required cooling of the decay heat that continues for 1 to 3 years after the reactor's initial shutdown (i.e., 300% redundancy)
- Leaktight containment around the reactor
- An extra container and cooling area if a molten core manages to escape the reactor (see containment building)
- Two-layer concrete wall with total thickness 2.6 meters, designed to withstand impact by aeroplanes and internal overpressure
The EPR was designed to use uranium more efficiently than older Generation II reactors, using approximately 17% less uranium per unit of electricity generated than these older reactor technologies.
The Union of Concerned Scientists referred to the EPR in Dec 2007 as the only new reactor design under consideration in the United States that "...appears to have the potential to be significantly safer and more secure against attack than today's reactors."
On 4 November 2009, the nuclear power regulatory authorities in France, Finland and the United Kingdom issued a joint letter to Areva, citing serious problems with the EPR's digital Instrumentation and Control systems (I&C). The letter stated:
"The issue is primarily around ensuring the adequacy of the safety systems (those used to maintain control of the plant if it goes outside normal conditions), and their independence from the control systems (those used to operate the plant under normal conditions).
Independence is important because, if a safety system provides protection against the failure of a control system, then they should not fail together. The EPR design, as originally proposed by the licensees and the manufacturer, AREVA, doesn’t comply with the independence principle, as there is a very high degree of complex interconnectivity between the control and safety systems."
In 2013[update] EDF acknowledged the difficulties it was having building the EPR design, with its head of production and engineering, Hervé Machenaud, saying EDF had lost its dominant international position in design and construction of nuclear power stations. Machenaud indicated EDF was considering designing two new lower powered reactors, one with output of 1,500 MWe and the other 1,000 MWe. Machenaud stated there would be a period of reflection on the best way to improve the EPR design to lower its price and incorporate post-Fukushima safety improvements.
Olkiluoto 3 (Areva's first plant)
The construction of the Olkiluoto 3 power plant in Finland commenced in August 2005. It was initially scheduled to go online in 2009, but the project has suffered many delays, and according to Areva operations are expected to start in 2018. The plant will have an electrical power output of 1600 MWe (net). The construction is a joint effort of French Areva and German Siemens AG through their common subsidiary Areva NP, for Finnish operator TVO. Initial cost estimates were about €3.7 billion, but the project has since seen several severe cost increments and delays.
In May 2006, construction delays of about one year were announced, following quality control problems across the construction. In part the delays were due to the lack of oversight of subcontractors inexperienced in nuclear construction. The delays led to disappointing financial results for the Areva NP. It blamed delays on the Finnish approach to approving technical documentation and designs.
In December 2006, TVO announced construction was about 18 months behind schedule so completion was now expected 2010–11, and there were reports that Areva was preparing to take a €500 million charge on its accounts for the delay.
At the end of June 2007, it was reported that Säteilyturvakeskus, the Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, had found a number of safety-related design and manufacturing 'deficiencies'. In August 2007, a further construction delay of up to a year was reported associated with construction problems in reinforcing the reactor building to withstand an airplane crash, and the timely supply of adequate documentation to the Finnish authorities.
A further delay was announced in October 2008, making the total delay three years, giving an expected online date of 2012. The parties are in arbitration to resolve a dispute over responsibility for the delays and final cost overruns.
As of May 2009[update], the plant was at least three and a half years behind schedule and more than 50 percent over-budget. Areva and the utility involved "are in bitter dispute over who will bear the cost overruns and there is a real risk now that the utility will default". In August 2009, Areva announced €550 million additional provisions for the build, taking plant costs to €5.3 billion, and wiped out interim operating profits for the first half-year of 2009.
In June 2010, Areva announced €400 million of further provisions, taking the cost overrun to €2.7 billion. The timescale slipped to the end of 2012 from June 2012, Areva’s Overruns at Finnish Nuclear Plant Approach Initial Cost with operation set to start in 2013. In December 2011, TVO announced a further delay to August 2014. As of July 2012, the plant was scheduled to start electricity production no earlier than 2015, a schedule slippage of at least six years. In December 2012 Areva's Chief Executive estimated costs to €8 billion.
In September 2014 Areva announced that operations would start in 2018.
