European Union Rule of Law Mission in Kosovo
|This article is outdated. (November 2010)|
The European Union Rule of Law Mission in Kosovo, EULEX Kosovo, is a deployment of European Union (EU) police and civilian resources to Kosovo. This Common Security and Defence Policy mission is the international civil presence in Kosovo operating under the umbrella of the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) established by United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244.
Serbia and a number of countries had initially strictly objected to the mission and supported UNMIK, demanding approval by the United Nations Security Council, which was rendered in late 2008. After signing a 5-point plan between Serbia and the UN, the UN SC approved the addition of the EULEX as an assistance mission subjected to the UNMIK, rather than outright replacing it, which would be technical in essence and not address the Kosovo status question, also rejected the Ahtisaari plan which the EULEX had originally supported.
The mission includes around 3,200 police and judicial personnel (1,950 international, 1,250 local), and began a four-month deployment process on 16 February 2008. In September 2012, EULEX's mandate was extended to 2014.
In 2013 "an international panel of judges from the European Union Rule of Law Mission in Kosovo" convicted 5 people for illegal organ trade.
Composition and deployment
A 1,800 to 1,900 strong mission was approved by the European Council on 14 December 2007. This was later increased to 2,000 personnel due to an increase in expected instability due to a lack of an agreement with Serbia. It consists of police officers (including four anti-riot units), prosecutors and judges - hence focusing on issues on the rule of law, including democratic standards. The size of the mission means Kosovo is home to the largest number of EU civil servants outside of Brussels. Chief of the mission is French General Xavier Bout de Marnhac, who replaced Yves de Kermabon on 15 October 2010. He is accountable to the European Union member states.
The final decision on the mission was planned to be taken on 28 January 2008. This was postponed due to concerns over possible negative effects on the second round of the presidential election in Serbia on 3 February 2008 and the possible signing of the Stabilization and Association Agreement with Serbia on that date. The officially voiced reason for the postponement is the lack of a legal basis (through a UNSC resolution or something similar) for the mission. A Joint Action was approved on 4 February 2008 and the final decision was made on 16 February 2008. A joint action is a method of implementing the Common Foreign and Security Policy, and are binding on member states.
Spain does not take part in EULEX mission, since legal questions over how it replaces the UN administration have not been answered. In June 2008, Spanish Foreign Minister Miguel Ángel Moratinos told a meeting of European Union Foreign Ministers in Slovenia that Spain will not send its contingent to the EULEX mission until there has been a formal transfer of powers from the United Nations.
The EU has been divided on whether to recognize an independent Kosovo (for individual member states' stances on recognising Kosovo, see map to the right) without international and Serbian approval. The agreement was seen as ensuring the unity of the EU on the question, however the Presidency announced it would not amount to recognition of an independent Kosovo.
The EU has stated its mission will be legally based on United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244, which introduced the international rule of Kosovo in 1999. However, the EU force, which was previously planned to be convered by Security council's approval of Ahtisaari proposal, has not received a new U.N. Security Council mandate due to the opposition from Russia. Russia specifically blocked transfer of U.N. facility to the EU mission. Serbia also views the mission as an EU recognition of an independent Kosovo.
In November 2008, the EU accepted the demand of Serbia not to implement the plan of Ahtisaari through EULEX and to be neutral regarding the status of Kosovo. On the other hand EULEX will be accepted by Serbia and the UN Security Council.
The Kosovo Parliament is expected to ratify Kosovo's first bilateral agreement with the EU on 7 September 2012, extending the mandate of the EU rule of law mission, EULEX, till June 2014.
On 25 August 2009, the EULEX mission was subject to violent protests, resulting in the damaging of 28 EU vehicles. Three Kosovo police officers were injured in the clashes which resulted in 21 arrests by the Kosovo police. The attack was organised by a group called Vetëvendosja ("Self-Determination") in reaction to EULEX's police cooperation with Serbia and its actions in Kosovo. There is resentment towards the EU mission for exercising its powers over Kosovo while mediating between the state and Serbia. Policies concentrating on crisis management, rather than resolution, as well as the pursuit of ethnic autonomy and its overly broad mandate over Kosovo's governance is at the stem of the discontent with the EU mission.
|This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. (February 2012)|
Troops sent to Kosovo
- Germany sent around 600 troops as peace keepers[when?].
