European United Left–Nordic Green Left

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European United Left/Nordic Green Left
European Parliament group
Logo gue-ngl.png
GUE/NGL logo
Name European United Left/Nordic Green Left
English abbr. GUE/NGL[1]
French abbr. GUE/NGL[2][3]
Formal name Confederal Group of the European United Left/Nordic Green Left[2][4][5]
Ideology

Democratic socialism[6]
Internal factions:

European parties Party of the European Left, European Anticapitalist Left
Associated organisations Nordic Green Left Alliance
From 6 January 1995[7]
Preceded by European United Left
Chaired by

Alonso José Puerta (1999-2004),[5]
Francis Wurtz (2004-2009)
Lothar Bisky (2009-2012)

Gabriele Zimmer (2012-)
MEP(s)
52 / 751
Website http://www.guengl.eu

European United Left/Nordic Green Left (GUE/NGL) is a left-wing[8] political group in the European Parliament established in 1995. The group comprises political parties of mostly socialist and communist orientation.[9][10]

Position[edit]

According to its 1994 constituent declaration, the group is opposed to the present European political structure, but committed to integration.[11] That declaration sets out three aims for the construction of another Europe: the total change of institutions to make them "fully democratic"; and breaking with "neo-liberal monetarist policies"; and a policy of co-development and equitable cooperation. The group wants to disband NATO and "strengthen the OSCE".

The group is ambiguous between reformism and revolution, leaving it up to each party to decide on the manner they deem best suited to achieve these aims. As such, it has simultaneously positioned itself as "insiders" within the European institutions, enabling it to influence the decisions made by co-decision, and as "outsiders" by its willingness to seek "another Union" which would abolish the Maastricht Treaty.

Organisation[edit]

The GUE/NGL is a confederal group: it is composed of MEPs from national parties. Those national parties must share common political objectives with the group, as specified in the group's constituent declaration. Nevertheless, those national parties, not the group, retain control of their MEPs. Thus, the Group may be divided on certain issues.

Members of the group meet regularly to prepare for meetings, debate on policies and vote on resolutions. The group also publishes reports on various topics.

Member parties[edit]

Member states with one MEP in GUE/NGL in pink, with two or more members in red

MEPs may be full or associate members.

  • Full members must accept the constitutional declaration of the Group.
  • Associate members need not fully do so but may sit with the full members.

National parties may be full or associate members.

  • Full member parties must accept the constitutional declaration of the Group.
  • Associate member parties may include parties that do not have MEPs (e.g., French Trotskyist parties which did not get elected in the 2004 European elections), are from states that are not part of the European Union, or do not wish to be full members.

Member parties[edit]

Country National Electoral Alliance National Party European Party MEPs
 Cyprus Progressive Party of Working People PEL (observer)
2 / 6
 Czech Republic Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia PEL (observer)
3 / 21
 Denmark People's Movement against the EU EUD
1 / 13
 Finland Left Alliance PEL
1 / 13
 France Left Front French Communist Party PEL
2 / 74
Left Party PEL
1 / 74
Alliance of the Overseas
1 / 74
 Germany The Left PEL
7 / 96
Human Environment Animal Protection (Die Tierschutzpartei)
1 / 96
 Greece Coalition of the Radical Left (SYRIZA) PEL
6 / 21
 Ireland Sinn Féin
3 / 11
Luke 'Ming' Flanagan (independent)
1 / 11
 Italy The Other Europe (L'Altra Europa) PEL[12]
3 / 73
 Netherlands Socialist Party
2 / 26
Party for the Animals (Partij voor de Dieren)
1 / 26
 Portugal Left Bloc PEL
1 / 21
Democratic Unity Coalition Portuguese Communist Party
3 / 21
 Spain Plural Left United Left PEL
4 / 54
ANOVA-Nationalist Brotherhood
1 / 54
We Can (Podemos)[13]
5 / 54
The Peoples Decide (Los Pueblos Deciden)
1 / 54
 Sweden Left Party NGLA
1 / 20
 United Kingdom Sinn Féin (Contests elections in Northern Ireland only)
1 / 3

History[edit]

In 1995, the enlargement of the European Union led to the creation of the Nordic Green Left group of parties. The Nordic Green Left merged with the Confederal Group of the European United Left (GUE) on 6 January 1995,[7] forming the Confederal Group of the European United Left/Nordic Green Left.[2][4][5] The NGL suffix was added to the name of the expanded group on insistence of Swedish and Finnish MEPs.[14] The group initially consisted of MEPs from the Finnish Left Alliance, Swedish Left Party, the Danish Socialist People's Party, United Left of Spain (including the Spanish Communist Party), Synaspismós of Greece, the French Communist Party, Portuguese Communist Party, the Communist Party of Greece, and the Communist Refoundation Party of Italy.

In 1999, the German Party of Democratic Socialism (PDS) and the Greek Democratic Social Movement (DIKKI) joined as full members, while the five MEPs elected from the list of the French Trotskyist alliance LO-LCR joined as associate members.

In 2002, four MEPs from the French Citizen and Republican Movement also joined the group.

In 2004, no MEPs were elected from LO-LCR and DIKKI was dissolved. MEPs from the Portuguese Left Bloc, Sinn Féin both from the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland, the Progressive Party of Working People (AKEL) of Cyprus, and the Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia joined the group.

European Parliament results[edit]

Election year # of
overall seats won
+/–
1995
34 / 567
1999
42 / 626
8 Increase
2004
41 / 732
1 Decrease
2009
35 / 766
6 Decrease
2014
52 / 751
17 Increase

Sources[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Democracy in the European Parliament" (PDF). Retrieved 2010-06-18. 
  2. ^ a b c d "Political Groups Annual Accounts 2001-2006". Europarl.europa.eu. Retrieved 2010-06-18. 
  3. ^ a b "Political Groups of the European Parliament". Konrad Adenauer Foundation. Retrieved 2010-06-18. 
  4. ^ a b c "Group names 1999". Europarl.europa.eu. Retrieved 2010-06-18. 
  5. ^ a b c d "European Parliament profile of Alonso José Puerta". Europarl.europa.eu. Retrieved 2010-06-18. 
  6. ^ http://www.parties-and-elections.eu/eu.html
  7. ^ a b c "EUL/NGL on Europe Politique". Europe-politique.eu. Retrieved 2010-06-18. 
  8. ^ Andreas Staab (24 June 2011). The European Union Explained, Second Edition: Institutions, Actors, Global Impact. Indiana University Press. pp. 67–. ISBN 978-0-253-00164-1. Retrieved 5 August 2013. 
  9. ^ Alexander H. Trechsel (13 September 2013). Towards a Federal Europe. Taylor & Francis. pp. 72–. ISBN 978-1-317-99818-1. 
  10. ^ Marlies Casier; Joost Jongerden (9 August 2010). Nationalisms and Politics in Turkey: Political Islam, Kemalism and the Kurdish Issue. Taylor & Francis. pp. 203–. ISBN 978-0-203-84706-0. 
  11. ^ a b "GUE/NGL Site". Guengl.eu. 1994-07-14. Retrieved 2014-05-28. 
  12. ^ The Communist Refoundation Party, with one MEP and which is in The Other Europe coalition, is a member of the Party of European Left.
  13. ^ http://www.publico.es/politica/523095/podemos-acuerda-con-tsipras-entrar-en-el-grupo-de-la-izquierda-unitaria-de-la-eurocamara
  14. ^ Tapio Raunio; Teija Tiilikainen (5 September 2013). Finland in the European Union. Routledge. pp. 59–. ISBN 978-1-135-76204-9.