Eurostar (spacecraft)

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Eurostar is a satellite bus made by Airbus Defence and Space (formerly Astrium) which has been used for a series of spacecraft providing telecommunications services in geosynchronous orbit (GEO). More than 70 Eurostar satellites have been ordered to date, of which more than 55 have been successfully launched since October 1990 and have proven highly reliable in operational service. In December 2013, the Eurostar satellites accumulated 500 years of successful operations in orbit.[1] The Eurostar spacecraft series is designed for a variety of telecommunications needs including fixed services and broadcast, mobile services, broadband and secured communications.

Development[edit]

Eurostar was designed in the mid 1980s jointly by Matra Marconi Space and BAe (now integrated within Airbus Defence and Space) to an internally developed specification,[2] for a market which at the time had a design envelope of 1.8-2.5 Tons on the proposed launch vehicles (STS PAM D2 and Ariane 4). Satellite payload power was from 1300 to 2600 W. This was the first commercial satellite to have a digital avionics system modular in concept. With this system architecture, all key satellite parameters are in software, which permits mission specific requirements to be implemented without hardware changes. The initial satellite structure and configuration designed to early requirements had significant growth potential, which subsequently allowed the payload capability (mass and power) to be more quadrupled between 1987 and 1992, with a minimum of re qualification. Airbus DS has since developed further the product line in a staged process which mainly increases the satellite power and propulsion capability and real estate for accommodation of equipment and antennas. The overall configuration of Eurostar satellites has essentially not changed in 20 years through the successive generations Eurostar E1000, E2000, E2000+ and E3000. They have just become larger, more powerful, with implementation costs reduced through longer orbit manoeuvring lifetime, and more efficient and powerful payloads. Nowadays the Eurostar E3000 series has been considerably enhanced and updated with the latest technologies, still maintaining the basic proven configuration.

Range[edit]

The Eurostar E3000 satellite model currently[when?] available offers power payload ranging from 4 to 15 kW. Satellites launch mass usually ranges between 4,000 and 6,000 kg.[citation needed]

Modularity[edit]

The Eurostar satellite structures are modular with a separate Service-Propulsion module and Communications module.[citation needed] Figure <tbn> shows the modular design of the E3000 series around a compact Service module.

Satellites[edit]

