Eurovision Song Contest 2005

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"Eurovision 2005" redirects here. For the Junior Contest, see Junior Eurovision Song Contest 2005.
Eurovision Song Contest 2005
"Awakening"
Kyiv ESC 2005.svg
Dates
Semi-final date 19 May 2005
Final date 21 May 2005
Host
Venue Palace of Sports
Kiev, Ukraine
Presenter(s) Maria Efrosinina
Pavlo Shylko
Director Sven Stojanovic
Executive supervisor Svante Stockselius
Host broadcaster National Television Company of Ukraine (NTU)
Opening act Ruslana performing a medley of "Wild Dances" and "Heart on Fire"
Interval act Ruslana performing "The Same Star"
Kiev Percussion Ensemble ARS NOVA
Anatolly Zalevskiy
Participants
Number of entries 39
Debuting countries  Bulgaria
 Lebanon (But later withdrew)
 Moldova
Returning countries  Hungary
Withdrawing countries None
Vote
Voting system Each country awards 1 – 8, 10, and 12 points to their 10 favourite songs
Nul points None
Winning song  Greece
"My Number One"
Eurovision Song Contest
◄2004 Wiki Eurovision Heart (Infobox).svg 2006►

The Eurovision Song Contest 2005 was the 50th Eurovision Song Contest, which was held at the Palace of Sports, Kiev, Ukraine. The winner was Greece's My Number One, written by famous Greek songwriters Christos Dantis and Natalia Germanou and performed by Swedish-born Greek singer Elena Paparizou, who scored 230 points, while Malta's Angel written and performed by Chiara was the runner up with 192 points and the 3rd place went to Romania's "Let Me Try". The contest took place on 19 May for the semifinal and 21 May 2005 for the final. Organizers hoped that this event would boost Ukraine's image abroad and increase tourism, while the country's new government hoped that it would also give a modest boost to the long-term goal of acquiring European Union membership.

Overview[edit]

The official logo of the contest remained the same from the 2004 contest with the country's flag in the heart being changed. Following Istanbul's 'Under The Same Sky', the slogan for the 2005 show was 'Awakening', which symbolised the awakening of the country and city ready to present itself to Europe. The postcards (short clips shown between performances) for the 2005 show illustrated Ukraine’s culture and heritage along with a more modern and industrial side to the country.

The hosts of the Eurovision Song Contest in Kiev were television presenter Maria "Masha" Efrosinina and DJ Pavlo "Pasha" Shylko. Previous winner Ruslana returned to the stage in Kiev to perform in the interval act and to interview the contestants backstage in the 'green room'. The famous Ukrainian boxers Vitali and Wladimir Klitschko opened the televoting, while a special trophy was presented to the winner by Ukraine's president, Viktor Yushchenko.

Publicity[edit]

An official CD and DVD was released and a new introduction was an official pin set, which contains heart-shaped pins with the flags of all thirty-nine participating countries. The EBU also commissioned a book "The Eurovision Song Contest – The Official History" by British/American author John Kennedy O'Connor to celebrate the contest's fiftieth anniversary.[1] The book was presented on screen during the break between songs 12 and 13 (Serbia and Montenegro, Denmark). The book was published in English, German, French, Dutch, Swedish, Danish and Finnish.

During the semi final, there were a few volume falls in the sound, most notably during the Norwegian song, shortly after the intro. These were not fixed for the DVD release.

Contestants[edit]

The newcomers to the Contest were Bulgaria and Moldova, while Hungary returned after a hiatus since their last entry in the 1998 contest. Lebanon was also expected to make a début with the song "Quand tout s'enfuit", performed by Aline Lahoud, but was forced to withdraw after the EBU informed them that the rules of the competition require them to broadcast the Israeli entry during the live show and enable voting to it, which stands against the Lebanese law prohibiting any acknowledgement of Israel.[2] Many of the favourites with bookmakers; notably Iceland, Belarus, and the Netherlands; failed to qualify from the semifinal in perhaps the biggest shock of the year's contest. It is also notable that Ireland, the only seven-time Eurovision winner, failed to qualify for the final. In the final itself, the host Ukraine along with the so-called 'Big 4' (Spain, United Kingdom, France, and Germany – the biggest contributors to the European Broadcasting Union, who automatically qualify) occupied the bottom five places of the scoreboard, the first (and only) time in Eurovision history such a thing happened to those countries.

