March 9, 1923|
Roanoke, Virginia, USA
|Died||February 2, 2010
Eustace Clarence Mullins, Jr. (March 9, 1923 – February 2, 2010) was a populist American political writer, biographer, antisemite, and Holocaust denier. His best-known work is The Secrets of The Federal Reserve. David Randall has called Mullins "one of the world's leading conspiracy theorists."
Eustace Clarence Mullins, Jr. was born in Roanoke, Virginia, the third child of Eustace Clarence Mullins (1899–1961) and his wife Jane Katherine Muse (1897–1971). His father was a salesman in a retail clothing store. He was educated at Washington and Lee University, New York University, the University of North Dakota and the Institute of Contemporary Arts in Washington, D.C.
In 1949 Mullins worked at the Institute for Contemporary Arts in Washington, D.C. where he met Ezra Pound's wife Dorothy who introduced him to her husband. Pound was at the time incarcerated in St. Elizabeths Hospital for the Mentally Ill. Mullins frequently visited the poet and for a time acted as secretary to him. He went on to write a biography about Pound, This Difficult Individual Ezra Pound (1961), which literary critic Ira Nadel describes as "prejudiced and often melodramatic". According to Mullins it was Pound who set him on the course of research that led to his writing The Secrets of The Federal Reserve.
He became a researcher at the Library of Congress in 1950 and worked with Senator Joseph McCarthy investigating Communist Party funding sources. He later stated that he believed McCarthy had "started to turn the tide against world communism". Shortly after his first book came out in 1952, he was discharged by the Library of Congress.
In 1956 Mullins sued his former employer, the American Petroleum Industries Committee (APIC), for breach of contract. He claimed that he had been hired in 1953 to engage in a sub rosa project to undermine Zionism. APIC denied Mullins's charge, stating that it was "preposterous and without foundation."
In the 1950s, Mullins began his career as an author writing for Conde McGinley’s newspaper Common Sense, which promoted the second edition of his book on the Federal Reserve, entitled The Federal Reserve Conspiracy (1954). Around this time, he also wrote for Lyrl Clark Van Hyning's Chicago-based newsletter, Women's Voice. He was a member of the National Renaissance Party and wrote for its journal, The National Renaissance. In 1995, he was writing for Criminal Politics. Towards the end of his life, he wrote for Willis Carto's magazine the Barnes Review.
Secrets of the Federal Reserve
In the late 1940s, when the poet Ezra Pound was incarcerated in St. Elizabeths Hospital on treason charges against the US, he corresponded with Mullins. In their correspondence, Mullins exclaimed "THE JEWS ARE BETRAYING US", in a letter written on Aryan League of America stationery. The two became friends and Mullins often visited the poet while he was detained. In his "Foreword" to The Secrets of the Federal Reserve Mullins explains the circumstances by which he came to write his investigation into the origins of the Federal Reserve System: "In 1949, while I was visiting Ezra Pound ... [he] asked me if I had ever heard of the Federal Reserve System. I replied that I had not, as of the age of 25. He then showed me a ten dollar bill marked "Federal Reserve Note" and asked me if I would do some research at the Library of Congress on the Federal Reserve System which had issued this bill."
After telling Pound that he had little interest in such a research project because he was working on a novel. "My initial research" wrote Mullins, "revealed evidence of an international banking group which had secretly planned the writing of the Federal Reserve Act and Congress’ enactment of the plan into law. These findings confirmed what Pound had long suspected. He said, "You must work on it as a detective story."
Mullins completed the manuscript during the course of 1950 when he began to seek a publisher. Eighteen publishers turned the book down without comment before the President of the Devin-Adair Publishing Company, Devin Garrett, told him, "I like your book but we can't print it...Neither can anybody else in New York. You may as well forget about getting the [...] book published."
Eventually the book was published by two other men who visited Pound during that period, John Kasper and David Horton, under the title Mullins on the Federal Reserve.
In Mullins on the Federal Reserve (1952), (the updated edition published in 1983 was called Secrets of the Federal Reserve) Mullins argued that there was a conspiracy among Paul Warburg, Edward Mandell House, Woodrow Wilson, J.P. Morgan, Benjamin Strong, Otto Kahn, the Rockefeller family, the Rothschild family, and other European and American bankers which resulted in the founding of the U.S. Federal Reserve System. He argued that the Federal Reserve Act of 1913 defies Article 1, Section 8, Paragraph 5 of the United States Constitution by creating a "central bank of issue" for the United States. Mullins went on to claim that World War I, the Agricultural Depression of 1920, the Great Depression of 1929 were brought about by international banking interests in order to profit from conflict and economic instability. Mullins also cited Thomas Jefferson's staunch opposition to the establishment of a central bank in the United States.
