European microstates

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The European microstates

The European microstates are a set of very small sovereign states in Europe. Andorra, Liechtenstein, Malta, Monaco, San Marino, and the Vatican City are usually included;[1] Luxembourg shares certain features as well.[2] Four of these states are monarchies (three principalities—Andorra, Liechtenstein, and Monaco—and one papacy, the Vatican City), with all these states tracing their status back to the first millennium or the early second millennium, except for the Liechtensteiner throne and the Andorran status as a diarchy being created in the 17th century. Microstates are small independent states recognized by larger states, unlike micronations, which are only self-declared and not recognized. According to the qualitative definition suggested by Dumienski (2014), microstates can also be viewed as "modern protected states, i.e. sovereign states that have been able to unilaterally depute certain attributes of sovereignty to larger powers in exchange for benign protection of their political and economic viability against their geographic or demographic constraints."[3] In line with this definition, only Andorra, Liechtenstein, San Marino, and Monaco qualify as "microstates" as only these states are sovereignties functioning in close, but voluntary, association with their respective larger neighbour(s). It is also worth noting that some scholars dispute qualifying Vatican City even as a state arguing that it does not meet the "traditional criteria of statehood" and that the "special status of the Vatican City is probably best regarded as a means of ensuring that the Pope can freely exercise his spiritual functions, and in this respect is loosely analogous to that of the headquarters of international organisations."[4]

List of small states often labelled as microstates[edit]

Arms Flag Microstate Total size in km2 (mi2) Notes
Arms of Andorra.svg Andorra Andorra – Principality of Andorra 7002468000000000000468
The Principality of Andorra used to be a feudal remnant high in the Pyrenees, a fiefdom held jointly by the Bishop of Urgell in Spain and the Count of Foix in France, with a population of approximately 89,000. The County of Foix merged into the French Crown in 1607 and thus the King of France and then the President of France took the place of the Count of Foix. Since 1993 Andorra has been a parliamentary democracy, but it maintains two Co-Princes, one being France's elected head of state and the other being the Bishop of Urgell. It has been independent since 1278. Catalan is its official language.
Lesser arms of Liechtenstein.svg Liechtenstein Liechtenstein – Principality of Liechtenstein 7002160000000000000160
The Principality of Liechtenstein is the sole remaining polity of the Holy Roman Empire, having been created out of the counties of Vaduz and Schellenberg in 1719 as a sovereign fief for the wealthy Austrian House of Liechtenstein. Its population is over 35,000. Owing to its geographic position between Switzerland and Austria, it was not swallowed up during the reorganisation of Germany following the French Revolution, and avoided incorporation into the German Empire later in the 19th century.
Arms of Malta.svg Malta Malta – Republic of Malta 7002316000000000000316
The Republic of Malta is an archipelago of seven islands in the central Mediterranean Sea and has a population of around 446,000 (2013 estimate),[5] meaning it has a larger population than several non-microstates, notably Iceland which has a population of around 325,000 (2014 estimate).[6] People first arrived on Malta about 5200 BC from the nearby island of Sicily. It gained independence from the United Kingdom in 1964. Malta is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations and a full member of the European Union. Roman Catholicism is the official state religion of Malta.
Coat of arms of Grimaldi.svg Monaco Monaco – Principality of Monaco 70002020000000000002.02
The Principality of Monaco on the French Riviera, ruled by the House of Grimaldi since the 13th century, achieved full independence only following the cession of the surrounding Nice region from Piedmont to France in 1860.

Monaco is located on the Mediterranean Sea, tucked into the Maritime Alps and has a population of around 35,000. Its constitutional monarchy is led by Prince Albert II. The population is 95% Roman Catholic. French, English, Italian, and Monégasque are the most widely spoken languages. Its economy is based on light manufacturing, banking and financial services, shipping and trade, R&D in biotechnology, marine environments, and tourism.

Insigne Sancti Marini.svg San Marino San Marino – Republic of San Marino 700161000000000000061
The Republic of San Marino,[7] also known as the Most Serene Republic of San Marino,[7] is the oldest surviving sovereign state and constitutional republic in the world. It is the continuation of a monastic community founded in 301 A.D. and is the last survivor of a large number of self-governing Italian communes from the Middle Ages, having survived the consolidation of Italy into medium-sized territorial states in the 15th century and the unification of Italy in the 19th century, largely owing to its remote location in a valley of the Apennines and its decision to offer sanctuary to leaders of the unification movement. It has a population of approximately 30,000.
Coat of arms of the Vatican City.svg Vatican City Vatican City – Vatican City State 69994400000000000000.44
The State of the Vatican City is the last remnant of the former Papal States, the lands in central Italy ruled directly by the Pope. After the unification of Italy in the 19th century the Papal States had become formally part of the Kingdom of Italy, but the Vatican disputed this claim of geographic authority, and the Papacy continued to exercise de facto political control over an area around St Peter's Basilica[citation needed] in Rome. A sovereign Vatican state was later established by the Lateran Treaty of 1929 between the Pope and the government of Benito Mussolini, in which the Pope recognised the Italian state in exchange for establishing Roman Catholicism as the state religion, and recognition of the Pope's sovereignty over a tiny state located entirely within the city of Rome. Its population is between 600 and 700.