Problems[edit]

2005 was no exception for scandals regarding the representatives from the countries participating. Germany's entrant in the Eurovision Song Contest rejected calls to quit after her producer admitted manipulating the country's pop charts with mass purchases of her single. Gracia Baur, defended her producer David Brandes, also behind Swiss entry Vanilla Ninja, and said she would go to the finals in Kiev despite complaints from other German singers. Bulgaria's debut was overshadowed by a scandal. The song "Lorraine" by Kaffe was accused of plagiarism. The song sounded too similar to another one released by Ruslan Mainov in 2001. There were also problems in Malta with the electricity supply during the contest, so TV viewers were unable to watch their national selection from the very beginning. There was a controversy regarding the Turkish entry: TRT got a false jury which led to the victory of the song Gülseren, which the 2003 winner Sertab Erener said was not the best choice. There were similar controversies in Macedonia which led to an eventual victory for Martin Vučić. The Ukrainian song had to be changed because it would bring a political message to the people, and EBU stated that no politics could be involved in the contest. The entry for Serbia and Montenegro was also overshadowed by a scandal and an accusation of plagiarism. Portugal's entry, "Amar", had had very poor sound quality, with the female singer's microphone failing many times on stage.

It is also notable that the programme lasted just short of 3.5 hours. This was mainly due to the extremely long voting procedure, where 39 countries voted, reading out every single score. Many people, including United Kingdom commentator Terry Wogan, noticed this and commented about the marathon-like voting procedure, when Russia voted he stated "How many more countries have we got? What time is it?". Because the show overran so badly, the EBU changed the way the votes were announced in 2006 into a much shorter method, where only the top 3 scores were read out (the rest appeared on the scoreboard automatically).

Ruslana was also intended to be a presenter for the show, but was pulled out before the contest for numerous reasons, including her poor English skills. She opened the contest, and did do a few brief interviews in the green room at a few different stages in the event.

Participating countries[edit]

Semi-final[edit]

The semi-final was held on 19 May 2005 at 21:00 (CET). 25 countries performed and all 39 participants voted.

Shaded countries qualified for the Eurovision Final

Draw Country Language[3] Artist Song English translation Place Points
01  Austria English, Spanish Global Kryner "Y así" Like that 21 30
02  Lithuania English Laura and The Lovers "Little by Little" 25 17
03  Portugal English, Portuguese 2B "Amar" To love 17 51
04  Moldova English, Romanian Zdob şi Zdub "Bunica Bate Toba" Grandmamma beats the drum 2 207
05  Latvia English Walters and Kazha "The War is not Over" 10 85
06  Monaco French Lise Darly "Tout de moi" All of me 24 22
07  Israel English, Hebrew Shiri Maimon "Hasheket Shenish'ar"
(השקט שנשאר)
The silence that remains 7 158
08  Belarus English Angelica Agurbash "Love me Tonight" 13 67
09  Netherlands English Glennis Grace "My Impossible Dream" 14 53
10  Iceland English Selma "If I Had Your Love" 16 52
11  Belgium French Nuno Resende "Le grand soir" The big night 22 29
12  Estonia English Suntribe "Let's Get Loud" 20 31
13  Norway English Wig Wam "In My Dreams" 6 164
14  Romania English Luminiţa Anghel and Sistem "Let Me Try" 1 235
15  Hungary Hungarian NOX "Forogj, világ!" Spin, world 5 167
16  Finland English Geir Rönning "Why?" 18 50
17  Macedonia English Martin Vučić "Make My Day" 9 97
18  Andorra Catalan Marian van de Wal "La Mirada Interior" The inner glance 23 27
19  Switzerland English Vanilla Ninja "Cool Vibes" 8 114
20  Croatia Croatian Boris Novković
feat Lado Members
"Vukovi umiru sami" Wolves die alone 4 169
21  Bulgaria English Kaffe "Lorraine" 19 49
22  Ireland English Donna and Joe "Love?" 14 53
23  Slovenia Slovene Omar Naber "Stop" 12 69
24  Denmark English Jakob Sveistrup "Talking to You" 3 185
25  Poland Polish, Russian Ivan & Delfin "Czarna dziewczyna" Black-Haired Girl 11 81

Final[edit]

The finalists were:

  • the four automatic qualifiers France, Germany, Spain and the United Kingdom;
  • the top 10 countries from the 2004 final (other than the automatic qualifiers);
  • the top 10 countries from the 2005 semi-final.