In the 1983 edition of his book, he argued that Kuhn, Loeb & Co. and the House of Morgan were fronts for the Rothschilds. In this edition, he also outlined how financial interests connected to the J. Henry Schroder Company and the Dulles brothers financed Adolf Hitler (in contrast to the claims of his mentor, Ezra Pound, that Hitler was a sovereign who was completely against the interests of international finance. ). He also alleged that the Rothschilds were world monopolists. He furthermore claimed that most of the stock of member banks that owned stock in the Federal Reserve was owned by City of London bankers, since they owned much of the stock of the member banks. He attempted to trace stock ownership, as it changed hands via mergers and acquisitions, from the inception of the Federal Reserve in 1913 to the early 1980s.
In the last chapter of the book, he noted various Congressional investigations, and criticized the immense degree of power that these few banks who owned majority shares in the Federal Reserve possessed. He also criticized the Bilderberg Group, attacking it as an international consortium produced by the Rockefeller-Rothschild alliance. In an appendix to the book, he delved further into the City of London, and criticized the Tavistock Institute of Human Relations, which he claimed helps to conduct psychological warfare on the citizens of Britain and the United States.
A central theme of Mullins' book is that the Federal Reserve allows bankers to monetize debt, creating it out of nothing by book entry, and thus they have enormous leverage over everyone else. Near the end of the book, he said of the Federal Reserve:
The Federal Reserve System is not Federal; it has no reserves; and it is not a system, but rather, a criminal syndicate. It is the product of criminal syndicalist activity of an international consortium of dynastic families comprising what the author terms "The World Order". The Federal Reserve system is a central bank operating in the United States. Although the student will find no such definition of a central bank in the textbooks of any university, the author has defined a central bank as follows: It is the dominant financial power of the country which harbors it. It is entirely private-owned, although it seeks to give the appearance of a governmental institution. It has the right to print and issue money, the traditional prerogative of monarchs. It is set up to provide financing for wars. It functions as a money monopoly having total power over all the money and credit of the people.
Eustace Mullins dedicated Secrets of the Federal Reserve to George Stimpson and Ezra Pound. It is Mullins's most widely known book. By the 1990s the book was broadly influential in American far-right movements.
Hitler and the Holocaust
His October, 1952 article "Adolf Hitler: An Appreciation" was mentioned in a report by the House Un-American Activities Committee. In it, he espoused anti-Semitic views and expressed the belief that America owes a debt to Hitler. The article first appeared in The National Renaissance, journal of the National Renaissance Party.
In a tract called The Secret Holocaust, Mullins stated that the accepted account of the Holocaust is implausible, calling it a cover story for Jewish-led Soviet massacres of Christians and anticommunists. In particular, Mullins argues that by the mid-1960s, in order to divert the world's attention away from this putative mass slaughter, "the Jews" had cooked up the story of the Holocaust, using "photographs of the bodies of their German victims, which are exhibited today in gruesome 'museums' in Germany as exhibits of dead Jews" as evidence for their claims.
The Biological Jew
In 1968, Mullins authored the tract The Biological Jew, which he claimed was an objective analysis of the forces behind the "decline" of Western Culture. He claimed that the main influence that people were overlooking in their analysis of world affairs was "parasitism".
The World Order
Like his mentor [Ezra Pound], Mullins sees the world's evil as a product of financial manipulation, in which Jews play a central role. But as an explanation of world, as opposed to modern, history, his conspiracist vision makes the Illuminati merely a link in a much longer change that extends back to the ancient Near East and forward to the nascent communist movement of the early Marx. Weishaupt himself is portrayed as a mere figurehead... Mullins sees the Illuminati as really run by Jews...".
Mullins was involved with a number of extremist right-wing and neofascist groups from the early 1950s through the 1990s. These included the National Association for the Advancement of White People and James H. Madole's organization, the National Renaissance Party (NRP). In the early 1950s Mullins regularly spoke in public at NRP demonstrations. His then-roommate was Matt Koehl, later the leader of the American Nazi Party but at that time head of the NRP's "Security Echelon Guard."
In the late 1950s Mullins also collaborated with self-proclaimed "scientific racist" Robert Kuttner, an associate editor of Charles Lee Smith's magazine, The Truth Seeker, in theorizing Kuttner's ideas on white supremacy. They cofounded the Institute for Biopolitics in 1958 in order to popularize Kuttner's theories and their precursors in the work of Morley Roberts.