Flamanville 3 (EDF's first plant)
First concrete was poured for the demonstration EPR reactor at the Flamanville Nuclear Power Plant on 6 December 2007. As the name implies this will be the third nuclear reactor on the Flamanville site and the second instance of an EPR being built. Electrical output will be 1630 MWe (net) and the project involves around €3.3 billion of capital expenditure from EdF.
From 19 October 2005 to 18 February 2006 the project was submitted to a national public debate.
On 4 May 2006 the decision was made by EDF's Board of Directors to continue with the construction.
Between 15 June and 31 July 2006 the unit underwent a public enquiry, which rendered a "favorable opinion" on the project. That summer site preparation works began.
In December 2007 construction of the unit itself began. This was expected to last 54 months.
In April 2008 the French nuclear safety agency (Autorité de sûreté nucléaire, ASN) reported that a quarter of the welds inspected in the secondary containment steel liner are not in accordance with norms, and that cracks have been found in the concrete base. EDF stated that progress was being made on these issues raised very early in construction; however, on 21 May ASN ordered a suspension of concrete pouring on the site. A month later concreting work resumed after ASN accepted EDF's corrective action plan which included external oversight checks.
In May 2009 professor Stephen Thomas reported that after 18 months of construction and after a series of quality control problems, the project is "more than 20 percent over budget and EDF is struggling to keep it on schedule".
In August 2010 the regulator, ASN, reported further welding problems on the secondary containment steel liner. The same month EDF announced that costs had increased 50% to €5 billion, and commissioning was delayed by about two years to 2014.
In July 2011 EDF announced that the estimated costs had escalated to €6 billion and that completion of construction was delayed to 2016
On 3 December 2012 EDF announced that the estimated costs had escalated to €8.5 billion
In December 2012 the Italian power company Enel announced it was relinquishing its 12.5% stake in the project, and 5 future EPRs, so would be reimbursed its project stake of €613 million plus interest.
In November 2014 EDF announced that completion of construction was delayed to 2017 due to delays in component delivery by Areva.
In April 2015 Areva informed the French nuclear regulator that anomalies had been detected in the reactor vessel steel, causing "lower than expected mechanical toughness values". Further tests are underway.
Taishan 1 & 2 (CGNPC's first plants)
In 2006, there was a bidding in process to build four new nuclear reactors in China, Areva SA lost this bid in favor of Westinghouse Electric Company to build four AP1000 reactors, because of its refusal to transfer the expertise and knowledge to China.
In February 2007 Areva won a deal, worth about €8 billion ($10.5 billion) for two EPRs located in Taishan, Guangdong Province in southern China, in spite of sticking to its previous conditions. If achieved, this would make the Taishan EPRs about half the current projected final cost of Olkiluoto. The General Contractor and Operator is the China Guangdong Nuclear Power Company. In November 2007, French president Nicolas Sarkozy signed a $12 billion deal that will allow the third and fourth EPR units to be constructed in China.
The construction of the first reactor at Taishan started officially on 18 November 2009, and the second on 15 April 2010. Construction of each unit is planned to take 46 months, significantly faster and cheaper than the first two EPRs in Finland and France. This means the unit should have been finished in March 2014.
The vessel of the first reactor has been installed in June 2012.
In 2014 the build was reported to be running over two years late, mainly due to key component delays and project management issues.
Possible future power plants
The EPR is undergoing Generic Design Assessment by the Office for Nuclear Regulation, along with the Westinghouse AP1000. Interim Design Acceptance Confirmations were postponed until lessons from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster had been taken into account.
EDF bought British Energy in 2009. EDF planned to build 4 new EPRs, subject to electricity pricing agreement with the government. NuGeneration also wants to build new nuclear power, possibly 2 EPRs or 3 AP1000s.
Areva has signed a strategic partnership with Rolls-Royce to support the build of EPRs. On 19 March 2013 planning consent for Hinkley Point C nuclear power station was given, but difficult negotiations with the UK government about electricity pricing, and project financing with private investors, needed to be concluded before building starts.
On 21 October 2013, EDF Energy announced that an agreement had been reached regarding the nuclear plants to be built on the site of Hinkley Point C. EDF Group and the UK Government agreed on the key commercial terms of the investment contract. The final investment decision was conditional on completion of the remaining key steps, including the agreement of the European Commission.