The final was held on 21 May 2005 at 21:00 (CET) and was won by Greece.

Countries in bold automatically qualified for the Eurovision Song Contest 2006 Final.

Draw Country Language[3] Artist Song English translation Place Points
01  Hungary Hungarian NOX "Forogj, világ!" Spin, World 12 97
02  United Kingdom English Javine "Touch My Fire" 22 18
03  Malta English Chiara "Angel" 2 192
04  Romania English Luminiţa Anghel and Sistem "Let Me Try" 3 158
05  Norway English Wig Wam "In My Dreams" 9 125
06  Turkey Turkish Gülseren "Rimi Rimi Ley" 13 92
07  Moldova English, Romanian Zdob şi Zdub "Bunica Bate Toba" Grandmamma Beats The Drum 6 148
08  Albania English Ledina Çelo "Tomorrow I Go" 16 53
09  Cyprus English Constantinos Christoforou "Ela Ela (Come Baby)" 18 46
10  Spain Spanish Son de Sol "Brujería" Witchcraft 21 28
11  Israel English, Hebrew Shiri Maimon "Hasheket Shenish'ar"
(השקט שנשאר)
The Silence That Remains 4 154
12  Serbia and Montenegro Montenegrin [4] No Name "Zauvijek moja" (Заувијек моја) Forever Mine 7 137
13  Denmark English Jakob Sveistrup "Talking to You" 9[5] 125
14  Sweden English Martin Stenmarck "Las Vegas" 19 30
15  Macedonia English Martin Vučić "Make My Day" 17 52
16  Ukraine English, Ukrainian, Russian GreenJolly "Razom nas bahato"
(Разом нас багато)
Together We Are Many 19[5] 30
17  Germany English Gracia Baur "Run & Hide" 24 4
18  Croatia Croatian Boris Novković & Lado Members "Vukovi umiru sami" Wolves Die Alone 11 115
19  Greece English Helena Paparizou "My Number One" 1 230
20  Russia English Natalia Podolskaya "Nobody Hurt No One" 15 57
21  Bosnia and Herzegovina English Feminnem "Call Me" 14 79
22  Switzerland English Vanilla Ninja "Cool Vibes" 8 128
23  Latvia English Walters and Kazha "The War Is Not Over" 5 153
24  France French Ortal "Chacun pense à soi" Everyone Thinks of Themselves 23 11

Note that Serbia and Montenegro withdrew from the 2006 contest and so their automatic spot in the final was given to Croatia.

Voting during the final[edit]

The semi-finalist countries who did not qualify for the final gave their votes first, in order by performing order. Then, all the finalists gave their votes, in order of performance. Countries revealed their votes in the following order:

Score sheet[edit]

The EBU introduced an undisclosed threshold number of televotes that would have to be registered in each voting country in order to make that country's votes valid. If that number was not reached, the country's backup jury would vote instead. In the semi-final this affected Monaco, Andorra and Albania, and Andorra, Monaco and Moldova in the final.

