Visa policies in the European Union

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A specimen Schengen visa

Twenty-two European Union member states are part of the Schengen Area and have a uniform visa policy. In addition, four countries outside the European Union - Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland - adopt the same uniform visa policy as they are also part of the Schengen Area.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24]

Four EU member states — Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus and Romania — are not yet part of the Schengen Area, but nonetheless have a visa policy that is based on the Schengen acquis.[25][26][27][28]

Two EU member states — Ireland and the United Kingdom — are not part of the Schengen Area, instead operating a travel zone known as the Common Travel Area. The two countries each operate separate visa policies which are different from that of the Schengen Area.[29][30]

Citizens of all European Economic Area member states (EU, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway) and Switzerland are not only visa-exempt, but are legally entitled to enter and reside in each other's countries. Their right to the freedom of movement in each other's countries can, however, be limited in a small number of situations.

The lists below cover the visa requirements for regular passport holders only. Individual countries may allow some holders of official (service or diplomatic) passport a visa-free access, whilst requiring visas from regular passport holders (or the reverse, albeit a much rarer scenario). The rules relating to visa requirements for official passport holders have not been unified (even within countries that have fully implemented the Schengen acquis).

All visitors must hold a passport valid for at least 3 months.

Freedom of movement[edit]

Directive 2004/38/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004 recognises the right of citizens of the Union and their family members to move and reside freely within the territory of the Member States[31][32][33] defines the right of free movement for citizens of the European Economic Area (EEA), which includes the European Union (EU) and the three European Free Trade Association (EFTA) members Iceland, Norway and Liechtenstein. Switzerland, which is a member of EFTA but not of the EEA, is not bound by the Directive but rather has a separate bilateral agreement on the free movement with the EU.

Citizens of all European Economic Area (EEA) member states and Switzerland holding a valid passport or national identity card enjoy freedom of movement rights in each other's territory and can enter and reside in the each other's territory without a visa.

If EU, EEA and Swiss nationals are unable to present a valid passport or national identity card at the border, they must nonetheless be afforded every reasonable opportunity to obtain the necessary documents or have them brought to them within a reasonable period of time or corroborate or prove by other means that he/she is covered by the right of free movement.[34][35]

However, EU, EEA member states and Switzerland can refuse entry to an EU/EEA/Swiss national on public policy, public security or public health grounds where the person presents a "genuine, present and sufficiently serious threat affecting one of the fundamental interests of society".[36] If the person has obtained permanent residence in the country where he/she seeks entry (a status which is normally attained after 5 years of residence), the member state can only expel him/her on serious grounds of public policy or public security. Where the person has resided for 10 years or is a minor, the member state can only expel him/her on imperative grounds of public security (and, in the case of minors, if expulsion is necessary in the best interests of the child, as provided for in the Convention on the Rights of the Child).[37] Expulsion on public health grounds must relate to diseases with 'epidemic potential' which have occurred less than 3 months from the person's the date of arrival in the Member State where he/she seeks entry.[38]

Non-EU/EEA/Swiss citizen Family members[edit]

A family member of an EU/EEA/Swiss citizen who is in possession of a residence permit indicating their status is exempt from the requirement to hold a visa when entering the European Union, European Economic Area or Switzerland when they are accompanying their EU/EEA/Swiss family member or are seeking to join them.[39] However the UK requires family members to obtain a special permit in order to enter the United Kingdom.[40] Non-EU family members will need a Schengen Visa before they travel to Switzerland even if they possess a UK residence permit that clearly mentions that they are the family member of an EEA Citizen.

Schengen Area, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus and Romania[edit]

Schengen Area visa lists.
  Schengen member states
  Other EU members and special territories of EU and Schengen members
  Visa-free access to the Schengen states for 90 days in any 180 day period, although some Annex II nationals can enjoy longer visa-free access in some circumstances (EC 539/2001 Annex II)
  Visa required to enter the Schengen states (EC 539/2001 Annex I)
  Visa required for transit via the Schengen states (EC 810/2009 Annex IV)
  Visa status unknown

Starting from 2001, the European Commission issues two lists regarding visas for the Schengen Area: a white list of countries whose nationals do not require visas (Annex II)[41] and a black list of countries whose nationals do require visas (Annex I).[42] The two lists are also adopted by Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus and Romania, even though the four countries are not yet part of the Schengen Area.

Visa exemptions[edit]

Individuals in the following categories can enter the Schengen Area, Bulgaria,[43] Croatia, Cyprus,[44] and Romania[45] without a visa:

As of right

If EU, EEA and Swiss nationals are unable to present a valid passport or national identity card at the border, they must nonetheless be afforded every reasonable opportunity to obtain the necessary documents or have them brought to them within a reasonable period of time or corroborate or prove by other means that he/she is covered by the right of free movement.[34][35]

Family members of EU, EEA and Swiss citizens

An individual can enter the Schengen Area as a whole for up to 90 days without a visa if he/she:[46]

A family member of an EU/EEA/Swiss citizen satisfying the above conditions can also enter Bulgaria,[47] Croatia, Cyprus[48] and Romania[49] and stay for up to 90 days in each country.

In theory, a family member of an EU/EEA/Swiss citizen who does not fulfil the above conditions does not have to apply for a visa in advance, and can instead obtain a visa on arrival at the border checkpoint of a Schengen country, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus or Romania by presenting evidence of the familial relationship.[46]

Citizens of 'Annex II' countries and territories
  • Citizens of the following 41 countries and territories holding ordinary passports:[50]
Europe
North America
South America
Oceania
Asia
Africa

The above Annex II nationals (except for New Zealand citizens) can enter the Schengen Area as a whole for pleasure or for business without the need to apply for a visa for a maximum of 90 days in any 180 day period (which entails considering the 180 day period preceding each day of stay).[54] Any time spent by an Annex II national in the Schengen Area on a long-stay visa or a residence permit does not count towards the visa exemption period limit of 90 days.[54] New Zealand citizens, however, can spend up to 90 days in each of Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland (as well as Hungary if visiting it as the final Schengen destination) without reference to time spent in other Schengen signatory states,[55][56][57][58][59] but if travelling to other Schengen countries the 90 days in any 180 day period time limit applies. In addition, above the framework of the Schengen visa exemption of 90 days in any 180 day period, Argentine, Chilean, Costa Rican, Israeli, Malaysian, Mexican, South Korean and Uruguayan citizens are permitted to spend an extra 3 months visa-free in the Czech Republic.[60][61] Similarly, above the framework of the Schengen visa exemption of 90 days in any 180 day period, Australian, Brazilian, Canadian, Chilean, Israeli, Japanese, Malaysian, Singaporean, South Korean and United States citizens are permitted to spend an extra 90 days visa-free in Denmark.[62][63]

The above Annex II nationals can also enter Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus and Romania without a visa for a maximum of 90 days in a 180 day period in each of these countries. The visa-free time restrictions for each of these countries is calculated separately (as well as being separate to the Schengen Area visa-free time restriction).

Although all Annex II nationals can enter Schengen countries, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus and Romania visa-free for pleasure or for business, individual countries can decide to impose a visa requirement on those who wish to enter to work (i.e. to carry out a 'paid activity'). The table at the end of the article indicates which individual countries permit Annex II nationals to work during their visa-free stay.

To be able to enter the Schengen Area/Bulgaria/Croatia/Cyprus/Romania without a visa, the above Annex II nationals are required to have a travel document which is valid for at least 3 months after the intended date of departure and which has been issued in the previous 10 years,[54] have sufficient funds for their stay and onward/return journey, justify the purpose and conditions of their stay, not be listed in the Schengen Information System as someone to be refused entry and not be considered as a threat to public policy, internal security, public health or the international relations of any Schengen country.[64]

Classes of British nationality

British citizens and Gibraltarians are considered to be EU citizens and are visa exempt as of right. Holders of British National (Overseas) passports – a passport available to individuals with a connection to the former British Hong Kong[Note 8] – are exempt from visa requirements as Annex II nationals. In addition, British overseas territories citizens holding Bermudian passports can enter France and Norway without a visa for up to 90 days (but must obtain a visa if visiting other Schengen countries).[65][66] However, other classifications of British nationals are not exempt and require a visa. These are:

Visa-free travel for all classes of British citizens has been proposed by the European Commission.[68]

School pupils resident in the EU, EEA and Switzerland

A school pupil who is not an EU, EEA or Swiss citizen, but who legally resides in the EU, EEA or Switzerland, can enter the Schengen Area, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus and/or Romania without a visa for a short stay or transit if:[69]

  • he/she is travelling as a member of a group of school pupils from a general education school, and
  • the group is accompanied by a teacher from the school, and
  • the teacher can present a 'List of Travellers' form identifying the pupils on the trip, the purpose and circumstances of the intended stay/transit.

Even though a school pupil fulfilling all of the above conditions is exempt from having to obtain a visa to enter the Schengen Area, Bulgaria, Cyprus and/or Romania, he/she is nonetheless required to have a valid travel document. However, he/she is exempt from having to carry a valid travel document if:

  • a photograph of him/her is included in the 'List of Travellers' form, and
  • the responsible authority in the member state where he/she resides endorses the 'List of Travellers' form to confirm his/her residence status and his/her right to re-entry.
School pupils resident in Annex II countries and territories

School pupils travelling in the context of a school excursion as members of a group of school pupils accompanied by a teacher from the school in question who reside in an Annex II country/territory, but hold the nationality of an Annex I country/territory, are granted visa-free entry to Cyprus, Germany, Malta, Poland, Slovakia and Sweden, but not other Schengen countries.[70][71]

Note that school pupils (of any nationality and resident in any country) who require a visa for the Schengen Area, Bulgaria, Cyprus and/or Romania and who are visiting for the purpose of study and/or educational training are waived the visa application fee (but are still required to submit the relevant supporting documents).[72]

Refugees and stateless persons resident in Annex II countries and territories

Refugees and stateless persons who are legally resident in an Annex II country/territory and hold a travel document issued by the competent authorities in their country/territory of residence can enter Germany, Hungary and Slovenia visa-free.[70] For Germany, the visa exemption only applies if the travel document is issued in accordance with the rules in the Convention Relating to the Status of Stateless Persons. Refugees (but not stateless persons) legally resident in Annex II countries holding a travel document issued by the competent authorities in their country of residence can also enter Slovakia visa-free.[70] However, these visa exemptions do not apply at all to refugees and stateless persons seeking visa-free entry into Germany, Hungary and/or Slovakia who reside in Albania, Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia, Mauritius, Montenegro, Serbia or Seychelles.[70] In addition, refugees residing in the United States and holding a travel document issued by the American authorities can enter Belgium and the Netherlands without a visa.[70]

Holders of local border traffic permits

Schengen countries are authorised by virtue of the EU regulation no 1931/2006 to conclude bilateral agreements with neighbouring third countries to introduce a local border traffic permit scheme.[73] Such permits are a type of multiple-entry visa in the form of a passport sticker or a card containing the holder's name and photo, as well as a statement that its holder is not authorised to move outside the border area and that any abuse shall be subject to penalties. The border area may include any administrative district within 30 kilometres from the external border (and, if any district extends beyond that limit, the whole district up to 50 kilometres from the border). The applicant for the permit has to show legitimate reasons to frequently cross an external land border under the local border traffic regime. The validity of the permit can be up to five years.

