European Squadron

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European Squadron
USS Franklin
USS Franklin - squadron flagship from 1867 to 1868
Active 1865 - 1905
Country  United States
Branch United States Department of the Navy Seal.svg United States Navy
Type Naval squadron

The European Squadron, also known as the European Station, was a part of the United States Navy in the late 19th century and the early 1900s. The squadron was originally named the Mediterranean Squadron and renamed following the American Civil War. In 1905, the squadron was absorbed into the North Atlantic Fleet.

Second Anglo-Egyptian War[edit]

United States Marines and Royal Marines during the occupation of Alexandria in 1882.

The Egyptian Expedition in June and July 1882 was a response by the United States to the British and French attack on Alexandria during the Anglo-Egyptian War. To protect American citizens and their property within the city, ships of the European Squadron, under Rear Admiral James Nicholson, were sent to Egypt with orders to observe the conflict ashore and make a landing if necessary. British and French forces heavily damaged the city and started a large fire so a force of marines and sailors were landed and they assisted in fire fighting and guarding the American consulate from insurgents.[1]

Early 20th century[edit]

The European Squadron returned to U.S. waters at the start of the Spanish–American War in April 1898, and did not return to Europe until July 1901, when Admiral Bartlett J. Cromwell was placed in command with the cruiser USS Chicago as flagship. Other ships of the squadron from July 1901 included the cruiser USS Albany and the gunboat USS Nashville.[2]


Commanders[edit]