Televoting Results
Total Score Austria Lithuania Portugal Monaco Belarus Netherlands Iceland Belgium Estonia Finland Andorra Bulgaria Ireland Slovenia Poland Hungary United Kingdom Malta Romania Norway Turkey Moldova Albania Cyprus Spain Israel Serbia and Montenegro Denmark Sweden Macedonia Ukraine Germany Croatia Greece Russia Bosnia and Herzegovina Switzerland Latvia France
Contestants Austria 30 7 10 5 1 1 6
Lithuania 17 5 4 8
Portugal 51 10 5 12 12 12
Moldova 207 8 10 8 10 8 4 5 3 6 3 7 6 6 5 12 1 12 3 8 1 10 6 10 12 4 6 12 6 10 5
Latvia 85 12 4 7 2 10 6 6 12 3 2 6 5 2 7 1
Monaco 22 10 2 10
Israel 158 2 6 12 12 10 3 1 12 4 7 4 5 6 6 8 6 5 7 3 4 3 4 1 5 3 8 3 8
Belarus 67 3 1 12 1 7 3 7 2 6 4 8 10 3
Netherlands 53 8 12 5 4 2 8 1 5 6 2
Iceland 52 6 3 8 10 2 4 10 7 2
Belgium 29 12 6 3 1 7
Estonia 31 5 6 1 2 1 1 3 12
Norway 164 2 6 1 5 2 12 2 6 12 2 10 3 7 7 3 7 2 8 2 4 7 4 12 8 2 6 4 7 5 6
Romania 235 10 10 7 3 8 5 8 1 4 4 5 8 1 8 12 8 10 7 7 12 12 12 12 5 7 5 5 1 7 1 12 3 5 4 6
Hungary 167 7 7 4 7 6 4 5 1 7 4 12 1 2 10 6 8 6 3 8 8 1 3 4 10 8 5 7 1 5 4
Finland 50 6 1 8 3 10 8 10 4
Macedonia 97 4 3 3 10 8 4 10 12 10 1 2 12 10 8
Andorra 27 7 4 6 10
Switzerland 114 1 8 2 2 8 6 12 10 2 5 5 3 1 2 2 5 3 2 2 4 3 6 3 3 2 2 7
Croatia 169 12 3 5 1 4 4 1 3 2 8 12 3 8 6 4 6 12 12 6 12 7 10 12 10 4
Bulgaria 49 5 7 4 10 6 1 8 7 1
Ireland 53 2 2 1 2 10 12 5 5 4 1 5 4
Slovenia 69 3 4 2 1 7 2 8 1 7 7 3 10 6 8
Denmark 185 6 7 5 10 12 10 7 7 8 8 12 10 7 10 4 3 12 8 12 5 6 2 4 7 2 1
Poland 81 5 1 6 5 5 4 5 1 7 2 8 8 2 10 5 1 3

12 points[edit]

Below is a summary of all 12 points in the semi-final:

N. Contestant Voting nation
6 Romania Cyprus, Greece, Hungary, Israel, Moldova, Spain
5 Croatia Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia, Serbia and Montenegro, Slovenia
4
Denmark Ireland, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden
Moldova Romania, Russia, Turkey, Ukraine
3
Israel Andorra, Belarus, Monaco
Norway Denmark, Finland, Iceland
Portugal France, Germany, Switzerland
2
Latvia Lithuania, Malta
Macedonia Albania, Croatia
1
Belarus Bulgaria
Belgium Portugal
Estonia Latvia
Hungary Poland
Ireland United Kingdom
Netherlands Belgium
Switzerland Estonia

Final[edit]

Televoting Results
Total Score Austria Lithuania Portugal Monaco Belarus Netherlands Iceland Belgium Estonia Finland Andorra Bulgaria Ireland Slovenia Poland Hungary United Kingdom Malta Romania Norway Turkey Moldova Albania Cyprus Spain Israel Serbia and Montenegro Denmark Sweden Macedonia Ukraine Germany Croatia Greece Russia Bosnia and Herzegovina Switzerland Latvia France
Contestants Hungary 97 2 2 6 2 3 6 5 10 8 6 7 5 8 6 1 2 6 2 3 1 3 3
United Kingdom 18 8 4 1 5
Malta 192 5 2 5 5 5 4 8 4 8 10 1 5 10 2 10 8 4 6 7 10 10 6 10 8 4 8 12 3 5 7
Romania 158 6 12 4 1 3 5 7 7 8 5 7 10 7 6 4 7 5 8 12 12 3 3 2 2 5 2 5
Norway 125 5 4 1 12 3 8 12 2 1 4 4 8 5 5 3 3 3 1 2 12 8 6 4 3 6
Turkey 92 7 12 10 3 1 3 8 8 4 10 8 6 12
Moldova 148 2 10 10 7 8 1 6 6 3 3 4 2 2 12 7 2 4 4 5 5 12 1 1 7 10 4 8 2
Albania 53 3 2 8 12 2 10 5 10 1
Cyprus 46 10 3 12 1 7 1 12
Spain 28 8 12 4 4
Israel 154 1 3 5 12 8 7 6 1 5 8 6 8 7 8 7 5 3 6 3 6 5 1 7 5 8 1 2 10
Serbia and Montenegro 137 12 6 3 4 4 10 2 6 1 6 10 4 10 3 3 12 6 6 10 12 1 6
Denmark 125 4 1 10 8 10 4 5 2 3 7 5 6 8 3 4 12 10 3 10 6 4
Sweden 30 3 6 1 5 2 7 6
Macedonia 52 1 7 5 5 10 7 8 7 2
Ukraine 30 7 12 8 1 2
Germany 4 2 2
Croatia 115 8 6 7 2 1 2 1 2 12 2 7 5 2 2 10 8 8 2 1 12 8 7
Greece 230 4 1 3 10 2 12 3 4 12 2 2 1 12 12 6 10 4 12 4 12 12 8 7 12 2 12 7 12 5 4 6 7 8
Russia 57 7 12 7 7 10 4 10
Bosnia and Herzegovina 79 10 6 1 8 4 7 10 4 4 7 3 10 5
Switzerland 128 8 4 8 10 7 12 10 1 3 6 6 3 1 3 4 2 1 5 5 4 3 3 7 12
Latvia 153 12 6 6 3 5 10 4 10 12 7 4 1 6 10 8 12 1 6 6 3 1 7 7 1 5
France 11 5 1 5