Holders of local border traffic permits are able to spend up to 3 months every time they enter the border area of the Schengen country which has issued the permit (this time limit is far more generous than the '90 days in a 180 day period' normally granted to third-country nationals visiting the Schengen Area).[74]

A local border traffic permit scheme has been implemented in Hungary, Poland and Slovakia for Ukrainian citizens, is being implemented or negotiated in Poland and Lithuania regarding Belarus and the Kaliningrad area, and has also been implemented in a 30 km border zone between Norway and Russia in 2012. See Schengen Area#Local border traffic at external borders.

The is also a tendency of especially Finland to allow more and more one-year multiple-entry visas to Russians. There are plans in EU to allow up to 5 year validity on multiple-entry visas for Russians,[75] partly to relieve work load at embassies.

Obtaining a visa[edit]

If a traveller cannot benefit from one of the visa exemptions listed above, he or she must take the following steps to obtain a Schengen visa:

  • He or she must first identify which Schengen country is the main destination. This determines the State responsible for deciding on the Schengen visa application and therefore the embassy, high commission or the consulate where the traveller will have to lodge the application.[76] If the main destination cannot be determined, the traveller should file the visa application at the embassy, high commission or consulate of the Schengen country of first entry.[76][77] If the Schengen State of the main destination or first entry does not have a diplomatic mission or consular post in his country (or consular district), the traveller must contact the embassy or the consulate of another Schengen country, normally located in the traveller's country (or consular district), which represents, for the purpose of issuing Schengen visas, the country of the main destination or first entry.
  • Some Schengen member state embassies, high commissions and consulates require visa applicants to obtain an appointment in advance.[78]
  • In certain countries, the embassy, high commission or the consulate where the traveller has to lodge his or her visa application may have appointed an external service provider (e.g. VFS Global) to collect and return visa applications. Often, the external service provider will collect an additional service charge on top of the Schengen visa application fee. However, if an embassy, high commission or consulate of a Schengen member state decides to appoint an external service provider, it is obliged to retain the option for visa applicants to continue to lodge applications directly at the embassy/high commission/consulate rather than through the external service provider.[79] According to instructions from the European Commission, visa applicants must have a 'genuine choice' between using an external service provider and applying directly at the relevant Schengen member state embassy/high commission/consulate.[80] Specifically, this means that the waiting time to obtain an appointment directly at the embassy/high commission/consulate must not be so long in comparison with the waiting time to obtain an appointment through the external service provider so as to render direct access to the embassy/high commission/consulate 'impossible in practice'.[80] In addition, visa applicants must be clearly told by both the embassy/high commission/consulate and the external service provider that they have the choice either to apply directly at the embassy/high commission/consulate or to use the external service provider, as well as the fact (if applicable) that the external service provider charges an additional service fee.[80]
  • The traveller must then present the Schengen visa application to the responsible embassy, high commission or consulate (or its appointed external service provider). The application cannot be submitted more than three months before the date he or she intends to enter the Schengen Area.[78] An application form is to be submitted (all Schengen countries issue Schengen visa application forms in a harmonised, uniform format in a variety of languages), together with a valid passport/travel document and, if necessary, the documents supporting the purpose and conditions of the stay in the Schengen Area (aim of the visit, duration of the stay, lodging). The traveller will also have to prove his or her means of subsistence, i.e., the funds available to cover, on the one hand, the expenses of the stay, taking into account its duration and the destination, and, on the other hand, the cost of the return to the home country. Certain embassies or consulates sometimes call the applicant to appear in person in order to explain verbally the reasons for the visa application.
  • Some embassies, high commissions and consulates may require applicants to provide biometric identifiers (typically fingerprints and a digital photograph) as part of the visa application process to be stored on the Visa Information System (VIS). Biometric identifiers are not collected from children under the age of 12.[81]
  • Finally, the traveller must have travel insurance that covers, for a minimum of €30,000, any expenses incurred as a result of emergency medical treatment or repatriation for health reasons. The proof of the travel insurance must in principle be provided at the end of the procedure, i.e. when the decision to grant the Schengen visa has already been made.
  • If the visa application is 'admissible' (i.e. it has been submitted to the embassy/high commission/consulate of the correct Schengen member state), a decision must be given within 15 calendar days of the date on which the application was lodged. Where further scrutiny of the application is required or where the embassy/high commission/consulate receiving the application is representing another Member State, the decision must be given within 30 calendar days of the date on which the application was lodged. Exceptionally, where additional documentation is required, the decision must be given within 60 calendar days of the date on which the application was lodged.[82]

It is possible, exceptionally, to obtain a single-entry Schengen visa valid for up to 15 days on arrival at the border if the individual can prove that he/she was unable to apply for a visa in advance due to time constraints arising out of 'unforeseeable' and 'imperative' reasons as long as he/she fulfils the regular criteria for the issuing of a Schengen visa.[83] However, if the individual requesting a Schengen visa at the border falls within a category of people for which it is necessary to consult one or more of the central authorities of other Schengen States, he/she may only be issued a visa at the border in exceptional cases on humanitarian grounds, on grounds of national interest or on account of international obligations (such as the death or sudden serious illness of a close relative or of another close person).[84] In 2011, over 106,000 Schengen visas were issued to travellers on arrival at the border.[85]

The fee for a Schengen visa application is set at €60. Children between the ages of 6 and 11 (inclusive) pay a visa fee of €35, as do Georgian, Moldovan, Russian and Ukrainian passport holders. Children under the age of 6, students and teachers undertaking a stay for the purpose of study or educational training, certain scientific researchers and representatives aged 25 or under of non-profit organisations attending events organised by non-profit organisations have their visa fee completely waived.[86] If the visa fee is being charged in the local currency (rather than in Euros), the Schengen member state embassy/high commission/consulate should review the exchange rate used at least every two weeks.[87]

Consular staff, external service providers' staff and border guards are not permitted to discriminate against visa applicants on the basis of their race, sex, ethnic origin, religion or belief, disability, age or sexual orientation.[88][89]

A Schengen visa is only valid for the Schengen Area. For individuals who require a visa for Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus and/or Romania, a separate Bulgarian/Croatian/Cypriot/Romanian visa has to be obtained. Note that holders of a Schengen visa can enter Bulgaria, Croatia and Romania for up to 90 days in a 180 day period during the validity of their Schengen visa without having to apply for Bulgarian, Croatian and/or Romanian visas.[47][49][90] However, holders of Bulgarian, Croatian, Cypriot or Romanian visas need to apply for a Schengen visa to enter the Schengen Area.

A different procedure applies to long-stay visas issued by Schengen countries, Bulgaria, Cyprus and Romania for stays of more than 3 months (see below).

Unrecognised travel documents

As the following travel documents are not recognised by any Schengen country, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus and Romania, visas are not endorsed inside the travel documents.[91]

In addition, the following entities are not recognised as sovereign states by any Schengen country, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus or Romania. As such, passports issued by them are not recognised as valid travel documents by any Schengen country, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus or Romania, and visas will not be attached to such passports.[citation needed]

Visas with limited territorial validity[edit]

In exceptional cases, member states may issue visas with limited territorial validity (LTV) instead of a Schengen visa. A LTV visa may either specifically name member state(s) for which it is valid or, inversely, specifically name member state(s) for which it is not valid. Holders of LTV visas are only permitted to transit via, travel to, and circulate within the territories of, member states for which it is valid.

Schengen visa code that member states may issue LTV visas:[92]

  • when a consulate deems it justifiable to overcome the three-month limitation in six months;
  • or when a member state considers it necessary due to pressing circumstances to derogate from entry conditions as set by Schengen Border code, or to overcome objections of other member states, or in cases of urgency.

Despite the fact that LTV visas may be issued in exceptional cases only, some member state abuse the facility. For instance, the Spanish Embassy in Russia occasionally issues LTV visas to tourists.

Airport transit[edit]

In general, a passenger who transits through an airport in the Schengen Area, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus and Romania while remaining airside will not require a visa.

However, on 5 April 2010, common visa requirements for airport transit were introduced by the European Union.[93] At present, citizens of the following 12 countries are required to hold an airport transit visa (ATV) when transiting through any airport in the Schengen Area, Bulgaria, Cyprus or Romania, even if they remain airside:

However, citizens of the above 12 countries are exempt from airport transit visas if they:

  • hold a Schengen visa, a national long-stay visa or a residence permit issued by an EU member state,
  • hold certain residence permits issued by Andorra, Canada, Japan, San Marino or the United States guaranteeing the holder's unconditional readmission to that country,
  • hold a valid visa for an EU member state or for a member of the European Economic Area Agreement, Canada, Japan or the United States of America, or when they return from those countries after having used the visa,
  • are family members of an EU citizen,
  • hold a diplomatic passport, or
  • are flight crew members whose state of nationality is a party to the Chicago Convention on International Civil Aviation.

Additionally, individual Schengen countries can impose airport transit visa requirements for nationals of other countries in urgent cases of mass influx of illegal immigrants.[93] Eleven countries (Austria, Denmark,[94] Finland,[95] Iceland, Latvia,[96] Poland,[97] Malta, Romania,[45] Slovenia,[98] and Sweden)[99] currently do not use this provision and have no additional requirements.[100] As Liechtenstein has indicated not to accept flights originating outside the Schengen Area,[101] airport transit visa requirements are not relevant there. Airport transit visa requirements are not relevant in Norway because no airport in the country has international airside transit facility. The other Schengen countries require airport transit visas for nationals from up to 23 (in the case of France) additional countries (See the table below).[100]

Non-ordinary passports[edit]

Unlike the common Schengen rules for ordinary passports there are no common black,[Note 13] white[Note 14] and transit[Note 15] lists for holders of diplomatic, service and other official passports and each state has different policy on these.[91][109]

Visa-waiver exclusively for diplomatic, official and service passports by member state:

Recent Changes (2009-2011)[edit]

Changes to the entries on Annex I (list of visa nationals) and Annex II (list of visa-exempt nationals) are regularly considered by the Council of the European Union based on advice from the individual member states. The Council then proposes draft legislation which has to be approved by the European Parliament.

