The European microstates are a set of very small sovereign states in Europe. While Andorra, Liechtenstein, Malta, Monaco, San Marino, and Vatican City are usually included, Luxembourg and Cyprus share certain features as well. Microstates are small independent states recognized by larger states, unlike micronations, which are only self-declared and are seldom recognized.
The Principality of Andorra used to be a feudal remnant high in the Pyrenees, a fiefdom held jointly by the Bishop of Urgell in Spain and the Count of Foix in France, with a population of approximately 89,000. The County of Foix merged into the French Crown in 1607 and thus the King of France and then the President of France took the place of the Count of Foix. Since 1993 Andorra has been a parliamentary democracy, but it maintains two Co-Princes, one being France's elected head of state and the other being the Bishop of Urgell. It has been independent since 1278. Catalan is its official language.
The Principality of Liechtenstein is the sole remaining polity of the Holy Roman Empire, having been created out of the counties of Vaduz and Schellenberg in 1719 as a sovereign fief for the wealthy Austrian House of Liechtenstein. Its population is over 35,000. Owing to its geographic position between Switzerland and Austria, it was not swallowed up during the reorganisation of Germany following the French Revolution, and avoided incorporation into the German Empire later in the 19th century.
The Republic of Malta is an archipelago of seven islands in the central Mediterranean Sea and has a population of around 410,000, meaning it has a larger population than several non-microstates, notably Iceland which has a population of 319,368 (January 2009 estimate). People first arrived on Malta about 5200 BC from the nearby island of Sicily. It gained independence from the United Kingdom in 1964. Malta is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations and a full member of the European Union. Roman Catholicism is the constitutionally protected religion of the islands.
The Principality of Monaco on the French Riviera, ruled by the House of Grimaldi since the 13th century, achieved full independence only following the cession of the surrounding Nice region from Piedmont to France in 1860.
Monaco is located on the Mediterranean Sea, tucked into the Maritime Alps and has a population of around 35,000. Its constitutional monarchy is led by Prince Albert II. The population is 95% Roman Catholic. French, English, Italian, and Monégasque are the most widely spoken languages. Its economy is based on light manufacturing, banking and financial services, shipping and trade, R&D in biotechnology, marine environments, and tourism.
San Marino 
The Republic of San Marino, also known as the Most Serene Republic of San Marino, is the oldest surviving sovereign state and constitutional republic in the world. It is the continuation of a monastic community founded in 301 A.D. and is the last survivor of a large number of self-governing Italian communes from the Middle Ages, having survived the consolidation of Italy into medium-sized territorial states in the 15th century and the unification of Italy in the 19th century, largely owing to its remote location in a valley of the Apennines and its decision to offer sanctuary to leaders of the unification movement. It has a population of approximately 30,000.
Vatican City and Holy See 
The State of the Vatican City is the last remnant of the former Papal States, the lands in central Italy ruled directly by the Pope. After the unification of Italy in the 19th century the Papal States had become formally part of the Kingdom of Italy, but the Vatican disputed this claim of geographic authority, and the Papacy continued to exercise de facto political control over an area around St Peter's Basilica in Rome. A sovereign Vatican state was later established by the Lateran Treaty of 1929 between the Pope and the government of Benito Mussolini, in which the Pope recognised the Italian state in exchange for establishing Roman Catholicism as the state religion, and recognition of the Pope's sovereignty over a tiny state located entirely within the city of Rome. Its population is between 600 and 700.
The Holy See is a unique sovereign entity under international law distinct from Vatican City with the pope as the head of both, maintaining diplomatic and official relations with over 170 states and entities and participating in various international organizations either in its own capacity or on behalf of Vatican City.
Economic policies and relationship with the European Union 
The European microstates are all of limited size and population, and have limited natural resources. As a result, they have adopted special economic policies, typically involving low levels of taxation and few restrictions on external financial investment. Malta is a full member of the European Union, while the other five European microstates have obtained special relations with the European Union. Many of the microstates have also entered into a customs union with their larger neighbours to improve their economic situation (Vatican City and San Marino with Italy, Liechtenstein with Switzerland, Monaco with France).