On 8 October 2014 the European Commission announced their agreement of the construction and energy production of Hinkley Point C nuclear power plant with 16 out of 28 commissioners agreeing with the go ahead of the construction.
In July 2008 the French President announced a second EPR would be built in France due to high oil and gas prices. Penly was chosen as the site in 2009, with construction planned to start in 2012. However, in 2011, following the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, EdF postponed public consultations. In 2013, EdF confirmed there was no start plan for Penly, as current demand did not warrant it.
In December 2010, NPCIL signed a framework with Areva for 2 EPRs and 25 years' supply of nuclear fuel. The contract and pricing is yet to be finalised. Construction is unlikely to start soon because of regulatory issues and difficulty in sourcing major components from Japan due to India not being a signatory to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.
In March 2008, French president Nicolas Sarkozy reached an agreement with the UAE cabinet that "outlines a cooperation framework for the assessment and possible use of nuclear energy for peaceful ends." This agreement was not a contract for EPR construction by any of the French nuclear companies, Total S.A., Suez or Areva.
In May 2009, US President Barack Obama signed a similar agreement with the UAE. The deal, which has not yet been ratified by the US Congress, pledges US aid in the development of a civilian nuclear energy program in the UAE. Contracts for reactors were not given, nor was there any guarantee made that US companies would receive them.
In December 2009 the United Arab Emirates declined both the American and French bids and awarded a contract for construction of four non-EPR plants (APR-1400) to a South Korean group including Korea Electric Power Corporation, Hyundai Engineering and Construction, Samsung and Doosan Heavy Industries.
After losing this order, Areva is considering whether it should reintroduce the marketing of a smaller and simpler second-generation reactor design alongside the EPR, for countries that are new to nuclear power. As of 2011 Areva and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries offer a smaller 1100MWe ATMEA1 Generation III PWR, although none have been ordered so far.
On 24 February 2009, Italy and France agreed to study the feasibility of building 4 new nuclear power stations in Italy. Following this, on 3 August 2009, EDF and Enel established a joint venture, Sviluppo Nucleare Italia, to study the feasibility of building at least four EPRs.
However, in the 2011 referendum, soon after the Fukushima nuclear disaster, Italians voted to abrogate the new regulations permitting nuclear power in Italy. Abrogation of laws is put in effect when at least 50%+1 electors make a valid vote and a majority of these voters are in favour of abrogation. In this referendum there was a 55% valid voter turnout and 94% voted to abrogate the new regulations.
The US-EPR, the version of the EPR submitted to the U.S. regulator, is one of the competitors for the next generation of nuclear plants in the United States, along with the AP1000 and the ESBWR. In February 2015 Areva asked to suspend the Design Certification Application Review process at the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). It had been under review there with expectation to submit an application for final design approval and standard design certification since 14 December 2007. UniStar, Amarillo Power, PPL Corp and AmerenUE announced plans to file a Combined Construction and Operating License application in 2008 for the US-EPR at its Callaway plant. UniStar filed a partial application in July 2007 for a proposed third unit at the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant in Maryland. However, both proposals were subsequently cancelled.
In April 2009, Missouri legislators balked at preconstruction rate increases, prompting AmerenUE to suspend plans for its reactor. In July 2010, Constellation Energy Group cut spending on UniStar for the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant because of uncertainties for a loan guarantee from the U.S. Department of Energy, and subsequently pulled out of the project. In October 2008, Areva announced that it will partner with US defense firm Northrop Grumman to establish a US$380 million facility to construct modules and assemblies for the EPR and US-EPR reactors at Northrop Grumman's Newport News Shipyard in Virginia. The project was suspended indefinitely in May 2011.
In 2010 the Finnish parliament decided to allow two new reactors. Both TVO and Fennovoima were considering the EPR. In December 2013 Fennovoima confirmed it had selected a Russian AES-2006 VVER pressurized water reactor in preference to the EPR.
- Geert De Clercq (31 July 2014). "EDF hopes French EPR will launch before Chinese reactors". Reuters. Retrieved 9 December 2014.
- Symbolic milestone for Finnish EPR, World Nuclear News, 24 October 2013.
- "Flamanville EPR vessel anomalies under scrutiny". World Nuclear News. 7 April 2015. Retrieved 11 April 2015.