Name Picture Rank Assigned
(Orders)
Assumed
(On Station)
Relieved
(Orders)
Relieved
(On Station)
Flagship(s)
RADM Louis M. Goldsborough Louis-Malesherbes-Goldsborough.jpg US-O8 insignia.svg February 1865 18 July 1865[3] 1867 14 July 1867[3] Colorado[4]
ADM David G. Farragut Admiral Farragut2.jpg US-O10 insignia.svg ? 14 July 1867[3] ? 10 November 1868[3] Franklin[5]
CDRE Alexander M. Pennock US-O7 insignia.svg ? 10 November 1868[3] ? 28 February 1869[3] Ticonderoga[6]
RADM William Radford[7] WilliamRadfordDaguerrotype.jpg US-O8 insignia.svg ? 1869 [7] ? 1 March 1870 [7] Franklin[5]
RADM Oliver S. Glisson[6] RearAdmiralOliverSGlisson.jpg US-O8 insignia.svg ? August 1870[6] ? January 1871[6] Franklin[6]
RADM Charles S. Boggs[6] Charles Boggs.jpg US-O8 insignia.svg ? January 1871[6] ? 1 January 1872 Franklin
Plymouth
Brooklyn[6]
RADM James Alden, Jr. James Alden noaa.jpg US-O8 insignia.svg ? 1 January 1872[8] ? 2 June 1873[8] Wabash[9]
Brooklyn[6]
RADM Augustus Case US-O8 insignia.svg ? 1873[10] ? 1875[10] Franklin
Wabash[6]
RADM John L. Worden John Lorimer Worden - Mathew Brady - left photograph.jpg US-O8 insignia.svg ? 1875[11] ? 5 October 1877[6] Franklin
Marion
Trenton[6]
RADM William E. LeRoy[6] US-O8 insignia.svg ? 5 October 1877[6] ? 23 January 1879 Trenton[6]
CAPT John Lee Davis
(pro tem)[6]
US-O6 insignia.svg ? 23 January 1879[6] ? February 1879 Trenton[6]
RADM John C. Howell[12] US-O8 insignia.svg 1878 February 1879[6] ? 16 September 1881 Trenton
Quinnebaug
Wyoming[6]
RADM James W. Nicholson US-O8 insignia.svg ? 16 September 1881[13] February 1883[13] 10 March 1883 Lancaster[6]
RADM Charles H. Baldwin US-O8 insignia.svg ? 10 March 1883[14] ? September 1884 Lancaster[6]
RADM Earl English US-O8 insignia.svg ? September 1884[6] ? May/June 1885 Lancaster[6]
RADM Samuel R. Franklin US-O8 insignia.svg ? May/June 1885[6] ? 1887[15] Pensacola[6]
RADM James A. Greer James A Greer.jpg US-O8 insignia.svg ? 1887[16] ? 1889[16] ?
Unknown? ? ? 1889 ? 1893 ?
RADM Henry Erben RADM Henry Erben.JPG US-O8 insignia.svg June 1893[17] ? August 1894[17] ? ?
RADM William A. Kirkland[18] US-O8 insignia.svg April 1894[17] November 1895[17] ?
RADM Thomas O. Selfridge, Jr.[19] Photograph of Rear Admiral Thomas O Selfridge Jr.gif US-O8 insignia.svg November 1895[17] February 1898[17] Minneapolis[20]
RADM John Adams Howell US-O8 insignia.svg January 1898[17] April 1898[17] ?
The European Squadron returned to U.S. waters at the start of the Spanish–American War in April 1898, and did not return until July 1901.
RADM Bartlett J. Cromwell US-O8 insignia.svg ? July 1901 9 February 1902[21] ? ?
CAPT Joseph E. Craig
(Senior Officer Present)[22]
US-O6 insignia.svg ? February 1902 ? April 1902 ?
RADM Arent S. Crowninshield US-O8 insignia.svg March 1902[21] 30 April 1902[23] ? 1903 ?
RADM Charles S. Cotton US-O8 insignia.svg ? 1903 ? 1905 Kearsarge
(June–July 1903)[24]
In 1905 the European Squadron was absorbed into the North Atlantic Fleet.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "USS Nipsic (1879-1913) - Relics and Miscellaneous Views". Naval History & Heritage Command. 2002. Retrieved 11 August 2012. 
  2. ^ "Naval & Military intelligence" The Times (London). Monday, 8 July 1901. (36501), p. 6.
  3. ^ a b c d e f Eicher, John H. & Eicher, David J. (2001). Civil War High Commands. California: Stanford University Press. p. 864. ISBN 9780804736411. 
  4. ^ "USS Colorado". Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. Navy Department, Naval History & Heritage Command. 2010. Retrieved 11 August 2012. 
  5. ^ a b "USS Franklin". Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. Navy Department, Naval History & Heritage Command. 2004. Retrieved 11 August 2012. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z "RG45: Appendix B. List of Volumes of Letters Received by the Secretary of the Navy From Officers Commanding Squadrons". Naval History & Heritage Command. 2005. Retrieved 11 August 2012. 
  7. ^ a b c "Rear Admiral William Radford, USN (1808-1890)". Destroyer History Foundation. 2008. Retrieved 2 June 2010. 
  8. ^ a b "USS Alden". Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. Navy Department, Naval History & Heritage Command. 2004. Retrieved 11 August 2012. 
  9. ^ "USS Wabash". Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. Navy Department, Naval History & Heritage Command. 30 July 2001. Retrieved 11 August 2012. 
  10. ^ a b "USS Case". Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. Navy Department, Naval History & Heritage Command. 2004. Retrieved 11 August 2012. 
  11. ^ "Worden, John L. (1818-1897)". Naval History & Heritage Command. 2006. Retrieved 11 August 2012. 
  12. ^ "Rear Admiral John C. Howell". Naval History & Heritage Command. 2009. Retrieved 11 August 2012. 
  13. ^ a b "USS Nicholson". Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. Navy Department, Naval History & Heritage Command. 2004. Retrieved 11 August 2012. 
  14. ^ "USS Lancaster". Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. Navy Department, Naval History & Heritage Command. 2004. Retrieved 11 August 2012. 
  15. ^ "Obituary: Rear Admiral S.R. Franklin". New York Tribune (New York). February 25, 1909. p. 7. Retrieved 11 August 2012. 
  16. ^ a b "USS Greer". Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. Navy Department, Naval History & Heritage Command. 2004. Retrieved 11 August 2012. 
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h "Flag Assignments 1890-1900". fleetorganization.com. 2011. Retrieved 11 August 2012. 
  18. ^ "William Alexander Kirkland Papers". Joyner Library - East Carolina University. 2011. Retrieved 11 August 2012. 
  19. ^ "USS Selfridge". Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. Navy Department, Naval History & Heritage Command. 2004. Retrieved 11 August 2012. 
  20. ^ "USS Minneapolis". Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. Navy Department, Naval History & Heritage Command. 2004. Retrieved 11 August 2012. 
  21. ^ a b "Will Succeed Crowninshield". San Francisco Call (San Francisco). October 27, 1901. p. 21. Retrieved 11 August 2012. 
  22. ^ "Commanders of the Sixth Fleet". USS Little Rock Association. 2012. Retrieved 11 August 2012. 
  23. ^ "Register of the commissioned and warrant officers of the United States Navy and Marine Corps and reserve officers on active duty". archive.org. 1 January 1903. Retrieved 11 August 2012. 
  24. ^ "USS Kearsarge - European Cruise, 1903". history.navy.mil. 2007. Retrieved 11 August 2012. 

External links[edit]