12 points[edit]

Below is a summary of all 12 points in the final:

N. Contestant Voting nation
10 Greece Albania, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Germany, Hungary, Serbia and Montenegro, Sweden, Turkey, United Kingdom
3 Latvia Ireland, Lithuania, Moldova
Norway Denmark, Finland, Iceland
Romania Israel, Spain, Portugal
Serbia and Montenegro Austria, Croatia, Switzerland
2 Croatia Bosnia and Herzegovina, Slovenia
Cyprus Greece, Malta
Moldova Romania, Ukraine
Switzerland Estonia, Latvia
Turkey France, Netherlands
1 Albania Macedonia
Denmark Norway
Israel Monaco
Malta Russia
Russia Belarus
Spain Andorra
Ukraine Poland

Other Awards[edit]

Marcel Bezençon Awards[edit]

The Marcel Bezençon Awards were first handed out during the Eurovision Song Contest 2002 in Tallinn, Estonia honoring the best competing songs in the final. Founded by Christer Björkman (Sweden's representative in the 1992 Eurovision Song Contest and current Head of Delegation for Sweden) and Richard Herrey (member of the Herreys, Eurovision Song Contest 1984 winner from Sweden), the awards are named after the creator of the annual competition, Marcel Bezençon.[6] The awards are divided into 3 categories; Press Award; Artistic Award; and Composer Award.[7]

Category Country Song Performer(s) Composer(s) Final result Points
Artists Award
(Voted by previous winners)
 Greece "My Number One" Helena Paparizou Christos Dantis
Natalia Germanou
1st 230
Composer Award  Serbia and Montenegro "Zauvijek moja" No Name Slaven Knezović
Milan Perić
7th 137
Press Award  Malta "Angel" Chiara Chiara Siracusa 2nd 192

Barbara Dex Award[edit]

Further information: Barbara Dex Award

The Barbara Dex Award has been annually awarded by the fan website House of Eurovision since 1997, and is a humorous award given to the worst dressed artist each year in the contest. It is named after the Belgian artist, Barbara Dex, who came last in the 1993 contest, in which she wore her own self designed (awful) dress.

Country Song Performer(s) Composer(s)
 Macedonia "Make My Day" Martin Vučić Dragan Vučić

Commentators[edit]

Spokespersons[edit]

Each country appointed a spokesperson to announce the points of each country.[30]

Returning artists[edit]

Four artists who had previously taken part in the contest returned in 2005, giving both success and failure: Greece's Elena Paparizou and Malta's Chiara both returned after coming third in previous contests (in 2001 and 1998 respectively), and made up the top two places in the final. The Cypriot entry Constantinos Christoforou returned after coming ninth in 1996 and sixth in 2002 (as a member of the group One), however he wasn't able to replicate his past success, placing 18th in the final. Selma returned for Iceland after being runner-up in 1999, however she too failed to replicate her past success, failing to qualify from the semi-final.Anabel Conde who came second for Spain in 1995 returned in 2005 as a back vocalist for Andorra.