- "New Build Field Report" (PDF). Areva. 6 October 2010. p. 4. Retrieved 5 March 2011.
- Andrew Teller (2 February 2010). "The EPR Reactor: Evolution to Gen III+ based on proven technology" (PDF). Areva. Retrieved 19 July 2010.
- "EPR – Areva brochure" (PDF). Areva NP. May 2005. Retrieved 2 January 2008.
- EPR Level 1 Probabilistic Safety Assessment. Author: UK EPR.
- http://books.google.ie/books?id=LZ7zBwWLyLEC&pg=PA121&lpg=PA121&dq=ipsr+reactor&source=bl&ots=RjrcdZBH5t&sig=CFdyY4mBX774oMKN2D-Z2OAiZKk&hl=en&sa=X&ei=C5gvUdSXA5GThgft44DQAw&ved=0CD4Q6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=ipsr%20reactor&f=false page 126. 3 Rs of Nuclear Power: Reading, Recycling, and Reprocessing Making a Better ... By Jan Forsythe
- "Nuclear Power in a Warming World" (PDF). Union of Concerned Scientists.
- "Joint Regulatory Position Statement on the EPR Pressurised Water Reactor" (PDF). UK Health and Safety Executive. Dec 2007.
- "EDF eyes development of new, smaller reactors - papers". Reuters. 21 March 2013. Retrieved 18 April 2013.
- OLKILUOTO 3 PROJECT by AREVA
- CHRONOLOGY OF OLKILUOTO 3 PROJECT by AREVA[dead link]
- "Olkiluoto 3 startup pushed back to 2018". World Nuclear News. 1 September 2014. Retrieved 1 September 2014.
- EPR IN FINLAND: FOUNDATION STONE-LAYING DAY AT OLKILUOTO 3 by AREVA[dead link]
- Regulator reports as OL3 delays reach one year, 19 July 2006, by Nuclear Engineering International.
- Concrete composition delays Finland's Olkiluoto 3, Nuclear Engineering International, 9 May 2006.
- Areva’s first half results hit by Olkiluoto 3 delays, 2 October 2006, by Nuclear Engineering International.
- European Pressurised Reactor at Olkiluoto 3, Finland – Brief & Interim Review of the Porosity and Durability Properties of the In Situ Cast Concrete at the Olkiluoto EPR Construction Site, June 2006, Large & Associates.
- Finland nuclear reactor delayed again, Associated Press, 4 December 2006.
- Areva to take 500 mln eur charge for Finnish reactor delay, Forbes, 5 December 2006.
- Nuclear industry revival hits roadblocks, New Scientist, 29 June 2007. Retrieved 5 July 2007.
- Dates revised again for Olkiluoto 3, World Nuclear News, 10 August 2007.
- Nuclear industry's flagship plant delayed again, Huliq, 11 August 2007.
- Areva delay threatens China contract, MSNBC, 10 August 2007.
- Alan Katz (5 September 2007). "Nuclear Bid to Rival Coal Chilled by Flaws, Delay in Finland". Bloomberg. Retrieved 17 June 2008.
- Areva-Siemens sees Olkiluoto 3 reactor operational in summer 2011, CNN, 31 December 2007.
- "3-year delay expected at Finnish nuclear plant". International Herald Tribune. 17 October 2008. Retrieved 17 October 2008.
- Peggy Hollinger (16 October 2008). "Areva in talks with TVO over EPR delays". Financial Times. Retrieved 17 October 2008.
- Suoninen, Sakari (31 December 2008). "Finland nuclear reactor costs headed to arbitration – TVO". Reuters. Retrieved 5 January 2009.
- U.K. Expert: U.S. is Not Losing International 'Race' on Nuclear Power With France and Other Nations
- Peggy Hollinger (31 August 2009). "Finnish reactor provisions hit Areva profits". Financial Times. Retrieved 1 September 2009.
- "Olkiluoto 3: EPR dome installed". AREVA NC. 6 August 2009. Retrieved 1 November 2009.
- "AREVA – Olkiluoto 3 : EPR dome installed". YouTube. 10 August 2008. Retrieved 29 November 2009.