The Balkan countries of Macedonia, Montenegro and Serbia were added to Annex II on 19 December 2009, from which point on their citizens can enter the Schengen Area, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus and Romania without a visa when travelling with biometric passports.[136]

On 8 November 2010, the Council of the European Union decided to introduce visa-free travel for citizens of Albania and Bosnia and Herzegovina holding biometric passports. The decision entered into force on 15 December 2010.[137]

On 25 November 2010, the Council of the European Union decided to approve visa-free travel for holders of Taiwan passports that contain an identity card number (indicating the right of abode in Taiwan).[Note 6][Note 7][138] Visa requirements were dropped on 11 January 2011.[53] The same legislation removed the entry of the Northern Mariana Islands from the visa list as there is no Northern Mariana Islands citizenship and those with a citizenship connection to the island have United States citizenship.

Future changes[edit]

On 22 November 2010, the European Council and Ukraine announced "an action plan for Ukraine toward the establishment of a visa-free regime for short-stay travel".[139] On 15 December 2011, in a statement[140] given after an EU-Russia summit, the President of the European Commission confirmed the launch of “Common Steps towards visa-free travel” with Russia. On 14 June 2012, Kosovo received a roadmap for visa liberalisation with the EU.[141] An action plan on visa liberalisation with Georgia was launched on 25 February 2013.[142] In December 2013, after signing a readmission agreement, the EU started a visa dialogue with Turkey including a "Roadmap towards the visa-free regime".[143]

On 24 January 2011, Moldova officially received an action plan on visa liberalization from the EU's Internal Affairs Commissioner.[144] In October 2013, the Commission proposed that visa requirements for short term visits be abolished for Moldovan citizens holding biometric passports.[145][146] On 27 February 2014, the European Parliament approved visa-free travel for Moldovan citizens.[147] The Council gave their consent on 3 April 2014, allowing visa-free travel from 28 April [148]

On 7 November 2012, the European Commission announced a proposal to introduce visa-free travel for citizens from 16 island nations — 5 from the Caribbean (Dominica, Grenada, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and Trinidad and Tobago), 10 from the Pacific (Kiribati, the Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Nauru, Palau, Samoa, the Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu and Vanuatu) and Timor-Leste. In addition, the European Commission proposed to introduce visa-free travel for citizens of British overseas territories, such as Bermuda and the Turks and Caicos Islands (citizens of all British overseas territories, with the exception of Akrotiri and Dhekelia, are entitled to full British citizenship, which gives them the right to freedom of movement in the Schengen Area, and so the proposal would simply mean that they can use either their British citizen or British overseas territories citizen passport to enter the Schengen Area visa-free).[149] The European Parliament also amended the list to include three other countries: Colombia, Peru, United Arab Emirates in February 2014.[150][151][152] Each of the 19 countries will be then required to conclude a bilateral Visa Waiver Agreement with the European Union.[153] The Commission will further assess the situation in Colombia and Peru with regard to the criteria set out in the new article before the opening of negotiations on bilateral agreements on visa waiver.[154]

Some countries, including Sweden and Germany, suggested in late 2012 that visas should be reintroduced for Serbian and Macedonian citizens due to the significant increase in the number of applications for asylum from these countries, predominantly by Romani.[155]

Currently the European Union intends to introduce a mutual visa-free regime with the following countries, and exemptions from the visa requirement for persons holding the following classes of British nationality, in 2014-2015:[156]

Europe
North America
South America
Oceania
Asia
British nationals who are not nationals of the United Kingdom for the purposes of Union law

Reciprocity[edit]

Visa requirements for the European Union citizens
  European Union and Schengen borderless zone
  Visa free access for all EU citizens
  Visa free access for some (1-27) EU citizens
European Free Trade Association Agreement with EU to mint euros Schengen Area European Economic Area Central European Free Trade Agreement Council of Europe European Union Eurozone European Union Customs Union Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Russia Switzerland Iceland Liechtenstein Norway Kosovo (UNMIK) Albania Bosnia and Herzegovina Macedonia Montenegro Serbia Moldova GUAM Ukraine Azerbaijan Georgia Kazakhstan Belarus Russia Armenia Vatican City San Marino Monaco Andorra Turkey Croatia Bulgaria United Kingdom Romania Czech Republic Denmark Hungary Lithuania Poland Sweden Cyprus Ireland Austria Belgium Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Italy Luxembourg Latvia Malta Netherlands Portugal Slovakia Slovenia Spain
A clickable Euler diagram showing the relationships between various multinational European organisations and agreements.vde

As per Regulation No 1289/2013[158] reciprocity is required from all Annex II countries and territories. That means that these countries must offer visa-free access for 90 days to all EU citizens and to the citizens of Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland. When this is not the case, the affected EU or Schengen member state is expected to notify the European Commission, so that the EC takes an appropriate action - negotiate with the Annex II state and, if reciprocity is not achieved, temporarily suspend the application of Annex II 24 months after the notification date. The EC may propose permanent removal of the state 6 months after suspension of the state from Annex II.[159] All of the states that implement the common visa rules - including Norway, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Bulgaria, Romania, Cyprus and Switzerland - may notify the European Commission about non-compliant third states.[160]

When the European Commission carried out its first visa reciprocity assessment on 1 May 2004 following the accession of 10 new Member States, only the following Annex II countries and territories were found to offer fully reciprocal visa-free treatment to all EU citizens: Andorra, Argentina, Chile, Holy See, Hong Kong SAR, Israel, Japan, Monaco and South Korea.[161]

Since adoption of this policy full reciprocity has been achieved with the following countries (listed in order of achieving reciprocity):[162] Nicaragua,[163] Venezuela,[163] Uruguay,[164] Costa Rica,[164][165] Mexico,[165] New Zealand,[165] Israel,[Note 16][166] Malaysia,[166] Paraguay,[166] Panama,[163][167] Singapore,[167] Taiwan[168][169] and Brazil.[170][171]

According to notifications concerning visa reciprocity issued by Member States in February 2014,[172] the following countries are still not implementing it fully:

  • Australia: Bulgaria, Cyprus and Romania notified the Commission that Australia requires a visa for their citizens.
  • Brunei: Brunei maintains a visa requirement for Croatian nationals.
  • Canada: Bulgarian and Romanian citizens are still required to apply for visas to enter Canada.[173]
  • Japan: Most EU citizens enjoy visa-free access to Japan. For Romanian citizens a first temporary waiver was enacted in 2009 and an extension of the waiver is in effect until 31 December 2015.[174]. Additionally, Romanian citizens in possession of temporary passports are not able to enter Japan without a visa.
  • United States: Bulgarian, Croatian, Cypriot, Polish and Romanian citizens are still required to apply for a visa to enter the US.

In it last report,[171] the Commission also committed to assessing certain provisions of the US ESTA system — such as the application fee — and the Australian eVisitor system.

Stays exceeding 90 days[edit]

For stays in the Schengen Area as a whole which exceed 90 days, as a general rule, a third country national (i.e. a non-EU, EEA or Swiss national) will need to hold either a long-stay visa for a period of no longer than a year or a residence permit for longer periods. Similarly, a third-country national who wishes to stay for more than 90 days in Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus or Romania will be required to hold a long-stay visa or a residence permit.

Although long-stay visas issued by Schengen countries, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus and Romania have the same uniform design, as a national visa, in general, the procedures and conditions for issue are determined by each individual country. Therefore, for example, whilst some Schengen countries (such as France) require applications for long-stay visas to be made in the applicant's home country, other Schengen countries permit applicants to lodge their applications after arrival. Some countries, such as Germany, Hungary, the Netherlands and Switzerland offer a hybrid regime, whereby third-country nationals are required to apply for long-stay visas in their home country, with the exception of a few nationalities who are permitted to apply for a residence permit directly upon arrival without having first to obtain a long-stay visa. For example, Germany, Hungary, the Netherlands and Switzerland allow New Zealand citizens to apply for a residence permit upon arrival without having to apply for a long-stay visa in advance, but not South African citizens.[175][176][177][178]

However, in some situations, the procedures and conditions for the issue of long-stay visas have been harmonised among all Schengen member states, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus and Romania. For example, Council Directive 2004/114 has harmonised the conditions of admission of third country nationals wishing to study in a Schengen member state, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus or Romania.[179] Consequently, following the deadline for the implementation of the Directive (i.e. 12 January 2007), all Schengen member states (as well as Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus or Romania) are obliged to apply the same criteria in dealing with applications from third country nationals who wish to be admitted to their territory in order to study (namely that the applicant must have a valid travel document covering the duration of the stay, parental authorisation (if a minor), sickness insurance, not be regarded as a threat to public policy, security or health, and payment of the relevant fee).[180]

Long-stay visas issued by a Schengen country entitle the holder to enter the Schengen Area and remain in the territory of the issuing state for a period longer than 90 days, but no more than one year. If a Schengen state wishes to allow the holder of a long-stay visa remain there for longer than a year, the state must issue him or her with a residence permit.

The holder of a long-stay visa or a residence permit issued by a Schengen country is entitled to move freely within the other states which comprise the Schengen Area for a period of up to 90 days in any 180 days.[181] Third-country nationals who are long-term residents in a Schengen state may also acquire the right to move to and settle in another Schengen state without losing their legal status and social benefits.[182]

However, some third-country nationals are permitted to stay in the Schengen Area for more than 90 days without the need to apply for a long-stay visa. For example, France does not require citizens of Andorra, the Holy See, Monaco and San Marino to apply for a long-stay visa.[183] In addition, Article 20(2) of the Convention implementing the Schengen Agreement allows for this 'in exceptional circumstances' and for bilateral agreements concluded by individual signatory states with other countries before the Convention entered into force to remain applicable. As a result, for example, New Zealand citizens are permitted to stay for up to 90 days in each of the Schengen countries (Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland) which had already concluded bilateral visa exemption agreements with the New Zealand Government prior to the Convention entering into force without the need to apply for long-stay visas,[56][184] but if travelling to other Schengen countries the 90 days in any 180 day period time limit applies.

Means of subsistence[edit]

In addition to general requirements, EU member states set entry conditions to foreign (outside EEA) nationals called the "reference amounts required for the crossing of the external border fixed by national authorities" regarding means of subsistence during their stay.[185][186]

Authorities of Austria, Cyprus and Luxembourg decide on case by case basis.