Other entities 
While the microstates have sovereignty over their own territory, there are also a number of small autonomous territories, which despite having (in almost all cases) their own independent government, executive branch, legislature, judiciary, police, and other trappings of independence, are nonetheless under the sovereignty of another state or monarch.
- Akrotiri and Dhekelia (British overseas territory, United Kingdom)
- Åland Island (External territory, Finland)
- Faroe Islands (External territory, Denmark)
- Gibraltar (British overseas territory, United Kingdom)
- Guernsey (British Crown dependency), one of the Channel Islands and including Alderney, Herm and Sark
- Isle of Man (British Crown dependency)
- Jersey (British Crown dependency), one of the Channel Islands
Sovereign Military Order of Malta 
The Sovereign Military Order of Malta is a Catholic order that is a sovereign entity under international law and has permanent observer status at the United Nations. Although not having any sovereign territory, extraterritoriality is granted by Italy to Palazzo Malta and Villa Malta, both located in Rome as well as by Malta to portions of Fort St. Angelo.
The Order is the direct successor to the medieval Knights Hospitaller, also known as the Knights of Malta, and today operates as a largely charitable and ceremonial organization. It is a traditional example of a sovereign entity other than a state. Its headquarters in Rome are granted extraterritoriality by Italy; its historical headquarters are on Malta, in Fort St Angelo. Unlike the Holy See, which is sovereign over the Vatican City, SMOM has no sovereign territory, yet it does have full diplomatic relations, including embassies, with 100 states and is in more informal relationship with five others. It issues its own stamps, coins, passports, and license plates, and has its own military.
Historical small territories 
The wars of the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars caused the European map to be redrawn several times. A number of short-lived client republics were created, and the fall of the Holy Roman Empire gave sovereignty to each of its many surviving component states. The situation was not stabilized until after the Congress of Vienna in 1815. Following World War I and World War II a number of territories gained temporary status as international zones, protectorates or occupied territories. A few of them are mentioned here:
- Couto Mixto, 10th Century-1864 (now divided between Spain and Portugal)
- Seborga, 10th Century-1729 (subsumed into Italy)
- Senarica, 14th century-end of 18th (subsumed into Italy) (smallest independent state to hold that distinction for so long)
- Gersau, 14th Century-1798 (now part of Canton of Schwyz, Switzerland)
- Republic of Ragusa, 14th Century-1808 (now Dubrovnik, Croatia)
- Cospaia, 1440–1826 (subsumed into Italy)
- Republic of Goust, 1648? – 1827? (now France)
- Free City of Kraków, 1815–1846 (now Kraków, Poland)
- Neutral Moresnet, 1816–1919 (now Kelmis, Belgium)
- Kingdom of Tavolara, 1836-1962 (subsumed into Italy)
- Free City of Danzig, 1920–1939 (now Gdańsk, Poland)
- Free State of Fiume, 1920–1924 (now Rijeka, Croatia)
- Saar, 1920–35 and 1945–1956 (now Saarland, Germany)
- Free Territory of Trieste, 1947–1954 (now divided between Italy, Slovenia, and Croatia)
Popular culture 
A 1955 novel called The Mouse That Roared by Irish-American writer Leonard Wibberley features an imaginary European microstate called the Duchy of Grand Fenwick. The novel was later adapted to a play and film.
See also 
- Eccardt, Thomas M. 2005. Secrets of the Seven Smallest States of Europe
- Statistics Iceland
- "San Marino". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2022. Retrieved 1 March 2011.
- The Order's official website lists them in this table.
- Article from The Economist, Dec. 24, 2005, "Castles in the Air"
- GlobaLex, "The Micro-States and Small Jurisdictions of Europe"