- Dorothy Kosich (29 June 2010). "S&P downgrades French nuclear-uranium giant AREVA on weakened profitability". Mineweb. Retrieved 6 July 2010.
- François de Beaupuy. Areva’s Overruns at Finnish Nuclear Plant Approach Initial Cost Bloomberg Businessweek, 24 June 2010.
- "Start-up of Finnish EPR pushed back to 2013". World Nuclear News. 8 June 2010. Retrieved 28 June 2010.
- Ando, Ritsuko (21 December 2011). "Finland's Olkiluoto 3 reactor delayed to August 2014". Reuters. Retrieved 21 December 2011.
- "Olkiluoto 3 delayed beyond 2014". World Nuclear News. 17 July 2012. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
- "Costs of Finland's Olkiluoto nuclear reactor go up yet again". Nuclear-news. 14 December 2012. Retrieved 6 September 2013.
- Nuclear Engineering International. Flamanville 3 concrete poured.
- "EDF Official Site – Flamanville 3". Edf.fr. Retrieved 19 April 2012.
- "Public inquiry commission favors plan to build Flamanville-3 EPR". Nucleonics Week. 5 October 2006. Retrieved 17 June 2008.[dead link]
- Geoffrey Lean and Jonathan Owen (13 April 2008). "Defects found in nuclear reactor the French want to build in Britain". The Independent (London). Retrieved 19 April 2004.
- "French nuke body partly halts work on new reactor". Reuters. 27 May 2008. Retrieved 27 May 2008.
- "EdF allowed to continue concreting". World Nuclear News. 20 June 2008. Retrieved 21 June 2008.
- Tara Patel (30 August 2010). "French Nuclear Watchdog Says EDF Has Problems With Flamanville EPR Liner". Bloomberg. Retrieved 31 August 2010.
- "EDF delays Flamanville 3 EPR project". Nuclear Engineering International. 20 July 2011. Retrieved 21 July 2011.
- "Le coût de l'EPR de Flamanville encore revu à la hausse". Le Monde. 3 December 2012. Retrieved 4 December 2012.
- "Enel Drops Participation in Flamanville EPR as Project Costs Soar by $2.6B". POWER. 6 December 2012. Retrieved 14 August 2013.
- "Enel and Edf Terminate their cooperation on EPR in France". Enel. 4 December 2012. Retrieved 14 August 2013.
- Michael Stothard (18 November 2014). "EDF in fresh delay for flagship nuclear plant". Financial Times. Retrieved 21 November 2014.
- email@example.com (12 September 2004). "Foreign energy giants bid for China's nuclear contracts, 12 September 2004, ''People's Daily''". People's Daily. Retrieved 19 April 2012.
- "Areva lands world's biggest ever nuclear power order". World Nuclear News. 26 November 2007. Retrieved 12 May 2013.
- "Signing of Areva EPR order in China delayed – French source". Forbes. 30 July 2007. Archived from the original on 15 December 2008. Retrieved 1 August 2007.[dead link]
- Nuclear Engineering International. Record-breaking deal for Areva/China Guangdong.
- "China, People's Republic of: Nuclear Power Reactors". PRIS database. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Retrieved 18 July 2010.
- Patel, Tara; François de Beaupuy (24 November 2010). "China Builds Nuclear Reactor for 40% Less Than Cost in France, Areva Says". Bloomberg. Retrieved 2 December 2010.
- "China: The Construction of the EPR reactor Unit 1 at Taishan Takes a Major Step Forward with the Installation of the Vessel". AREVA. 5 June 2012. Retrieved 5 June 2012.
- Steve Kidd (23 February 2015). "How serious are the delays in China's nuclear programme?". Nuclear Engineering International. Retrieved 8 March 2015.
- Patton, Dominique (29 January 2015). "UPDATE 2-EDF says first Taishan nuclear plant to be ready end 2015". Reuters. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- "New Nuclear Power Stations – Progress so far". Health and Safety Executive. Retrieved 15 September 2009.
- "News – Taking GDA work forward in the light of the unprecedented events in Japan". Hse.gov.uk. Retrieved 19 April 2012.
- This website was built by the EDF Energy WCM. "Nuclear Generation". Edfenergy.com. Retrieved 19 April 2012.
- Declan Lynch (18 April 2013). "EdF still undecided about Hinkley Point C go-ahead". New Civil Engineer. Retrieved 21 April 2013.