Country Reference amount
Belgium EUR 38 per day - aliens staying with a private individual; EUR 50 per day - aliens staying at a hotel.
Bulgaria EUR 50 per day; minimum EUR 500 - per stay[187]
Croatia EUR 100 per day; EUR 50 – alien possessing a certified guarantee letter, a proof of paid travel arrangement etc.
Czech Republic EUR 40 per day up to 30 days[188]
Germany EUR 45 per day in form of cash, credit cards and checks but also a letter of guarantee from the host.[189]
Denmark DKK 350 per day
Estonia EUR 64 per day or the invitation letter
Greece EUR 50 per day; minimum total amount of EUR 300 for a stay of up to 5 days reduced by 50% for minors[190]
Finland EUR 30 per day[191]
France EUR 65 per day; EUR 32.50 per day - aliens staying at a hotel.[192]
Hungary HUF 1000 per entry or letter of invitation, confirmation of accommodation or any other credible proof.[193]
Iceland ISK 4000 per day + ISK 20000 per each entry
Italy EUR 269,60 (EUR 212,81 per person for groups of two and more) fixed sum for stays up to 5 days; 6–10 days EUR 44,93 (26,33) per day; 11–20 days 51,64 (25,82) + 36.67 (22,21) per day; 20+ days EUR 206,58 (118,79) + 27,89 (17,04) per day.
Latvia EUR 15 per day or certified invitation letter
Liechtenstein CHF 100 per day; CHF 30 for students
Lithuania EUR 40 per day
Malta EUR 48 per day
Netherlands EUR 34 per day
Norway NOK 500 per day (indicative for those not staying with friends or relatives)
Poland PLN 300 for stay not exceeding 3 days; PLN 100 per day by stay exceeding 3 days; PLN 20 per day if cost of the stay were paid.[194]
Portugal EUR 40 - per day + EUR 75 - per entry
Romania EUR 50 per day; minimum EUR 500 - per stay
Slovakia EUR 56 per day (30 for accommodation, 4 for breakfast, 7.5 for lunch, 7.5 for dinner, 7 for spending) or a certified invitation letter[195]
Slovenia EUR 70; EUR 35 for minors accompanied by parents[196]
Spain EUR 64,53 per day; EUR 580.77 - minimum amount at the disposal[197]
Sweden SEK 450 per day
Switzerland CHF 100 per day; CHF 30 for students

Netherlands exempts visitors from Australia, Canada, Japan, New Zealand, South Korea, United States and Vatican City from holding proof of sufficient funds and return tickets.[198] Romania requires visitors from the Republic of Macedonia, Moldova, Montenegro, Russia, Serbia and Ukraine to hold a medical insurance covering the period of stay. Romania also exempts visitors from Australia, Canada, South Korea and the United States from holding proof of sufficient funds and return tickets.[199]

United Kingdom[edit]

UK visa lists
  Special visa-free provisions (EEA, OCT or other)
  Visa-free access to the UK for 6 months
  Electronic visa waiver countries
  Visa required to enter the UK, airside transit without visa, landside transit without visa if qualifying under the TWV exemption
  Visa required to enter the UK and for landside transit, airside transit without visa if qualifying under the DATV exemption
  Visa-status unknown

Visa exemptions[edit]

The following individuals can enter the United Kingdom, the Channel Islands, Gibraltar and the Isle of Man without a visa:

As of right
Non-visa nationals

Citizens of the following 57 countries and territories are visa-exempt for stays in the UK of up to 6 months (or 3 months if they enter from the Republic of Ireland) as long as they fulfil all of the following criteria:[200][201]

  • they do not work during their stay in the UK (although study is permitted as a 'student visitor')[202]
  • they must not register a marriage or register a civil partnership during their stay in the UK
  • they can present evidence of sufficient money to fund their stay in the UK (if requested by the border inspection officer)
  • they intend to leave the UK at the end of their visit and can meet the cost of the return/onward journey
  • they have completed a landing card and submitted it at passport control (unless in direct transit to a destination outside the Common Travel Area)
  • if under the age of 18, they can demonstrate evidence of suitable care arrangements and parental (or guardian's) consent for their stay in the UK[203]
Europe
North America
South America
Australia & Oceania
Asia
Africa
Visa waiver

From the 9th of December 2013, citizens of the countries below can obtain a visa waiver online for travel on or after the 1st of January 2014 if the stay is for tourism purposes and the duration doesn't exceed 6 months.[210]

School pupils resident in the European Economic Area and Switzerland

School pupils who fulfil all of the following conditions can enter the UK without a visa:[211]

  • are not EU, EEA or Swiss citizens, and
  • legally reside in a European Union member state, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway or Switzerland, and
  • are travelling to the UK as a member of an organised school group (the school must be a general education school, not a specialist institution), and
  • the group is accompanied by a teacher from the school, and
  • the pupils' details and the purpose of the journey is listed on the common format form endorsed by the school
Additional exemptions for Gibraltar

Visa nationals who fulfil one of the following criteria can enter Gibraltar without a visa:[212]

  • holders of a valid UK multiple entry visa issued for 12 months or more, regardless of category (not including residence permits), or
  • holders of indefinite leave to remain in the UK, or
  • holders of a Certificate of Entitlement to the Right of Abode in the UK
  • Moroccan citizens holding valid Schengen multiple entry visas (for a stay of up to 21 days in Gibraltar)[213][214]

Obtaining an entry visa[edit]

Travellers entering the UK, the Channel Islands, Gibraltar and/or the Isle of Man who do not qualify for one of the visa exemptions listed above have to apply for a visa in advance through the UK Border Agency at a British embassy, high commission or consulate. An applicant must lodge a visitor's visa application at a British embassy, high commission or consulate in a country/territory in which he/she has permission to stay (including temporary permission to stay as a visitor).

A visitor's visa for a single stay or multiple stays of up to 6 months costs £80. A multiple-entry visitor's visa valid for 2 years costs £278, 5 years £511 and 10 years £737.[215][216]

In deciding whether to issue an applicant a long-term multiple-entry visitor's visa, the UK Border Agency takes into account the following factors:[215]

  • whether the applicant can show a frequent and sustained need to come to the UK (such as family links or an established business connection)
  • whether the applicant's personal circumstances are likely to change significantly while the visa is valid
  • whether the applicant can support himself/herself in the UK without public funds
  • whether the applicant intends to leave the UK at the end of each visit
  • the applicant's previous travel history as shown in a current valid passport (in particular, previous travel to Australia, Canada, Ireland, New Zealand, Schengen countries and/or the United States on a valid visa is viewed favourably)[217]

The UK Border Agency advises applicants obtaining a UK visa for the first time to apply for a short-term visitor's visa first, rather than a long-term multiple-entry visitor's visa.[215]

Family members of EU, EEA and Swiss citizens who are not covered by one of the visa exemptions above can apply for an EEA Family Permit free of charge (instead of a visa).[218]

Travellers applying for most types of UK visas (including a visitor's visa and an EEA Family Permit) are required to submit biometric identifiers (all fingerprints and a digital facial image) as part of the visa application process.[219] However, children under the age of 5, diplomats, foreign government ministers and officials and members of Commonwealth Forces are exempt from the requirement to submit biometric identifiers. Applicants who have obtained a new passport and are merely requesting a transfer of their visa vignette from their old passport to their new passport are not required to re-submit biometric identifiers.[220] In addition, applicants who are travelling directly to the Channel Islands or Gibraltar without passing through the UK or the Isle of Man are exempt from providing biometric information.[221] Children aged 5–16 must be accompanied by an adult when their biometric identifiers are taken. Biometric identifiers may be shared by the UK Border Agency with foreign governments. Biometric identifiers are destroyed 10 years after the last date a person's fingerprints and digital facial image were captured.[222]

The UK Border Agency aims to handle 90 per cent of non-settlement visa applications within 3 weeks, 98 per cent within 6 weeks and 100 per cent within 12 weeks of the application date.[223]

Applicants resident in the following countries and territories who wish to enter the UK for 6 months or more are required to be tested for tuberculosis as part of the visa application process:[224]

After a person has successfully obtained a UK visa, if he/she subsequently obtains a new passport, but the UK visa in his/her old passport still has remaining validity, he/she is not required to have the UK visa vignette affixed in the old passport transferred to the new passport, but must be able to present both the new and old passports at passport control when entering the UK.[225]

If a person who has successfully obtained a UK visa (lodging the application at a British embassy, high commission, consulate or visa application centre outside the UK) subsequently loses the passport in which the visa vignette is affixed (or if it is stolen), he/she has to pay the original visa fee in full again and may be required to show that his/her circumstances have not changed when applying for a replacement visa. However, a new 'confirmation of acceptance for studies' (CAS)/'certificate of sponsorship' (COS) is not required when applying for a replacement Tier 4/Tier 2 visa.[220]

If a person who has successfully obtained a UK visa (lodging the application within the UK) subsequently loses the biometric residence permit (BRP) on which the visa was issued (or it is stolen), he/she must report this as soon as possible to the UK Border Agency by e-mail.[226] If the BRP is lost/stolen whilst the person is in the UK, after reporting the loss/theft by e-mail, he/she must apply for a replacement BRP at a cost of £37 using form BRP(RC) within 3 months. If the BRP is lost/stolen whilst the person is outside the UK, after reporting the loss/theft by e-mail, he/she must apply for a 'Replacement BRP' visa at a cost of £72 at a British embassy, high commission, consulate or visa application centre which can be used once to return to the UK, and then apply for a replacement BRP at a cost of £38 using form BRP(RC) within 1 month after arriving back in the UK.[227][228]

Transit[edit]

In general, a traveller does not need a visa for airside transit (i.e. transit through the UK if he/she arrives on a flight, remains in the arrival lounge of the airport without passing through immigration control, and then departs on another flight from the same airport to a destination outside the Common Travel Area).

For landside transit (i.e. arriving in the UK, passing through immigration control and then leaving the UK within 48 hours to a destination outside the Common Travel Area), in general a traveller who is a visa national (see above) must apply for a 'visitor in transit' visa in advance at a British embassy, high commission or consulate at a cost of £52 unless he/she qualifies for a 'transit without visa' exemption (TWV exemption).