List of Eurostar satellites

Satellite Operator Platform type Launch date Launch vehicle
Inmarsat-2 F1 Inmarsat E1000 30/10/1990 Delta 2
Inmarsat-2 F2 Inmarsat E1000 08/03/1991[citation needed] Delta 2
Inmarsat-2 F3 Inmarsat E1000 16/12/1991[citation needed] Ariane 4
Telecom 2A France Telecom E2000 16/12/1991[citation needed] Ariane 4
Inmarsat-2 F4 Inmarsat E1000 15/04/1992 Ariane 4
Telecom 2B France Telecom E2000 15/04/1992[citation needed] Ariane 4
Hispasat 1A Hispasat E2000 10/09/1992 Ariane 4
Hispasat 1B Hispasat E2000 22/07/1993[citation needed] Ariane 4
Orion-1/Telstar 11 Orion/Loral E2000 29/11/1994[citation needed] Atlas IIA
Telecom 2C France Telecom E2000 06/12/1995[citation needed] Ariane 4
Telecom 2D France Telecom E2000 08/08/1996 Ariane 4
Hot Bird 2 Eutelsat E2000+ 21/11/1996 Atlas 2A
Hot Bird 3 Eutelsat E2000+ 02/09/1997 Ariane 4
Hot Bird 4 Eutelsat E2000+ 28/02/1998 Ariane 4
Nilesat 101 Nilesat E2000 28/04/1998 Ariane 4
ST-1 SingTel/CHT E2000+ 25/08/1998 Ariane 4
Hot Bird 5 Eutelsat E2000+ 09/10/1998 Atlas 2A
Afristar WorldSpace E2000+ 28/10/1998 Ariane 4
AsiaStar WorldSpace E2000+ 21/03/2000 Ariane 5
Nilesat 102 Nilesat E2000 17/08/2000 Ariane 4
Eutelsat W1 Eutelsat E2000+ 06/09/2000 Ariane 4
Astra 2B SES E2000+ 14/09/2000 Ariane 5
Hot Bird-7 Eutelsat E2000+ 11/12/2002 Ariane 5
Hellas-Sat Hellas-Sat E2000+ 13/05/2003 Atlas V
Worldstar 3 WorldSpace E2000+ (in storage)
Eutelsat W3A Eutelsat E3000 15/03/2004 Proton
Intelsat 10-02 Intelsat E3000 16/06/2004 Proton
Amazonas 1 Hispasat E3000 05/08/2004 Proton
Inmarsat-4 F1 Inmarsat E3000 11/03/2005 Atlas V
Anik F1R Telesat E3000 09/09/2005 Proton
Inmarsat-4 F2 Inmarsat E3000 08/11/2005 Sea Launch
Arabsat 4A Arabsat E2000+ 28/02/2006 Proton
Hot Bird 8 Eutelsat E3000 04/08/2006 Proton
Arabsat 4B Arabsat E2000+ 09/11/2006 Proton
Skynet 5A Paradigm E3000 11/03/2007 Ariane 5
Anik F3 Telesat E3000 09/04/2007 Proton
Skynet 5B Paradigm E3000 14/11/2007 Ariane 5
Skynet 5C Paradigm E3000 12/06/2008 Ariane 5
Badr-4 Arabsat E2000+ 08/07/2008 Ariane 5
Inmarsat-4 F3 Inmarsat E3000 18/08/2008 Proton
Nimiq 4 Telesat E3000 19/09/2008 Proton
Astra 1M SES E3000 05/11/2008 Proton
Hot Bird 9 Eutelsat E3000 20/12/2008 Ariane 5
Hot Bird 10 Eutelsat E3000 12/02/2009[citation needed] Ariane 5
Amazonas 2 Hispasat E3000 01/10/2009[citation needed] Ariane 5
Astra 3B SES E3000 21/05/2010 Ariane 5
Badr-5 Arabsat E3000 03/06/2010 Proton
Arabsat 5A Arabsat E3000 26/06/2010 Ariane 5
Ka-Sat Eutelsat E3000 26/12/2010 Proton
Yahsat 1A Yahsat E3000 22/04/2011 Ariane 5
Astra 1N SES E3000 06/08/2011 Ariane 5
Express AM4 RSCC E3000 18/08/2011 Proton
Arabsat 5C Arabsat E3000 21/09/2011 Ariane 5
Atlantic Bird 7 Eutelsat E3000 24/09/2011 Sea Launch
Yahsat 1B Yahsat E3000 23/04/2012 Proton
Astra 2F[3] SES E3000 28/09/2012 Ariane 5[4]
Eutelsat 70B (ex W5A) Eutelsat E3000 03/12/2012 Sea Launch
Skynet 5D Paradigm E3000 19/12/2012 Ariane 5
SES-6 SES E3000 03/06/2013 Proton
Astra 2E SES E3000 30/09/2013 Proton
Astra 5B SES E3000 22/03/2014 Ariane
Express AM4R RSCC E3000 15/05/2014 Proton
Eutelsat 3B Eutelsat E3000 27/05/2014[5] Sea Launch
Measat-3b Measat E3000 11/09/2014[6] Ariane
Astra 2G SES E3000 ~2014 Proton
Express AM7 RSCC E3000 ~2014 Proton
DirecTV 15 DirecTV E3000 ~2014
Eutelsat 9B Eutelsat E3000 ~2015
Badr-7 Arabsat E3000
Express AMU1 RSCC E3000
Telstar 12 Vantage[7] Telesat E3000
[8] DirecTV E3000
SES-10[9] SES E3000
SES-12[10] SES E3000
Eutelsat 172B[11] Eutelsat E3000
EchoStar 105[12] EchoStar E3000

References[edit]

  1. ^ Astrium celebrates 500 years of successful Eurostar satellite operation in orbit, UKspace, 27.12.2013 [1]
  2. ^ Eurostar E3000 Three-Year Flight Experience and Perspective, Jean-François Poussin and Gerard Berger, EADS Astrium, Toulouse, AIAA-2007-3124, 25th AIAA International Communications Satellite Systems Conference, Seoul, South Korea, Apr. 10-13, 2007 [2]
  3. ^ SES Orders Four New Satellites From Astrium, SES press release, 30.11.2009 [3]
  4. ^ "SES SUCCESSFULLY LAUNCHES ASTRA 2F SATELLITE" (Press release). SES. October 1, 2012. Retrieved October 1, 2012. 
  5. ^ EUTELSAT 3B satellite successfully blasted into orbit by Sea Launch, Eutelsat, 27.05.2014 [4]
  6. ^ MEASAT-3b Successfully Launched, Measat, 12.09.2014 [5]
  7. ^ Telesat Orders High Throughput Satellite to Replace Telstar 12 and Expand Capacity at 15 Degrees West, Telesat, 09.09.2013 [6]
  8. ^ Astrium to build new satellite for US operator DIRECTV, Astrium, 24.10.2013 [7]
  9. ^ Airbus Defence and Space Contracted to Manufacture SES-10 Satellite, SES, 20.02.2014 [8]
  10. ^ SES Contracts Airbus Defence and Space to Manufacture SES-12 Satellite for Launch in Q4 2017, SES, 17.09.2014 [9]
  11. ^ Eutelsat Ties Up Procurement and Launch Contracts for EUTELSAT 172B Asia-Pacific Satellite, Eutelsat, 31.07.2014 [10]
  12. ^ EchoStar 105 Satellite To Replace AMC-15, EchoStar, 04.09.2014 [11]