By the mid-1990s Mullins was "considered a national leader" in the constitutional militia movement. He spoke regularly to militia groups across the United States during this time. The Secrets of the Federalist Reserve provided, in part, the theoretical underpinning of the movement's conspiracy theories about a secretive cabal of wealthy families controlling the international monetary system.
- The Biological Jew (1967), Faith and Service Books, Staunton, Virginia
- The Curse of Canaan: A Demonology of History, Revelation Books, Staunton, Virginia, 1987, 242 pages, ISBN 0-9786517-1-5 (2007)
- The Federal Reserve Conspiracy, Common Sense, Union, New Jersey, 1954, 144 pages
- Mullins' New History of the Jews, The International Institute of Jewish Studies, Staunton, Virginia, 1978, reprint of 1968 edition. Quoting from the introduction: "... throughout the history of civilization, one particular problem of mankind has remained constant. In all of the vast records of peace and wars and rumors of wars, one great empire after another has had to come to grips with the same dilemma ... the Jews."
- Murder by Injection: The Medical Conspiracy Against America, The National Council for Medical Research, Staunton, Virginia, ISBN 0-88060-694-0
- My Life in Christ, Faith and Service Books, Aryan League of America Staunton, Virginia, 1968, 90 pages
- The Rape of Justice: America's Tribunals Exposed, Staunton, Virginia: National Commission for Judicial Reform, 1989
- The Secret History of the Atomic Bomb
- The Secrets of the Federal Reserve, 1952. Reprinted John McLaughlin, 1983, 208 pages, ISBN 0-9656492-1-0
- The Sedition Case, Sons Of Liberty, 1985, Metairie, Louisiana, 1985, Trade Paperback
- This Difficult Individual: Ezra Pound, Fleet Publishing Corporation, (1961) reprint, Noontide Press, ISBN 0-317-53248-0
- This Difficult Individual: Ezra Pound, Angriff Press: Hollywood, California, 1961. With black & white photos of Ezra Pound taken while incarcerated, 388 pages, cloth reprint (exactly as Fleet Press edition; bootlegged?)
- War! War! War!, Sons of Liberty, 1984, ISBN 0-89562-100-2
- Who Owns the TV Networks?, 1995, 4 pages
- A Writ for Martyrs, OTU Christ Church, 1985, Soft Cover, 223 pages
- The World Order: A Study in the Hegemony of Parasitism, Staunton, Virginia: Ezra Pound Institute, 1985, 217 pages
- The World Order: Our Secret Rulers, Staunton, Virginia: Ezra Pound Institute, 1992, 294 pages
- Canon Funeral Home Waller, Texas
- Paul F. Boller Jr. Emeritus Professor of History Texas Christian University; Oklahoma John George Jr. Professor of Political Science and Sociology Central State University (18 May 1989). They Never Said It : A Book of Fake Quotes, Misquotes, and Misleading Attributions: A Book of Fake Quotes, Misquotes, and Misleading Attributions. Oxford University Press. p. 150. ISBN 978-0-19-802222-0. "...the disordered imagination of longtime anti-semite Eustace Mullins, a disciple of poet Ezra Pound."
- Daniel Levitas (23 November 2002). The Terrorist Next Door: The Militia Movement and the Radical Right. St. Martin's Press. p. 261. ISBN 978-0-312-29105-1. "...the Christian Credit Society was endorsed by Eustace Mullins, a lifelong anti-semite and Holocaust denier."
- Chip Berlet (1998). "Who is Mediating the Storm". In Linda Kintz; Julia Lesage. Media, Culture, and the Religious Right. U of Minnesota Press. p. 260. ISBN 978-0-8166-3085-1. "...Chuck Harder used notorious anti-Semite Eustace Mullins as an expert on the Federal Reserve"
- Out Spoken Ferr Speech Stories. University of California Press. p. 206. ISBN 978-0-510-11370-4. "...Eustace Mullins, an author of anti-Semitic tracts clothed as commentary on monetary policy, was invited to speak in a neighboring town."
- Rupert, Mark (2000). Ideologies of Globalization: Contending Visions of a New World Order. Routledge. pp. 105, 122. ISBN 978-0-415-18925-5. "'...and even provided a forum for the noxious antiSemitic conspiracist, Eustace Mullins.' (p.122) 'Spotlight has published the commentaries of Eustace Mullins, a notorious antiSemitic writer...' (p. 105)"
- Dennis Roddy (September 25, 2002). "Pick a Conspiracy, any Conspiracy Theory". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. p. D-1. "That Eustace Mullins is both a conspiracy theorist and a raving anti-Semite is not necessarily a judgment on Smith."