However, citizens of the following countries must apply for a visa in advance at a British embassy, high commission or consulate at a cost of £52 to transit airside through a UK airport (unless they qualify for a direct airside transit visa exemption (DATV exemption)), and also must apply for a visa in advance if they wish to transit landside (and do not qualify for any exemption for landside transit):[201]

DATV and TWV exemptions

The exemption applies where travellers:

  • arrive and depart by air, and
  • the onward flight must be confirmed, and must depart within 24 hours of the arrival flight, and
  • have proper documentation for their destination (including a visa for the destination country if necessary), and
  • fulfil any one of the below conditions:
  1. have a valid entry visa for Australia, Canada, New Zealand or the USA, and a valid airline ticket for travel via the UK, as part of a journey to or from one of those countries, or
  2. have a valid airline ticket for travel via the UK as part of a journey from Australia, Canada, New Zealand or the USA, if you are transiting the UK no more than 6 months after the date when you last entered Australia, Canada, New Zealand or the USA with a valid entry visa for that country; or
  3. have a valid USA I-551 permanent resident card issued on or after 21 April 1998; or
  4. have an expired I-551 permanent resident card issued on or after 21 April 1998, accompanied by an I-797 extension letter issued by the Bureau of Citizenship; or
  5. have a valid Canadian permanent resident card issued on or after 28 June 2002; or
  6. have a valid Australian or New Zealand residence visa; or
  7. have a valid uniform format category D visa for entry to a state in the European Economic Area (EEA); or
  8. have a valid uniform format residence permit issued by an EEA state under Council Regulation (EC) number 1030/2002; or
  9. have a valid UK residence card; or
  10. have a valid EEA family permit issued by the UK government; or
  11. have a diplomatic or service passport issued by China, India or Vietnam.

Review of visa exemptions[edit]

In March 2007, the Home Office announced that it would carry out its first Visa Waiver Test to review the list of countries and territories outside the European Union, European Economic Area and Switzerland whose nationals are exempt from holding a visa for the UK.

After carrying out the review, in July 2008, Jacqui Smith, the Home Secretary, and David Miliband, the Foreign Secretary, announced to Parliament that the results of the test showed a 'strong case' for introducing visa regimes for 11 countries (Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Lesotho, Malaysia, Mauritius, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Trinidad and Tobago and Venezuela) having taken into account the following factors (including the extent to which they were being addressed by the countries' authorities):[229][230][231]

  • Passport security and integrity
  • The degree of co-operation over deportation or removal of the countries' nationals from the UK
  • Levels of illegal working in the UK and other immigration abuse (such as fraudulent asylum claims)
  • Levels of crime and terrorism risk posed to the UK

Following the July 2008 announcement, the UK Government entered into a 6 month period of 'detailed dialogue' with the governments of the 11 countries 'to examine how risks can be reduced in a way that obviates the need for a visa regime to be introduced'. In order to maintain visa-free access to the UK, the 11 countries had to 'demonstrate a genuine commitment to put into effect credible and realistic plans, with clear timetables, to reduce the risks to the UK, and begin real implementation of these plans by the end of the dialogue period'.[229]

On 9 January 2009, the new visa rules announced required citizens of Bolivia, Lesotho, South Africa and Swaziland to obtain a visa, and only Venezuelan nationals travelling on biometric passports with an electronic chip issued since 2007 could continue to enter the UK without a visa.[232] The existing visa-free status for citizens of Botswana, Brazil, Malaysia, Mauritius, Namibia and Trinidad and Tobago was maintained.[233]

Starting from 3 March 2009, a transitional regime was put in place until 30 June 2009 for South African citizens - those who held a valid South African passport and had previously entered the UK lawfully using that passport could continue to enter the UK without a visa, whilst all other South African citizens were required to apply for a visa. On the same day, Taiwan citizens were able to enter the UK without a visa.[234][235] On 18 May 2009, Bolivian citizens were no longer able to enter the UK without a visa and Venezuelan citizens were required to present a biometric passport to enter the UK without a visa.[236] On 1 July 2009, all South African citizens were required to apply for a visa to enter the UK. On the same day, citizens of Lesotho and Swaziland were required to apply for a visa to enter the UK.

On 30 March 2010, Alan Johnson, the Home Secretary, and David Miliband, the Foreign Secretary, announced to Parliament that, having carried out a review of visa regimes in relation to Eastern Caribbean countries, 5 countries (Antigua and Barbuda, Barbados, Grenada, St Kitts and Nevis and St Vincent and the Grenadines) would have their visa-free status maintained. At the same time, the UK Government would enter a six-month period of 'detailed dialogue' with the governments of 2 countries (Dominica and St Lucia), who would have to 'demonstrate a genuine commitment to put into effect credible and realistic plans, with clear timetables, to reduce the risks to the UK, and begin implementing these plans by the end of the dialogue period' to maintain their visa-free status.[237] On 2 March 2011, Theresa May, the Home Secretary, and William Hague, the Foreign Secretary, announced to Parliament that the governments of Dominica and St Lucia 'have made concrete improvements to the immigration, border control and identity systems which would not have happened without the test', and so the visa-free status for the 2 countries would be maintained.[238]

On 13 June 2011, new Immigration Rules were laid before Parliament that came into force on 4 July 2011 introducing a new streamlined application procedure (waiving the normal requirements to provide documentary evidence of maintenance and qualifications at the time of application) for some non-visa nationals from 'low-risk countries' who wish to study in the UK for more than 6 months and apply for Tier 4 entry clearance. The following 15 countries and territories were categorised as 'low-risk': Argentina, Australia, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Croatia, Hong Kong, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, Trinidad and Tobago and the United States.[239][240][241] Although the announcement did not relate to a Visa Waiver Test per se, it showed that the UK Border Agency considers some countries and territories in the list of visa-free nationalities to be lower risk than others. In particular, Trinidad and Tobago, which was considered to be a high-risk country from a visa regime perspective in 2008 when the Visa Waiver Test was carried out, was now viewed by the UK Border Agency as a low-risk country. On 5 September 2012, two more countries (Botswana and Malaysia) were added to the list of 'low-risk' nationalities for the purpose of Tier 4 entry clearance applications (taking effect on 1 October 2012). Again, although the announcement did not relate to a Visa Waiver Test per se, it showed that Botswana and Malaysia, which were both considered to be a high-risk countries from a visa regime perspective in 2008 when the Visa Waiver Test was carried out, were now viewed by the UK Border Agency as low-risk countries.[242][243]

In March 2013, it was revealed that Theresa May, the Home Secretary, was considering removing Brazil from the list of visa-exempt nationalities due to concerns about illegal immigration, since Brazil is fifth in the top 10 of illegal immigrant nationalities in the UK according to Home Office figures for 2011, and is the only country on the list for which short-term visitors do not need a visa. However, the UK Government later decided to retain the visa exemption for Brazilian citizens, a decision which was seen as attempting to develop closer trading links with Brazil.[244]

In November 2013, the British Embassy in Abu Dhabi cited David Cameron’s announcement for launching a new Visa Waiver scheme for citizens of the U.A.E., Oman, Qatar, and Kuwait. The new electronic visa waiver (EVW) is expected to be available for free in early 2014 in these countries.[245]

At present, although citizens of Argentina, Brazil, Israel, holders of Hong Kong SAR passports and Macao SAR passports are able to visit the UK without a visa for a stay of up to 6 months, if they decide to stay for more than 6 months and have been granted entry clearance permitting them to do so, they are required to register with the police at a cost of £34 within 7 days of arriving in the UK (or within 7 days of obtaining their visa if they apply within the UK).[246][247] This suggests that citizens of these 5 countries and territories are considered to be higher-risk than other non-visa nationalities (who are not required to register with the police if they obtain a visa to stay in the UK for more than 6 months), although Argentina and Hong Kong are deemed to be 'low-risk' from a visa regime perspective for the purpose of Tier 4 student visa applications (see above).

Reciprocity[edit]

Of the 58 countries and territories outside the European Union, European Economic Area and Switzerland whose citizens are granted 6 months' visa-free access to the UK, the following offer full reciprocal treatment to British citizens: Andorra, Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Canada, Dominica, Grenada, Hong Kong, Macao, Mexico, Monaco, New Zealand, Panama, San Marino and Vatican City.

Other countries and territories only offer partially reciprocal treatment to British citizens (i.e. visa-free access that is less than 6 months). The following countries permit British citizens to stay without a visa for up to 90 days (or 3 months) only: Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Brunei, Chile, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guyana, Honduras, Israel, Malaysia, Namibia, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Singapore, Solomon Islands, South Korea, Trinidad and Tobago, United States, Uruguay and Venezuela. (However, the United States requires British citizens to obtain an ESTA (at a cost of US$14) in advance if entering the US by air or by sea, whilst Australia requires British citizens to obtain an eVisitor authorisation online in advance free of charge, although the UK does not require Australian and US citizens to obtain an authorisation in advance.) The following countries and territories permit British citizens to stay without a visa for up to 90 days (although an extension is possible for a stay beyond 90 days): Botswana, Japan and Taiwan. The following countries also only offer partially reciprocal treatment: Belize (1 month), Fiji (4 months, extendable for an extra 2 months), Kiribati (30 days), Maldives (30 days), Marshall Islands (30 days), Mauritius (60 days for tourists, 90 days on business), Micronesia (30 days), Nauru (30 days), Palau (30 days), St Lucia (6 weeks), Samoa (60 days), Seychelles (1 month, extendable to 12 months), Tonga (31 days), Tuvalu (1 month) and Vanuatu (30 days).

Two countries whose citizens can enter the UK visa-free for up to 6 months require British citizens to obtain a visa: Papua New Guinea requires British citizens to obtain a visa on arrival that is valid for up to 60 days and costs PGK100 (tourist) or PGK500 (business); Timor-Leste requires British citizens to obtain a visa on arrival valid for up to 30 days at a cost of US$30.

Ireland[edit]

Ireland visa lists
  Special visa-free provisions (EEA, OCT or other)
  Visa-free access to Ireland for 90 days
  Visa required to enter Ireland, transit without visa
  Visa required to enter Ireland and for transit through Ireland

Visa exemptions[edit]

Citizens of the following countries and territories can enter Ireland without a visa:[248]

As of right
Visa-exempt
(As of 1 November 2012 this list represents the countries which have ratified the European Agreement on the Abolition of Visas for Refugees and who have not suspended its operation.[249])
Visa Waiver Programme

Under a Visa Waiver Programme introduced in July 2011, citizens of the following 17 countries who hold a valid UK visa (limited to the following kinds: general visitor, child visitor, business visitor, sports visitor or academic visitor) and who have cleared immigration in the United Kingdom can visit Ireland visa-free for up to 90 days (or until the expiry of their UK visa, whichever is shorter). The programme is being run on a pilot basis and was originally due to expire on 31 October 2012 but was extended to 31 October 2016.[250]

Citizens of the above 17 countries who hold a UK or Schengen long-term visa or residence permit still need to apply for an Irish visa, but will have the application fee waived.