The Holy See is a unique sovereign entity under international law distinct from Vatican City with the pope as the head of both, maintaining diplomatic and official relations with over 170 states and entities and participating in various international organizations either in its own capacity or on behalf of Vatican City.

Lesser coat of arms of Cyprus.svg Cyprus Cyprus – Republic of Cyprus 70039251000000000009,251
Arms of Iceland.svg Iceland Iceland – Republic of Iceland 7005103000000000000103,000
Although larger than other countries in this group, Iceland has a smaller population than many of them, and is a founder member of the GSSE.
Arms of Luxembourg.svg Luxembourg Luxembourg – Grand Duchy of Luxembourg 70032586000000000002,586
Arms of Montenegro.svg Montenegro Montenegro 700413812000000000013,812
Coat of arms of Kosovo.svg Kosovo Kosovo – Republic of Kosovo 700410887000000000010,887
Kosovo declared its independence in 2008. It is recognised by 108 UN members and Taiwan. It is a member of the International Monetary Fund and World Bank Group.

Economic policies and relationship with the European Union[edit]

The European microstates are all of limited size and population, and have limited natural resources. As a result, they have adopted special economic policies, typically involving low levels of taxation and few restrictions on external financial investment. Malta is a full member of the European Union, while the other five European microstates have obtained special relations with the European Union. Many of the microstates have also entered into a customs union with their larger neighbours to improve their economic situation (Vatican City and San Marino with Italy, Liechtenstein with Switzerland, Monaco with France). Most of them lack clearly marked borders; for example, Monaco forms a continuous metropolitan area with its neighboring French communes (the largest being Beausoleil) and has many streets running across or even along the border.

Other entities[edit]


While the microstates have sovereignty over their own territory, there are also a number of small autonomous territories, which despite having (in almost all cases) their own independent government, executive branch, legislature, judiciary, police, and other trappings of independence, are nonetheless under the sovereignty of another state or monarch.

Sovereign Military Order of Malta[edit]

Flag of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta

The Sovereign Military Order of Malta is a Catholic order that is a traditional example of a sovereign entity under international law other than a state.

Unlike the Holy See, which is sovereign over the Vatican City, the Order has no territory. However, its headquarters, located in Palazzo Malta and Villa Malta, are granted extraterritoriality by Italy, and the same status is recognized by Malta to its historical headquarters, located in Fort St Angelo.[8] The Order is the direct successor to the medieval Knights Hospitaller, also known as the Knights of Malta, and today operates as a largely charitable and ceremonial organization.

It has permanent observer status at the United Nations and has full diplomatic relations, including embassies, with 100 states[9] and it is in more informal relationship with five others. It issues its own stamps, coins, passports, and license plates, and has its own military.

Historical small territories[edit]

The wars of the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars caused the European map to be redrawn several times. A number of short-lived client republics were created, and the fall of the Holy Roman Empire gave sovereignty to each of its many surviving component states. The situation was not stabilized until after the Congress of Vienna in 1815. Following World War I and World War II a number of territories gained temporary status as international zones, protectorates or occupied territories. A few of them are mentioned here:

Popular culture and sports[edit]

A 1955 novel called The Mouse That Roared by Irish-American writer Leonard Wibberley features an imaginary European microstate called the Duchy of Grand Fenwick. The novel was later adapted to a play and film.

Some of the European microstates are members of the Games of the Small States of Europe (GSSE); several of the island dependencies compete in the Island Games, alongside several other island dependencies from elsewhere in the world.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Klieger, P. C. (2012). The Microstates of Europe: Designer Nations in a Post-Modern World. Lexington Books.
  2. ^ Eccardt, Thomas M. 2005. Secrets of the Seven Smallest States of Europe
  3. ^ Dumienski, Zbigniew (2014). "Microstates as Modern Protected States: Towards a New Definition of Micro-Statehood". Occasional Paper. Centre for Small State Studies. Retrieved 06.07.14.  Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  4. ^ Mendelson, M., 1972. Diminutive States in the United Nations. The International and Comparative Law Quarterly, 21(4), pp.609–630.
  5. ^ "Estimated Population by Locality - 31st March, 2013". Malta Government Gazette no. 19094. Retrieved 28 September 2014. 
  6. ^ "Key figures". Statistics Iceland. Retrieved 28 September 2014. 
  7. ^ a b "San Marino". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2022. Retrieved 1 March 2011.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  8. ^ "After Two Centuries, The Order Of Malta Flag Flies Over Fort St. Angelo, Beside The Maltese Flag » Sovereign Order Of Malta - Official Site". Retrieved 2013-10-21. 
  9. ^ The Order's official website lists them in this table.
  10. ^ Mulhouse
  11. ^ La république malouine
  12. ^ The Republic of Krushevo and the Ilinden uprising

External links[edit]