European Union Monitoring Mission
The European Union Monitoring Mission (EUMM) (previously ECMM, European Community Monitor Mission) is a program initiated by the European Union to monitor borders, inter-ethnic relations, refugee traffic, and political and security developments in the former Yugoslavia and within the borders of Georgia recognized by most of the international community (including the EU). The mission in the former Yugoslavia started in July 1991 while the mission in Georgia started following the 2008 South Ossetia war. The EUMM program operates under the CFSP (Common Foreign and Security Policy) of the EU. The ECMM was renamed the European Union Monitoring Mission on 22 December 2000.
EUMM in the former Yugoslavia
The EUMM began operating in July 1991 under the name of ECMM (European Community Monitor Mission). The mission was financed by the European Commission and consisted of 75 field specialists. The mission was headquartered in Zagreb and its designated area included Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Serbia, Montenegro, Albania and the Republic of Macedonia.
In January 1992, the mission was briefly suspended following the helicopter downing that killed five of its observers.
EUMM in Georgia
Following the 2008 South Ossetia war in August 2008, the EU declared on 15 September 2008 to deploy a monitoring mission to Georgia. The main objectives of the mission is to fulfill the European commitment in re-establishing stability and normalisation following the crisis through an observer mission that consists of over 200 field specialists that conduct routine inspections within the stipulated zone of the mission that includes Georgia, South Ossetia and Abkhazia. The mission is to observe the compliance with the fulfillment of the six-point-agreement established under the French brokered peace plan between Georgia and Russia on 12 August 2008. The mission started its monitoring activities on 1 October 2008, beginning with oversight of the withdrawal of Russian armed forces from the areas adjacent to South Ossetia and Abkhazia.
Mandate of EUMM Georgia
The Mission’s mandate consists of stabilisation, normalisation and confidence building, as well as reporting to the EU in order to inform European policy-making and thus contribute to the future EU engagement in the region. Originally authorised for 12 months, the mandate has since been extended three times and is currently effective until 14 September 2012. EUMM is mandated to cover the whole territory of Georgia, within the country’s internationally recognised borders, but the de facto authorities in Abkhazia and South Ossetia have so far denied access to the territories under their control.
The Mission is working to prevent the renewal of an armed conflict, as well as to help make the areas adjacent to the Administrative Boundary Lines of the breakaway regions of Abkhazia and South Ossetia safe and secure for the local residents. The Mission wants to contribute to and create conditions whereby civilians can cross the Administrative Boundary Lines of Abkhazia and South Ossetia in both directions without fear and obstacles, thus reducing the detrimental effects of the dividing lines. All 27 EU Member States contribute personnel, both women and men, from a variety of civilian, police and military backgrounds. The Mission has its Headquarters in Tbilisi and three Regional Field Offices in Mtskheta, Gori and Zugdidi.
On 25 April 2012, the government of Abkhazia declared the head of the EUMM in Georgia, Andrzej Tyszkiewicz, persona non grata, accusing him of being biased towards the Georgian position in the conflict.
- ESDP missions
- Wolfgang Tiede and Jakob Schirmer: "Die rechtlichen Grundlagen der Überwachungsmission der Europäischen Union in Georgien (EUMM)" ("The legal basis of the European Union Monitoring Mission in Georgia (EUMM)" in Osteuropa-Recht (OER)) 2008 (German Law Journal), (December 2009) vol. 4, pp. 403–413.
- Council of the European Union
- European Union Special Representative in Bosnia and Herzegovina - European Union Monitoring Mission. Retrieved 20 October 2006.
- A. "EC suspends peace monitoring/Observers killed in helicopter shot down over Yugoslavia". Houston Chronicle. Associated Press. 1992-01-08. p. 16. Retrieved 2012-01-09.
- European Union Monitoring Mission to Georgia http://eumm.eu/en/about_eumm
- "Sokhumi Slams EUMM Head". Civil Georgia. 25 April 2012. Retrieved 1 May 2012.