Obtaining an entry visa[edit]

A traveller who does not qualify for one of the visa exemptions above is required to apply for an Irish visa in advance at an Irish embassy or consulate.

A single entry visa costs €60, whilst a multiple entry visa costs €100. However, spouses and certain family members of EEA and Swiss citizens are issued Irish visas free of charge.[252]

All visa applicants aged 6 years and over, residing in Nigeria (irrespective of nationality) are required to submit their fingerprints as part of the visa application process.[253]

Transit[edit]

In general, a passenger who transits through an Irish airport to a destination outside the Common Travel Area while remaining airside does not require a visa.

However, citizens of the following countries are required to apply for a transit visa at a cost of €25 in advance from an Irish embassy or consulate:

Reciprocity[edit]

Of the 58 countries and territories outside the European Union, European Economic Area and Switzerland whose citizens are entitled to exercise free movement rights in Ireland, the following offer full reciprocal treatment to Irish citizens (i.e. visa-free access of at least 3 months): Andorra, Antigua and Barbuda, Australia, Bahamas, Barbados, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Dominica, El Salvador, Fiji, Grenada, Guyana, Honduras, Hong Kong, Israel, Japan, Lesotho, Macao, Malawi, Malaysia, Mexico, Monaco, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Saint Kitts and Nevis, San Marino, Singapore, Solomon Islands, South Africa, South Korea, Taiwan, Trinidad and Tobago, United States, Uruguay, Vatican City and Venezuela. However, the United States requires Irish citizens to obtain an ESTA (at a cost of US$14) in advance if entering the US by air or by sea, whilst Australia requires Irish citizens to obtain an eVisitor authorisation online in advance free of charge (Ireland does not require Australian and US citizens to obtain an authorisation prior to arriving in Ireland).

Other countries and territories only offer partially reciprocal treatment to Irish citizens (i.e. visa-free access that is less than 3 months). The following countries permit Irish citizens to stay without a visa for up to 30 days (or 1 month) only: Belize, Kiribati, Maldives, Nauru, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Seychelles (1 month, extendable to 12 months), Tonga, Tuvalu and Vanuatu. Also, the following countries the following countries permit Irish citizens to stay without a visa for less than 3 months: Mauritius (60 days for tourists, 90 days on business), St Lucia (6 weeks), Samoa (60 days) and Swaziland (60 days).

French overseas departments and Saint-Martin[edit]

The French overseas departments of French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Mayotte and Réunion and the French overseas collectivity of Saint-Martin are categorised as outermost regions of an EU member state and, hence, are part of the European Union. However, they are not part of the Schengen Area, but have nonetheless adopted visa policies similar to that of the Schengen acquis.[254]

Visa exemptions[edit]

EU, EEA, Swiss, Andorran, Monégasque and San Marinese citizens can enter and reside for an unlimited period without a visa in the five French overseas departments and the overseas collectivity of Saint-Martin.

For short stays of up to 90 days in a 180 day period in the five French overseas departments and the overseas collectivity of Saint-Martin, visa-free entry is granted to the following individuals:[255][256]

In addition, for the French overseas departments of Guadeloupe and Martinique and the French overseas collectivity of Saint-Martin (but not the French overseas departments of French Guiana and Réunion), visa-free entry for short stays of up to 90 days in a 180 day period is also granted to the following individuals:[255][256]

For the French overseas departments of Guadeloupe and Martinique (but not the French overseas departments of French Guiana and Réunion, nor the French overseas collectivity of Saint-Martin), visa-free entry for short stays of up to 90 days in a 180 day period is also granted to the following individuals:[255][256]

  • Grenada Grenadian citizens
  • Trinidad and Tobago Trinidadian and Tobagonian citizens

Furthermore, for the French overseas departments of French Guiana, Guadeloupe and Martinique and the French overseas collectivity of Saint-Martin (but not the French overseas department of Réunion), visa-free entry of up to 15 days for each short stay is also granted to the following individuals, as long as the visa-free short stays do not total more than 120 days over a 12 month period:[255][256]

  • Dominica Dominican citizens
  • Saint Lucia Saint Lucian citizens

Obtaining a visa[edit]

Foreign nationals who require a visa for the five French overseas departments and/or the French overseas collectivity of Saint-Martin can obtain one by lodging an application at a French embassy or consulate, for a fee of €60 (short stay visas) or €99 (long stay visas).[257] Note that a Schengen short stay visa ('C visa') is not valid for the five French overseas departments and the French overseas collectivity of Saint-Martin, and vice versa.

Visa policy of candidate states[edit]

Although the visa lists drawn up by the European Union only apply legally to Schengen signatories, in practice the visa policies of other European countries which aspire to join the European Union largely mirror those of Schengen countries.

Schengen countries grant visa-free access to their territory by citizens of all European Union candidate and applicant states (with the exception of Turkey).

Republic of Macedonia[edit]

Visa policy of Macedonia

Republic of Macedonia grants 90 day visa-free entry to all Schengen Annex II nationalities.

It also grants visa free access to other countries – Azerbaijan, Botswana, Cuba, Kazakhstan, Kosovo, Peru, Russia, Ukraine and Turkey.[258]

Montenegro[edit]

Visa policy of Montenegro

Montenegro grants 90 day visa-free entry to all Schengen Annex II nationalities, except for Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Mauritius and Saint Kitts and Nevis.

It grants visa-free entry to other countries for 30 days – Belarus, Cuba, Ecuador, Peru and Russia and 90 days – Kosovo, Turkey and Ukraine.[259]

Serbia[edit]

Visa policy of Serbia

Serbia grants 90 day visa-free entry to all Schengen Annex II nationalities, except for Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Brunei, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Malaysia, Mauritius, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Taiwan (passports not recognized) and Venezuela.

It grants a visa-free entry to other countries for 30 days – Belarus, Cuba, Kazakhstan, Russia and Ukraine and 90 days – Bolivia, Tunisia, Turkey and United Arab Emirates.[260]

Serbia also allows citizens of certain countries such as China to enter without a visa if their passport was designated with note "on business in Serbia" by the home authorities of the passenger.

Turkey[edit]

Visa policy of Turkey

Turkey, has a more complex visa policy.[261]

Turkey requires visas from certain EU member states – Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Cyprus, Ireland, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Spain and the United Kingdom as well as Norway.[261]

However all visitors who are from EU Countries to Turkey can obtain a visa through a simple electronic visa system or a visa on arrival so they do not have to apply at the embassy or consulate.[262]

Turkey also requires visas from citizens of the following Schengen Annex II countries - Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Canada, Mauritius, Mexico, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Taiwan and the United States.[261]

On the other hand Turkey grants visa-free access to many other countries and territories – Belize, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Georgia, Iran, Kosovo, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Peru, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Syria, Trinidad and Tobago and Tunisia.[261]

Summary[edit]

Short-stay visas[edit]

Country Schengen Area, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus and Romania [50] Ireland[248] United Kingdom[201] French Guiana[255] Guadeloupe and Martinique[255] Réunion[255] Saint-Barthélemy and Saint-Martin[256]
 Albania Yes
(biometric passports only)
No No Yes
(biometric passports only)
Yes
(biometric passports only)
Yes
(biometric passports only)
Yes
(biometric passports only)
 Andorra Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Antigua and Barbuda Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Argentina Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Australia Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Bahamas Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Barbados Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Belize No Yes Yes No No No No
 Bolivia No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Bosnia and Herzegovina Yes
(biometric passports only)
No (Visa Waiver
available with UK visa)
No Yes
(biometric passports only)
Yes
(biometric passports only)
Yes
(biometric passports only)
Yes
(biometric passports only)
 Botswana No Yes Yes No No No No
 Brazil Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes
 Brunei Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Canada Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Chile Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Costa Rica Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Dominica No Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes
 Timor-Leste No No Yes No No No No
 El Salvador Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Fiji No Yes No No No No No
 Grenada No Yes Yes No Yes No No
 Guatemala Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Guyana No Yes No No No No No
 Honduras Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Hong Kong[Note 4] Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Israel Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Japan Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Kiribati No Yes Yes No No No No
 Lesotho No Yes No No No No No
 Macau[Note 5] Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Macedonia Yes
(biometric passports only)
No No Yes
(biometric passports only)
Yes
(biometric passports only)
Yes
(biometric passports only)
Yes
(biometric passports only)
 Malawi No Yes No No No No No
 Malaysia Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Maldives No Yes Yes No No No No
 Marshall Islands No No Yes No No No No
 Mauritius Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Mexico Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Federated States of Micronesia No No Yes No No No No
 Monaco Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Montenegro Yes
(biometric passports only)
No (Visa Waiver
available with UK visa)
No Yes
(biometric passports only)
Yes
(biometric passports only)
Yes
(biometric passports only)
Yes
(biometric passports only)
 Namibia No No Yes No No No No
 Nauru No Yes Yes No No No No
 New Zealand Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Nicaragua Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Palau No No Yes No No No No
 Panama Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Papua New Guinea No No Yes No No No No
 Paraguay Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Saint Kitts and Nevis Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Saint Lucia No Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Samoa No Yes Yes No No No No
 San Marino Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Serbia Yes
(biometric passports only that have not been issued by the Coordination Directorate)
No (Visa Waiver
available with UK visa)
No Yes
(biometric passports only that have not been issued by the Coordination Directorate)
Yes
(biometric passports only that have not been issued by the Coordination Directorate)
Yes
(biometric passports only that have not been issued by the Coordination Directorate)
Yes
(biometric passports only that have not been issued by the Coordination Directorate)
 Seychelles Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Singapore Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Solomon Islands No Yes Yes No No No No
 South Africa No Yes No No No No No
 South Korea Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Swaziland No Yes No No No No No
 Taiwan[Note 6] Yes[53][138][Note 7] Yes Yes[Note 7] Yes[Note 7] Yes[Note 7] Yes[Note 7] Yes[Note 7]
 Tonga No Yes Yes No No No No
 Trinidad and Tobago No Yes Yes No Yes No No
 Tuvalu No Yes Yes No No No No
 United States Yes [Note 19] Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Uruguay Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Vanuatu No Yes Yes No No No No
  Vatican City Yes Yes Yes[Note 17] Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Venezuela Yes Yes Yes
(biometric passports only)
Yes Yes Yes Yes
United Kingdom British National (Overseas) Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Anguilla British Overseas Territories citizens of Anguilla No Yes Yes No Yes No Yes
Bermuda British Overseas Territories citizens of Bermuda No
(except for France and Norway, which can be visited visa-free)[65][66]
Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Anguilla British Overseas Territories citizens of the British Virgin Islands No Yes Yes No Yes No Yes
Cayman Islands British Overseas Territories citizens of the Cayman Islands No Yes Yes No Yes No Yes
Montserrat British Overseas Territories citizens of Montserrat No Yes Yes No Yes No Yes
Anguilla British Overseas Territories citizens of the Turks and Caicos Islands No Yes Yes No Yes No Yes
United Kingdom All other British Overseas Territories citizens (other than Gibraltarians[Note 9]) without the right of abode in the UK[Note 10] No Yes Yes No No No No
United Kingdom British Overseas citizens No Yes Yes No No No No
United Kingdom British subjects without the right of abode in the UK[Note 10] No No Yes No No No No
United Kingdom British protected persons No No Yes No No No No

Visa-free stays involving paid activity in the Schengen Area[edit]

Below is a table of Schengen countries which permit nationals of Annex II countries and territories to enter the country on a 90 day visa-free period of stay with the intention of working in the country during that period.[70][254][263] Nonetheless, some Schengen countries which permit certain Annex II nationals to work during their visa-free stay may still require them to obtain a work permit (either in advance or on arrival).