- Andrew Trotman (18 April 2013). "EDF prepared to let UK nuclear talks fail". Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 21 April 2013.
- "NuGen – About Nugen". Nugeneration.com. Retrieved 19 April 2012.
- "Areva signs up Rolls-Royce for EPR". Nuclear Engineering International. 11 March 2011. Retrieved 19 April 2012.
- Dave Harvey (19 March 2013). "What price nuclear power? The final hurdle for Hinkley". BBC. Retrieved 19 March 2013.
- "Second new reactor for France". World Nuclear News. 3 July 2008. Retrieved 3 July 2008.
- AREVA's announcement on two new EPRs in France.
- "France says Penly reactor on course despite delays". Reuters. 4 October 2011. Retrieved 5 October 2011.
- Makarand Gadgil (29 November 2011). "Jaitapur nuclear plant work may not start before 2014". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 29 November 2011.
- "N-plant in Jaitapur given green signal | PRAVASI TODAY : NRI NEWS : NRI HELP". Pravasi Today. 29 November 2010. Retrieved 19 April 2012.
- "Areva signs Jaitapur agreements". World Nuclear News. 13 April 2015. Retrieved 14 April 2015.
- UAE endorses France nuclear deal – Joel Bowman – BBC News 10 March 2008.
- Despite Torture Video, U.S. and Emirates Sign Key Pact – Mark Landler – The New York Times – 21 May 2009.
- Andrew England, Peggy Hollinger, Song Jung-a. "S. Koreans win $20B UAE nuclear power contract". Financial Times (CNN). Archived from the original on 14 January 2010.
- Peggy Hollinger (15 January 2010). "Areva considers producing cheaper reactors". Financial Times. Retrieved 19 January 2010.
- Tara Patel (19 January 2011). "French Atmea Would Make Reactor ‘Credible’ Export, GDF Suez Says". Bloomberg. Retrieved 21 June 2011.
- "Italy and France pen nuclear deal". BBC. 24 February 2009. Retrieved 24 February 2009.
- Selina Williams, Liam Moloney (4 August 2009). "Enel, EDF to Build Nuclear Plants in Italy". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 9 August 2009.
- "US EPR plans suspended". World Nuclear News. 6 March 2015. Retrieved 21 April 2015.
- "Design Certification Application Review – U.S. EPR". Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Retrieved 3 July 2008.
- "Nuke plant is, well, nuked. Not gonna happen". Primebuzz.kcstar.com. Retrieved 19 April 2012.
- Terry Ganey. AmerenUE pulls plug on project Columbia Daily Tribune, 23 April 2009.
- Peter Behr (30 July 2010). "A Late Scramble to Fund 'Nuclear Renaissance' Kick-Start". New York Times. Retrieved 30 July 2010.
- "Constellation Energy cuts spending on Areva reactor venture". McClatchy-Tribune Information Services (TradingMarkets). 29 July 2010. Retrieved 30 July 2010.
- Peggy Hollinger (19 October 2010). "Energy: Cooling ambitions". Financial Times. Retrieved 29 October 2010.
- "Dedicated nuclear component factory". World Nuclear News. 24 October 2008. Retrieved 31 January 2009.
- Sonal Patel (1 December 2008). "AREVA inches closer to U.S. EPR construction". POWER. Retrieved 31 January 2009.
- "Areva Halts Construction of Virginia Reactor Component Plant – Nuclear Power Industry News – Nuclear Power Industry News – Nuclear Street – Nuclear Power Portal". Nuclear Street. 11 May 2011. Retrieved 19 April 2012.
- "TVO Plant type alternatives". Tvo.fi. Retrieved 19 April 2012.
- "Current | Fennovoima signed technical development agreements with Areva and Toshiba | Current | Fennovoima Oy". Fennovoima.com. 20 December 2010. Retrieved 19 April 2012.
- "Finland's Fennovoima signs reactor deal with Rosatom". Reuters. 21 December 2013. Retrieved 12 January 2014.
- Official webpage
- The EPR – Areva brochure (2.6MB pdf)
- Nuclear power, the great illusion : Promises, setbacks and threats, Les Cahiers de Global Chance, 25th issue, October 2008