Artist Country Previous Year(s)
Constantinos Christoforou  Cyprus 1996, 2002 (part of One)
Elena Paparizou  Greece 2001 (part of Antique)
Selma  Iceland 1999
Chiara  Malta 1998

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ O'Connor, John Kennedy. The Eurovision Song Contest – The Official History. Carlton Books, UK ISBN 978-1-84442-994-3
  2. ^ Bakker, Sietse (2005-03-18). "BREAKING NEWS: LEBANON WITHDRAWS". ESCToday. Retrieved 2008-08-09. 
  3. ^ a b "Eurovision Song Contest 2005". The Diggiloo Thrush. Retrieved 5 March 2012. 
  4. ^ "Zauvijek moja – info" (in Montenegrin). Diggiloo Thrush. Retrieved 2009-05-30. 
  5. ^ a b "Eurovision Song Contest 2005 Final | Year page | Eurovision Song Contest - Baku 2012". Eurovision.tv. 2005-05-21. Retrieved 2012-07-04. 
  6. ^ "Marcel Bezençon Award - an introduction". Poplight. Retrieved 2009-06-02. 
  7. ^ 11:00. "Winners of the Marcel Bezençon Awards 2012 | News | Eurovision Song Contest - Baku 2012". Eurovision.tv. Retrieved 2012-08-09. 
  8. ^ a b c d Christian Masson. "2005 - Kiev". Songcontest.free.fr. Retrieved 2012-07-04. 
  9. ^ "Congratulations: 50 jaar Songfestival!". VRTFansite.be. Retrieved 2012-07-04. 
  10. ^ "Pogledajte temu - Prijedlog - Eurosong večer(i) na HRT-u!". forum.hrt.hr. Retrieved 2012-07-04. 
  11. ^ Savvidis, Christos (OGAE Cyprus)
  12. ^ "Forside". esconnet.dk. Retrieved 2012-08-09. 
  13. ^ [1][dead link]
  14. ^ "Selostajat ja taustalaulajat läpi vuosien? • Viisukuppila". Viisukuppila.fi. Retrieved 2012-07-04. 
  15. ^ Julkaistu To, 29/04/2010 - 10:19 (2010-04-29). "YLE Radio Suomen kommentaattorit | Euroviisut | yle.fi | Arkistoitu". yle.fi. Retrieved 2012-07-04. 
  16. ^ "Dr. Peter Urban kommentiert - Düsseldorf 2011". Duesseldorf2011.de. Retrieved 2012-07-04. 
  17. ^ "Thomas Mohr: Mit Dschinghis Khan im Garten". Eurovision.de. 2011-05-14. Retrieved 2012-10-28. 
  18. ^ [2][dead link]
  19. ^ "Fréttablaðið, 21.05.2005". Timarit.is. Retrieved 2012-07-04. 
  20. ^ "RTE so lonely after loss of Gerry – Marty". 20 May 2010. Retrieved 29 May 2010. "He has been providing commentary for Irish viewers since 2000 and maintains great enthusiasm for the much lampooned contest." 
  21. ^ [3][dead link]
  22. ^ "Welkom op de site van Eurovision Artists". Eurovisionartists.nl. Retrieved 2012-07-04. 
  23. ^ "Adresse Kiev - NRK". Nrk.no. Retrieved 2012-07-04. 
  24. ^ "Pliki użytkownika Eurowizja". Chomikuj.pl. Retrieved 2012-07-04. 
  25. ^ "Comentadores Do ESC - escportugalforum.pt.vu | o forum eurovisivo português". 21595.activeboard.com. Retrieved 2012-07-04. 
  26. ^ "FORO FESTIVAL DE EUROVISIÓN • Ver Tema - Uribarri comentarista Eurovision 2010". Eurosongcontest.phpbb3.es. Retrieved 2012-07-04. 
  27. ^ "Infosajten.com". Infosajten.com. Retrieved 2012-08-09. 
  28. ^ "Swedes stay at home with Eurovision fever". The Local. 2009-05-16. Retrieved 2012-09-29. 
  29. ^ "10 обранців приєднаються до 14 уже відібраних учасників конкурсу Євробачення, фінальне змагання відбудеться завтра - Новости на Киев 2000". Kiev2000.com. 2005-05-20. Retrieved 2012-07-04. 
  30. ^ Philips, Roel (2005-05-17). "The 39 spokespersons!". ESCToday. Retrieved 17 May 2005. 

External links[edit]