European Spallation Source
|European Spallation Source (ESS)|
|Scientific Purpose:||Provide unique information about the structure and properties of materials across the spectrum of biology, chemistry, physics, and engineering.|
|Science with Neutrons|
The European Spallation Source (ESS) is a planned materials science research facility using the neutron scattering technique. At least 17 European countries will sponsor ESS. The facility is being built in Lund, Sweden whilst the 'ESS Data Management and Software Centre' will be located in Copenhagen, Denmark. The research facility is planned to start operation in 2019, and it will enable scientists to see and understand basic atomic structures and forces.
The ESS will use spallation, a process in which fragments of material (spall) are ejected from a body due to impact or stress. The future facility is composed of a linear accelerator in which protons are accelerated and collide with a tungsten target. By this process, intense pulses of neutrons are emitted and led through beamlines to experimental stations, where research is done on different materials. This will help discover and develop new materials with applications in manufacturing, pharmaceutical drugs, aerospace, engines, plastics, energy, telecommunications, transportation, information technology and biotechnology. According to its designers, the ESS will provide neutron beams up to 30 times brighter than any current neutron source.
When the ISIS neutron source was built in England in 1985, its radical success to produce indirect images of molecular structures eventually raised the possibility of a spallation source far more powerful, and now less technically speculative. By 1993, the European Neutron Scattering Association began to advocate for what would be the most ambitious and broad-based spallation source in the world, ESS.
Neutron science soon became a critical tool in the development of industrial and consumer products worldwide. So much so that the Organization for Economic Development, declared in 1999 that a new generation of high-intensity neutron sources should be built, one each in North America, Asia and Europe. Europe's challenge was its diverse collection of national governments, and an active research community numbering in the thousands. A European international task force gathered in Bonn in 2002 to review the findings and a positive consensus emerged to build ESS. The stakeholders group met a year later to review the task force's progress, and in 2003 a new design concept was adopted that set the course for beginning operations by 2019.
Over the next five years a competitive and yet collaborative site selection process played out and Lund, Sweden was chosen as the preferred site; the definitive selection of Lund was announced in Brussels on May 28, 2009. In July 1, 2010, the staff and operations of ESS Scandinavia were transferred from Lund University to 'European Spallation Source ESS AB', a limited liability company set up to design, construct and operate the European Spallation Source in Lund. The company's headquarters are situated in central Lund.
At present, 17 partner countries are represented in the ESS Steering Committee. As of 2013 the estimated cost of the facility will be about €1,843 bn. Host nations Sweden and Denmark plan to give about half of the sum. However the negotiations about the exact contributions from every partner are still in progress. The organizational form of the facility is AB owned jointly by the governments of Sweden and Denmark.
|This article may rely excessively on sources too closely associated with the subject, preventing the article from being verifiable and neutral. (May 2013)|
On 28 May 2009, seven countries indicated support for placing ESS in Sweden. Furthermore, Switzerland and Italy indicated that they would support the site in majority. On June 6, 2009, Spain withdrew the Bilbao candidacy and signed a collaboration agreement with Sweden, supporting Lund as the main site, but with key component development work being performed in Bilbao. This effectively settled the location of the ESS; detailed economical negotiations between the participating countries are now taking place. On December 18, 2009, Hungary also chose to tentatively support ESS in Lund, thus withdrawing the candidacy of Debrecen.
As of February 2014 test piling was finished. The construction of the facility has started in early 2014, first neutrons will be produced in 2019, and it is planned to be fully operational by 2025.
The spallation target and its environmental impact
- The ESS source will be built around a solid tungsten target, cooled by helium gas.
- Radioactive substances will be generated by the spallation process, but the solid target makes the handling of these materials easier and safer than if a liquid target had been used.
- ESS, E.on, and Lunds Energi are collaborating in a project aiming to get the facility to be the world's first completely sustainable large-scale research centre through investment in wind power. The ESS project is expected to include an extension of the Nysted Wind Farm.
- Radioactive material storage and transport will be required, but the need is much less than that of a nuclear reactor.
- ISIS neutron source — Europe’s only pulsed spallation source
- MAX IV — synchrotron radiation facility in Lund
- Spallation Neutron Source
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- ESS site right now
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