The table below includes Romania (which applies implements the Schengen Area's visa list), but excludes states which do not allow any Annex II nationals to work during their visa-free stay, namely: Austria, Bulgaria, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Malta and Portugal.

Nationality Belgium Netherlands Luxembourg Denmark Germany Greece Spain France Italy Lithuania Hungary Poland Romania Slovenia Slovakia Sweden Iceland Norway Switzerland
 Albania[Note 1] No No No No No No No Yes No No No No No No No No No No No
 Andorra Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Antigua and Barbuda Yes Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes No No Yes
 Argentina Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Australia Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Bahamas Yes Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes No No Yes
 Barbados Yes Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes No No Yes
 Bosnia and Herzegovina[Note 1] No No No No No No No Yes No No No No No No No No No No No
 Brazil Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Brunei Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Canada Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Chile Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Costa Rica Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes
 El Salvador Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Guatemala Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Honduras Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Hong Kong[Note 4] Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No No Yes No No No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Israel Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Japan Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No Yes No Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Macau[Note 5] Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No No Yes No No No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Macedonia[Note 1] No No No No No No No Yes No No No No No No No No No No No
 Malaysia Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Mauritius Yes Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes No No Yes
 Mexico Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Monaco Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Montenegro[Note 1] No No No No No No No Yes No No No No No No No No No No No
 New Zealand Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Nicaragua Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Panama Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Paraguay Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Saint Kitts and Nevis Yes Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes No No Yes
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Yes Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes No No Yes
 San Marino Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes Yes Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Serbia[Note 1][Note 2] No No No No No No No Yes No No No No No No No No No No No
 Seychelles Yes Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes No No Yes
 Singapore Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes
 South Korea Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Taiwan[Note 6][53][138][Note 7] No No No No No No No Yes No No No No No No No No No No No
 United States[Note 19] Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No Yes No Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Uruguay Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes
  Vatican City Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes Yes Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Venezuela Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Holders of biometric passports only.
  2. ^ a b Visas are required from Serbian citizens holding passports issued by the Serbian Coordination Directorate.
  3. ^ Cook Islanders, Niueans and Tokelauans also use New Zealand passports.
  4. ^ a b c d e Persons holding a Hong Kong Special Administrative Region passport. See also British National (Overseas) for persons residing in Hong Kong holding a form of British nationality.
  5. ^ a b c d e Persons holding a Macau Special Administrative Region passport.
  6. ^ a b c d e f The visa waivers granted by the European Union, the United Kingdom and Ireland to Taiwan passport holders have not altered the European Union member states' non-recognition of Taiwan as a sovereign country. For this reason, Taiwan is listed in Annex II by the European Commission under the heading "entities and territorial authorities that are not recognised as states by at least one member state", by Bulgaria as "China, Taipei" (mfa.bg) and by Romania under the heading "Special Administrative Regions of the People's Republic of China"(mae.ro).
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Only for holders with their personal ID numbers stipulated in their respective passports. Taiwan issues passports without ID numbers to some persons not having the right to reside in Taiwan, including nationals without household registration and certain persons from Hong Kong, Macau, and mainland China.[208][209]
  8. ^ a b c d Residual citizenship category that will become extinct with the passage of time, as such citizenship can only be passed down to the national's children in exceptional circumstances, e.g., if the child would otherwise be stateless.
  9. ^ a b Gibraltarians are United Kingdom nationals for European Union purposes, making them entitled to the EU's freedom of movement provisions as of right, see parliament.uk
  10. ^ a b c d After 2002 all BOT citizens (apart from these solely connected to a SBA) became full British citizens. Currently the category of British Overseas Territories citizens without the right of abode in the UK consists mostly of SBA citizens, but most of them have also Cyprus or British citizenships,[citation needed] both of which are entitled to free movement inside the European Union.
  11. ^ Fantasy passports are either "Passports" issued by minorities, sects and population groups; or identity documents, etc., issued by private organisations and individuals. Camouflage passports are passports issued in the name of former States no longer in existence.[91]
  12. ^ An airport transit visa is only required for Russians when transiting through a French airport having arrived from an airport in Armenia, Belarus, Azerbaijan, Egypt, Georgia, Moldova, Turkey, or Ukraine.
  13. ^ Black list of passport types where a visa is required for entry, corresponding to Annex I of Council Regulation (EC) No 539/2001.[67]
  14. ^ White list of passport types whose bearers can enter the Schengen area without a visa, corresponding to Annex II of Council Regulation (EC) No 539/2001.[67]
  15. ^ Transit list of passport types where a visa is required not only for entry, but also for airport transit, corresponding to Annex IV of Council regulation No. 810/2009.[93]
  16. ^ Strictly speaking, full reciprocity has not been achieved with Israel as German citizens born before 1 January 1928 need a visa for Israel. The German government, however, has apparently avoided to report this fact to the European Commission.
  17. ^ a b Holy See Service & Emergency passport holders only.[201]
  18. ^ Non-biometric passports only
  19. ^ a b The entry Mariana Islands has been removed from the "visa required" list on 11 January 2011. As there is no Northern Mariana Islands citizenship in contrast to the United States citizenship, this entry produced no effects.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Schengen Visa & Residence Permits for Austria
  2. ^ Visa for Belgium
  3. ^ General visa information for Czech Republic
  4. ^ Danish visa rules
  5. ^ Visiting Estonia
  6. ^ Visa requirement and travel documents accepted by Finland
  7. ^ Foreign nationals holding ordinary passports exempt from visa requirements
  8. ^ Visas for Greece
  9. ^ Consular Services - Hungary
  10. ^ Visas for Iceland
  11. ^ Visa for Italy
  12. ^ Consular information for Latvia
  13. ^ Consular information for Lithuania
  14. ^ VISAS & Immigration for Luxembourg
  15. ^ Travelling to Malta
  16. ^ Visa for the Netherlands
  17. ^ Visa for Norway
  18. ^ Visa for Poland
  19. ^ Visa Information for Portugal
  20. ^ Consular information and travel visa for Slovakia
  21. ^ Entry into the Republic of Slovenia and the Schengen Area
  22. ^ Information for Foreigners for Spain
  23. ^ Visiting Sweden
  24. ^ Information for Entry to Switzerland
  25. ^ Visa for Bulgaria
  26. ^ Visa requirements overview for Croatia
  27. ^ Travel Information for Foreign Visitors to Cyprus
  28. ^ Romanian visa
  29. ^ Visas for Ireland
  30. ^ UK Visas and Immigration
  31. ^ "Directive 2004/38/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004 on the right of citizens of the Union and their family members to move and reside freely within the territory of the Member States" (in English). 2004-04-29. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  32. ^ Summary of the Directive 2004/38/EC "Right of Union citizens and their family members to move and reside freely within the territory of the Member States" (in English). 2006-05-02. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  33. ^ "Decision of the EEA Joint Committee No 158/2007 of 7 December 2007 amending Annex V (Free movement of workers) and Annex VIII (Right of establishment) to the EEA Agreement" (PDF) (in English). 2007-12-07. Retrieved 2008-12-22. 
  34. ^ a b Article 6.3.2 of the Practical Handbook for Border Guards (C (2006) 5186)
  35. ^ a b Judgement of the European Court of Justice of 17 February 2005, Case C 215/03, Salah Oulane vs. Minister voor Vreemdelingenzaken en Integratie ([1])
  36. ^ Article 27 of Directive 2004/38/EC (Directive 2004/38/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004 on the right of citizens of the Union and their family members to move and reside freely within the territory of the Member States).
  37. ^ Article 28 of Directive 2004/38/EC (Directive 2004/38/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004 on the right of citizens of the Union and their family members to move and reside freely within the territory of the Member States).
  38. ^ Article 29 of Directive 2004/38/EC (Directive 2004/38/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004 on the right of citizens of the Union and their family members to move and reside freely within the territory of the Member States).
  39. ^ Articles 3(1) and 5(2) of the of Directive 2004/38/EC (Directive 2004/38/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004 on the right of citizens of the Union and their family members to move and reside freely within the territory of the Member States).
  40. ^ UK Border Agency. "EEA family permits". Retrieved 11 February 2013. 
  41. ^ As listed in Annex II of the Council Regulation 539/2001.
  42. ^ As listed in annex I of the Council Regulation 539/2001.
  43. ^ "Visa requirements for Bulgaria". The Republic of Bulgaria Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 16 July 2010. 
  44. ^ "Visa requirements for Cyprus". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the republic of Cyprus. Retrieved 16 July 2010. 
  45. ^ a b The list of the countries whose nationals must be in possession of visas when enter Romania Romania, Ministry of foreign Affairs. Retrieved 12 August 2010
  46. ^ a b Your Europe: Non-EU family members
  47. ^ a b embassy - Visas
  48. ^ High Commission of the Republic of Cyprus in London - Visa Information
  49. ^ a b Romania Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Do I need a visa to come to Romania? Conditions of travelling to Romania
  50. ^ a b Consolidated version of Council regulation No. 539/2001, as of 11 January 2011
  51. ^ [2]