- Andrea Baillie (February 23, 2001). "Conference cancels speaker after anti-Semitic allegations". The Hamilton Spectator. p. C07. "...the Virginia-based author has also written books denying the Holocaust and praising the Nazis."
- Matthew Kalman (April 20, 1997). "Kula Shaker star regrets flirtation with fascism". The Independent on Sunday. "They shared a platform at the Wembley Conference Centre with the notorious anti-semitic propagandist Eustace Mullins..."
- Aune, James Arnt (2002). Selling the Free Market: The Rhetoric of Economic Correctness. Guilford Press. p. 134. ISBN 978-1-57230-757-5.
- Jeffery Goldberg (October 29, 2012). "Nazi Propaganda Permeates Anti-Israel Movement". The Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. p. A-7. "The first time I met the anti-Semitic conspiracy theorist Eustace Mullins was at a conference I was covering of Holocaust deniers, neo-Nazis and paranoiacs..."
- Benjamin Weinthal (October 5, 2012). "Free Gaza group: Zionists operated concentration camps". Jerusalem Post. "...conspiracy theorist Eustace Mullins , who propagates the views that Jews are responsible for the Holocaust and are admirers of Hitler."
- Thomas O'Dwyer (August 6, 1999). "Networks of hate". Jerusalem Post. p. 06A. "Eustace Mullins , a grandfather of paranoid antisemites, proved that the Oklahoma City bombing was carried out by the Anti-Defamation League."
- David Randall (January 22, 2006). "Plot or Clot?". The Independent on Sunday. p. 64.
- Nadel, Ira. (2010b). "The Lives of Pound". in Ira Nadel (ed). Ezra Pound in Context. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-51507-8. pp. 161-162
- Foreword to The Secrets of The Federal Reserve by Eustace Mullins, Bridger House Publications, 2009
- "Sen. McCarthy Remembered". The Capitol Times (Madison, WI). 21 May 2001. p. 3A. "Eustace Mullins , who was a researcher at the Library of Congress in 1950 when McCarthy asked him to look into who was financing the Communist Party, was the keynote speaker at a dinner Sunday evening sponsored by the Sen. Joseph McCarthy Educational Foundation."
- The Capital Times, Madison, WI, May 21, 2001, p. 3A. Full Text Newspapers. Thomson Gale (requires Santa Cruz Public Library log-in).
- Paul F. Boller, Jr. and John George, They Never Said It: A Book of Fake Quotes, Misquotes, and Misleading Attributions, Oxford University Press (1989), p. 15.
- "Anti-Zion Drive Denied By Group". Spokane Daily Chronicle. March 6, 1956.
- Steven E Atkins (13 September 2011). Encyclopedia of Right-Wing Extremism In Modern American History. ABC-CLIO. p. 124. ISBN 978-1-59884-351-4.
- David Livingstone (16 June 2013). Black Terror White Soldiers: Islam, Fascism and the New Age. David Livingstone. p. 606. ISBN 978-1-4812-2650-9.
- Martin A. Lee (23 October 2013). The Beast Reawakens: Fascism's Resurgence from Hitler's Spymasters to Today's Neo-Nazi Groups and Right-Wing Extremists. Taylor & Francis. pp. 89–91. ISBN 978-1-135-28131-1. "James Madole, the nominal chief of the NRP, was a balding shipping clerk in his mid-forties who lived with his mother, a raving anti-Semite. (p. 89) Mullins occasionally joined NRP members at street-corner demonstrations, where he ranted about how the Jews had killed Eisenhower and replace him with a double whom they controlled. He peppered his speeches with snide remarks about ... the "Jew Deal" ... Mullins's roommate and intimate friend, Matt Koehl, was in charge of the NRP's Security Echelon Guard...(p. 90)"
- "A good example of these other paths is Criminal Politics, where Lawrence Patterson and his cohorts, including Eustace Mullins and Fletcher Prouty, scour the world for evidence of conspiracies within the world's power structure." Danky, Jim, and John Cherney, "An outpouring of right-wing publications cover all social issues", St. Louis Journalism Review, 25.n179 (Sept 1995): 27(1). InfoTrac OneFile. Thomson Gale.
- Eustace Mullins (1967). The Biological Jew. Staunton, VA. Retrieved 2 March 2014.
- Bill McKelway (10 May 1995). "Right Rebellious -- Guru Wages a War of Words on Conservatism's Fringe". Richmond Times-Dispatch.
- Tytell, John. (1987). Ezra Pound: The Solitary Volcano. New York: Anchor Press. ISBN 978-0-385-19694-9, p. 304-314
- Pound, Ezra, and Leonard W. Doob. "Ezra Pound Speaking": Radio Speeches of World War II. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1978.