- The Italian government is sending around 600 troops as peace keepers.[when?]
- On 25 April 2008, the UK government announced that it would send a battle-group based on 2 Rifles, a light infantry battalion of about 600 soldiers, to help maintain public order.
- Eulex website: What is Eulex? Retrieved 20 February 2010
- "Serbia, Russia fury as Kosovo independence draws near | EU - European Information on Enlargement & Neighbours". EurActiv.com. 15 February 2008. Retrieved 2010-04-28.
- Renata Goldirova (14 February 2008). "EUobserver.com". EUobserver.com. Retrieved 2010-04-28.
- "Kosovo Approves EULEX Extension". Turkish Weekly. 11 September 2012. Retrieved 17 September 2012.
- An Organ-Trafficking Conviction in Kosovo
- John, Mark (16 February 2008). "FACTBOX: EU launches Kosovo police and justice mission". Reuters. Retrieved 2010-04-28.
- de Kuijer, Pim (18 February 2008) [Comment] The 28th member state, EU Observer
- "Kosovo leaders agree a grand coalition, independence "top priority"". News.monstersandcritics.com. 7 January 2008. Retrieved 2010-04-28.
- email@example.com (12 January 2008). "EU mulling over timing of police mission to Kosovo - People's Daily Online". English.people.com.cn. Retrieved 2010-04-28.
- "News - Politics - EU to postpone sending mission to Kosovo". B92. 15 January 2008. Retrieved 2010-04-28.
- "News - Politics - EU adopts Kosovo mission plan in urgent procedure". B92. 4 February 2008. Retrieved 2010-04-28.
- Joint Action 2008/124/CFSP of 4 February 2008 on the European Union Rule of Law Mission in Kosovo, EULEX KOSOVO
- de Witte, B.; Geelhoed, A.; Inghelram, J. (2008). "Legal Instruments, Decision-Making and EU Finances". In Kapteyn, Paul Joan George. The Law of the European Union and the European Communities: With Reference to Changes to be Made by the Lisbon Treaty. Kluwer Law International. pp. 295–296. ISBN 9789041128164.
- "Spain Holds Staff From EU Kosovo Mission".[dead link]
- "Croatia in Kosovo mission". Vijesti.hrt.hr. Retrieved 2010-04-28.
- Vucheva, Elitsa and Renata Goldirova (14 December 2007) EU agrees on Kosovo mission, EU Observer
- "Premium content". Economist.com. 19 June 2008. Retrieved 2010-04-28.
- "Premium content". Economist.com. 29 May 2008. Retrieved 2010-04-28.
- Vucheva, Elitsa (17 December 2007) EU Kosovo mission 'unacceptable' for Serbia, EU Observer
- byBalkanInsight.com (7 November 2008). "EU accepts Belgrade’s conditions for EULEX". Sofiaecho.com. Retrieved 2010-04-28.
- Phillips, Leigh (26 August 2009). "Violent protests against EU mission in Kosovo". EUobserver. Retrieved 2009-09-02.
- Kurti, Albin (2 September 2009). "Comment: Causing damage in Kosovo". EUobserver. Retrieved 2009-09-02.
- "British troops arrive in Kosovo"ukpress.google.com 24 May 2008 Link accessed 24 May 2008[dead link]
- "New mission for British troops in Kosovo" guardian.co.uk 25 April Link Added 25 April 2008
- Official website.
- Council Joint Action 2008/124/CFSP.
- Viewpoint: The EU's toughest operation, BBC News.
- Kosovo 2009: Uncertain Future - spotlight europe 2009/01
- EULEX Kosovo breaks new ground for ESDP, European Union Institute for Security Studies, Newsletter, January 2009
- Kosovo: one year on, Opinion by Jelena Obradović, February 2009, European Union Institute for Security Studies