  52. ^ a b c d e f g European Union visa waiver agreement concluded with the state (as opposed to bilateral agreements between some member state and third countries). Ratification is completed for Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Brazil, Mauritius and the Seychelles as per the EU treaty database. Provisional application pending ratification is carried out with St Kitts and Nevis with ratification of this country still outstanding.
  53. ^ a b c d "Regulation (EU) No 1211/2010 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 December 2010 amending Council Regulation (EC) No 539/2001 listing the third countries whose nationals must be in possession of visas when crossing the external borders and those whose nationals are exempt from that requirement". Council of the European Union. 22 December 2010. Retrieved 22 December 2010. 
  54. ^ a b c Article 1 of Regulation (EU) No 610/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 June 2013 amending Regulation (EC) No 562/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council establishing a Community Code on the rules governing the movement of persons across borders (Schengen Borders Code), the Convention implementing the Schengen Agreement, Council Regulations (EC) No 1683/95 and (EC) No 539/2001 and Regulations (EC) No 767/2008 and (EC) No 810/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council (OJ L 182, 29 June 2013, p. 1)
  55. ^ Delegation of the European Union to New Zealand: Frequently Asked Questions
  56. ^ a b NZ government travel advisory - travel tips to Europe
  57. ^ Visa for New Zealand residents, Embassy of Switzerland in Wellington, 20 December 2011, archived from the original on 1 January 2012, retrieved 1 January 2012 
  58. ^ Border controls in Europe, Embassy of France in Wellington, archived from the original on 1 January 2012, retrieved 1 January 2012 
  59. ^ Frequently Asked Questions, Embassy of Spain in Wellington, 29 April 2009, archived from the original on 1 January 2012, retrieved 1 January 2012 
  60. ^ Ministry of the Interior of the Czech Republic: Entering the Czech Republic, duties, length of stay - Bilateral agreements on visa-free relations
  61. ^ Additionally old rule on stay of 3 months within 6 months (that was replaced in 2013 with 90 days in previous 180 days) still applies to citizens of Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama and Paraguay in Czech Republic.
  62. ^ Bilateral Visa Agreements
  63. ^ http://www.nyidanmark.dk/en-us/coming_to_dk/visa/Visa_free_travel.htm
  64. ^ Article 5 of the Schengen Borders Code (OJ L 105, 13 April 2006, p. 1).
  65. ^ a b http://www.ambafrance-ie.org/IMG/pdf/List_of_Schengen_visa_exempted_nationalities-2.pdf
  66. ^ a b UDI: Do you need a visa in order to visit Norway?
  67. ^ a b c d e f Consolidated version of regulation 539/2001 as of 2011-01-11
  68. ^ Commission proposes visa-free travel to citizens of 16 Island Nations
  69. ^ 94/795/JHA: Council Decision of 30 November 1994 on a joint action adopted by the Council on the basis of Article K.3.2.b of the Treaty on European Union concerning travel facilities for school pupils from third countries resident in a Member State
  70. ^ a b c d e f Information pursuant to Council Regulation (EC) No 539/2001 of 15 March 2001 listing the third countries whose nationals must be in possession of visas when crossing the external borders and those whose nationals are exempt from that requirement
  71. ^ a b MINISTRY OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS - Travel Information for Foreign Visitors - Entry Regulations for Cyprus
  72. ^ Regulation (EC) No 810/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 July 2009 establishing a Community Code on Visas (Visa Code), Article 16
  73. ^ "Regulation (EC) No 1931/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 December 2006". 30 December 2006. Retrieved 2 March 2008. 
  74. ^ Judgement of the European Court of Justice of 21 March 2013, Case C‑254/11, Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg Megyei Rendőrkapitányság Záhony Határrendészeti Kirendeltsége v Oskar Shomodi: Judgement & Press release
  75. ^ 5 years in Schengen for Russians
  76. ^ a b Article 12(2) of the Schengen Convention.
  77. ^ Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Denmark, Embassy of Denmark, New Delhi. "Visa requirements for Indians travelling to Denmark". Retrieved 25 December 2007. [dead link]
  78. ^ a b Article 9 of the Schengen Visa Code
  79. ^ Article 15 of the Preamble of Regulation (EC) No 810/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 July 2009 establishing a Community Code on Visas
  80. ^ a b c Handbook for the organisation of visa sections and local Schengen cooperation, p.21
  81. ^ Article 13 of the Schengen Visa Code
  82. ^ Article 23 of the Schengen Visa Code
  83. ^ Article 7.2 of the Practical Handbook for Border Guards (C (2006) 5186)
  84. ^ Article 7.5 of the Practical Handbook for Border Guards (C (2006) 5186)
  85. ^ http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/home-affairs/what-we-do/policies/borders-and-visas/visa-policy/docs/overview_of_schengen_visa_statistics_2011_final_en.pdf
  86. ^ Article 16 of the Schengen Visa Code
  87. ^ Commission Decision establishing the Handbook for the organisation of visa sections and local Schengen cooperation
  88. ^ Article 39 and Annex X of the Schengen Visa Code
  89. ^ Article 1.2 of the Practical Handbook for Border Guards (C (2006) 5186)
  90. ^ Romanian minister: Non-EU citizens don’t need visa to enter Romania if they already have a Schengen visa
  91. ^ a b c d e "Table of travel documents entitling the holder to cross the external borders and which may be endorsed with a visa". Council of the European Union. 17 June 2010. Archived from the original on 10 May 2011. Retrieved 20 July 2010. 
  92. ^ Article 25 of the Schengen Visa Code
  93. ^ a b c Council regulation No. 810/2009 of 13 July 2009, Annex IV Council of the European Union
  94. ^ General Visa Regulations To Denmark
  95. ^ Formin.finland.fi
  96. ^ Ocma.gov.lv
  97. ^ Washington.polemb.net
  98. ^ Mzz.gov.si
  99. ^ Swedenabroad.com
  100. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p List of third countries whose nationals are required to be in possession of an airport transit visa visa when passing through the international transit area of airports situated on the territory of one/some Member States (as of 26 December 2013) (Retrieved 26 December 2013 via the European Commission website on visa policy
  101. ^ "Pragmatic interim solution before joining Schengen". Liechtenstein Government Spokesperson's Office. 18 November 2008. Retrieved 11 August 2010. [dead link]
  102. ^ Eesti.at, Estland Holiday Navigator
  103. ^ What visa do I need to transit through an airport in France? France Diplomatie (French Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs)
  104. ^ Transit Visa Country List [Welcome to germany.info]
  105. ^ General information for entering Hungary, a member of the Schengen Area Consulate-general of the republic of Hungary in New Zealand
  106. ^ Consular Service Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 11 August 2010
  107. ^ Issuance of visas Migracijos Departamentas (Latvian Republic)
  108. ^ List 2: ID and visa provisions – particularities regardless of nationality (version of 10 February 2012) Swiss Federal Office for Migration
  109. ^ Information pursuant to Council Regulation (EC) No 539/2001 of 15 March 2001 listing the third countries whose nationals must be in possession of visas when crossing the external borders and those whose nationals are exempt from that requirement
  110. ^ [3]
  111. ^ [4]
  112. ^ [5]
  113. ^ [6]
  114. ^ [7]
  115. ^ [8]
  116. ^ [9]
  117. ^ [10]
  118. ^ [11]
  119. ^ [12]
  120. ^ [13]
  121. ^ [14]
  122. ^ [15]
  123. ^ [16]
  124. ^ [17]
  125. ^ [18]
  126. ^ [19]
  127. ^ [20]
  128. ^ [21]
  129. ^ [22]
  130. ^ [23]
  131. ^ [24]
  132. ^ [25]
  133. ^ [26]
  134. ^ [27]
  135. ^ [28]
  136. ^ "EU lifts visa restrictions for Serbia" (in English). 30 November 2009. Retrieved 30 November 2009. 
  137. ^ Regulation (EU) No 1091/2010 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 24 November 2010 amending Council Regulation (EC) No 539/2001 listing the third countries whose nationals must be in possession of visas when crossing the external borders and those whose nationals are exempt from that requirement
  138. ^ a b c Consilium.europa.eu
  139. ^ EU, Ukraine Agree On 'Road Map' For Visa-Free Travel, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (22 November 2010)
  140. ^ Statement by President Barroso at the press conference following the EU-Russia Summit Press conference Brussels, 15 December 2011, Europa.eu (15 December 2011)
  141. ^ [29], Europa.eu (14 June 2012)
  142. ^ "Commissioner Malmström presents Action Plan on Visa Liberalisation with Georgia". Europa.eu. 25 February 2013. Retrieved 17 March 2013. 
  143. ^ "Cecilia Malmström signs the Readmission Agreement and launches the Visa Liberalisation Dialogue with Turkey". European Commission. 2013-11-`6. Retrieved 2014-01-05. 
  144. ^ EU Gives Moldovans 'Action Plan' For Visa-Free Travel, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (24 January 2010)
  145. ^ Lithuanian minister: EU, Moldova may shift to visa-free travel in early 2014
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  150. ^ Let citizens of Colombia, Peru and UAE visit EU without visas, say MEPs
  151. ^ European Parliament backs visa-free travel for UAE citizens
  152. ^ European Union opens doors to 16 island nations
  153. ^ Lithuanian Presidency reaches agreement on visa-free travel for citizens of 19 countries
  154. ^ Coreper confirms agreement on list of non-EU countries whose nationals are exempt from the visa requirement
  155. ^ New move to scrap Schengen visa exemption for Serbians and Macedonians because of fake asylum claims
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  157. ^ http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?type=TA&language=EN&reference=P7-TA-2014-0166 Texts adopted - Thursday, 27 February 2014 - Visa requirements for third-countries nationals ***I - P7_TA-PROV(2014)0166
  158. ^ Regulation (EU) No 1289/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 December 2013 amending Council Regulation (EC) No 539/2001 listing the third countries whose nationals must be in possession of visas when crossing the external borders and those whose nationals are exempt from that requirement (OJ L 347, 20/12/2013, p. 74–80).
  159. ^ The details of the procedure are set out in Articles 1(4) of Regulation (EC) No 539/2001 as amended by Regulation (EU) No 1289/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 December 2013(OJ L 347, 20/12/2013, p. 74–80).
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  167. ^ a b Fifth reciprocity report, October 2009
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  218. ^ UK Border Agency: EEA family permits
  219. ^ The Immigration (Provision of Physical Data) Regulations 2006
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  221. ^ UK Border Agency | Common Travel Area (CTA)
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  224. ^ UNITED KINGDOM – Seven more countries must get tuberculosis clearance
  225. ^ UK Border Agency: Transferring your visa to a new passport
  226. ^ UK Border Agency: Biometric residence permit holders' responsibilities
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  249. ^ European Agreement on the Abolition of Visas for Refugees CETS No.: 031, Status as of: 11/2/2013.
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  253. ^ "Biometrics (Fingerprinting)". Irish Naturalisation and Immigration Service. Retrieved 4 February 2012. 
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  259. ^ Overview of visa regimes for foreign citizens
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  262. ^ e-Visa
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External links[edit]