- Secrets of the Federal Reserve
- Arthur Goldwag (4 September 2012). The New Hate: A History of Fear and Loathing on the Populist Right. Vintage Books. p. 140. ISBN 978-0-307-74251-3. "Mullins was a frequent visitor to Ezra Pound when he was a political prisoner in St. Elizabeths Hospital, ... and his best-known book, The Secrets of the Federal Reserve, was written at the poet's behest and with his material and intellectual support."
- Margaret Edds; David M. Poole (April 30, 1995). "Metro". VA Militias Defend Their Rage and Fears. The Roanoke Times. p. A-1. "Another Virginian, 72-year-old Staunton author Eustace Mullins , has lectured to militia groups all over the country about a vast conspiracy in which the federal government has become a pawn of private banks and the Federal Reserve. ... Mullins - whose 1952 book, "The History of the Federal Reserve," is a seminal work in the Far-Right community..."
- Preliminary Report on Neo-Fascist and Hate Groups, p. 27
- Eustace Mullins. "Adolf Hitler: An Appreciation". p. 1. Retrieved 8 July 2012.
- Howard L. Bushart; John R. Craig (30 March 1999). Soldiers of God: White Supremacists and Their Holy War for America. Kensington Publishing Corporation. pp. 124, 233. ISBN 978-0-7860-0649-6. "Mullins is the virulently anti-Jewish holocaust revisionist and author of The Secret Holocaust: A Primer for the Aryan Nations Movement, in which Jews are blamed for the European slaughter during World War II and virtually every other atrocity that has ever happened in the world.(p.124) Eustace Mullins' 1984 The Secret Holocaust (Aryan Truth Network) makes the claim that the Holocaust never happened and offers controversial evidence to support the allegations that the photos taken in the death camps—supposedly of 'dead Jews'—were actually photos of dead Germans who were victims of the Jews.(p.233)"
- Eustace Mullins (1983). The Secret Holocaust. Christian Vanguard. Retrieved 25 January 2014.
- Sara Diamond (1996). Facing the wrath: confronting the Right in dangerous times. Common Courage Press. p. 214. ISBN 978-1-56751-078-2.
- Michael Barkun (2006). A Culture of Conspiracy: Apocalyptic Visions in Contemporary America. University of California Press. p. 52.
- Martin Durham (2000). The Christian Right, the Far Right and the Boundaries of American Conservatism. Manchester University Press. p. 124. ISBN 978-0-7190-5486-0. "This is particularly the case for Nesta Webster, but also for Eustace Mullins, whose political career extends from his involvement in the minuscule pro-Nazi National Renaissance Party in the early 1950s to his influence on the modern Patriot movement in the 1990s"
- John P. Jackson, Jr. (1 August 2005). Science for Segregation: Race, Law, and the Case against Brown v. Board of Education. NYU Press. p. 63. ISBN 978-0-8147-4382-9. "Kuttner first worked out his ideas on biopolitics in a work with Eustace Mullins (b. 1923). Mullins was a frequent speaker for the National Renaissance Party. ... In a 1956 press release, Mullins listed his organizational affiliations as including the National Renaissance party, executive directorship of the Aryan League of America, and the National Association for the Advancement of White People. ... Another of Mullins's pet projects was the Institute for Biopolitics, which seemed to consist of him and Kuttner. The institute issued a booklet titled the Biopolitics of Organic Materialism, dedicated to Morley Roberts (1858–1942), a British novelist and writer..."
- Bill Morlin (April 16, 1995). "Militia Leader Urges Discreet Use of Force Says Guns, Bullets Should Be Last, Lowest Choice". The Spokesman-Review. p. B1. "Beckman and Mullins are considered national leaders in the antigovernment, constitutionalist movement"
- Dennis B. Roddy (April 30, 1995). "Conspiracy Theories are Groups' Lifeblood". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. p. A-1. "Similarly, it is Eustace Mullins' book, 'The Secrets of the Federal Reserve,' that provides fodder for the movement's belief that a handful of wealthy internationalists control the money supply through the Fed. ... Mullins' books contend that the Federal Reserve was concocted in the early part of the century as a means for a handful of banking families to take control of the world money supply."
- Eustace Mullins's FBI files, obtained under the FOIA and hosted at the Internet Archive:
- Archive.org collection of radio interviews with Mullins
- Eustace Mullins Presents: The World Order (audio hosted at archive.org)
- The Magical Money Machine (48 minute video interview with Mullins on the Federal Reserve, hosted at archive.org)
- HUAC report on Neo-Fascist groups, including material on Mullins
- Eustace Mullins Memorial at Find A Grave