Euston tube station

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For the National Rail station, see Euston railway station. For the sub-surface tube station indirectly connected to Euston, see Euston Square tube station.
Euston London Underground
Euston station facade.jpg
Main entrance to the station
Euston is located in Central London
Euston
Euston
Location of Euston in Central London
Location Euston Road
Local authority London Borough of Camden
Managed by London Underground
Number of platforms 6
Fare zone 1
OSI Euston London Overground National Rail [1]
Euston Square London Underground
London Underground annual entry and exit
2010 Increase 33.57 million[2]
2011 Increase 35.32 million[2]
2012 Increase 37.53 million[2]
2013 Increase 38.03 million[2]
Key dates
1907 Opened (C&SLR)
1907 Opened (CCE&HR)
1969 Opened (Victoria line)
Other information
Lists of stations
London Transport portalCoordinates: 51°31′42″N 0°07′59″W / 51.5284°N 0.1331°W / 51.5284; -0.1331

Euston is a London Underground station served by the Victoria line and both branches of the Northern line. It directly connects with the Euston mainline station above it. The station is in Travelcard Zone 1.

On the Bank branch of the Northern line, the station is between Camden Town and King's Cross St Pancras. On the Charing Cross branch it is between Mornington Crescent and Warren Street. On the Victoria line it is between Warren Street and King's Cross St. Pancras. The station has six platforms, four for the Northern line and two for the Victoria line.

History[edit]

Northern line[edit]

An underground station at Euston was first planned by the Hampstead, St Pancras & Charing Cross Railway (HStP&CCR) in 1891.[3] The HStP&CCR planned a route to run from Heath Street in Hampstead to Strand in Charing Cross with a branch diverging from the main route to run under Drummond Street to serve Euston, St Pancras and King's Cross stations.[4] Following parliamentary review of the proposals and a change in name to the Charing Cross, Euston and Hampstead Railway (CCE&HR), permission was granted for the route in 1893, although the branch line was only permitted as far as Euston.[5]

For the remainder of the 1890s, the CCE&HR struggled unsuccessfully in an uninterested market to raise the capital it needed to fund the construction.[6] Whilst it did so it continued to develop its route proposals. In 1899, parliamentary permission was obtained to modify the route so that the Euston branch was extended northwards to connect to the main route at the south end of Camden High Street. The section of the main route between the two ends of the loop was omitted.[7][8] In 1900 the CCE&HR was taken over by a consortium led by American financier Charles Yerkes which raised the money for construction.[6]

Also in 1900, a proposal was presented to parliament by the Islington and Euston Railway (I&ER) for an extension of the City and South London Railway (C&SLR) from Angel to Euston.[9] At the time, the C&SLR was in the process of constructing an extension to Angel from its recently opened terminus at Moorgate Street and was suffering from a poor financial reputation. The nominally separate I&ER was used as a work around, though it shared a chairman with the C&SLR.[10] The extension plan was initially permitted in 1901, but delays in the parliamentary process meant that it had to be re-submitted in 1902. The second submission was opposed by the Metropolitan Railway, which saw the extension as competition to its service between King's Cross and Moorgate, and the plan was rejected.[11] A third attempt, presented to parliament in November 1902 by the C&SLR itself was successful and approved in 1903.[12]

The disused CCE&HR station building on the corner of Drummond Street and Melton Street

With funding obtained, tunnelling for the CCE&HR was carried out between September 1903 and December 1905, after which the station buildings and fitting-out of the tunnels commenced.[13] The C&SLR's Euston extension was constructed at the same time from the newly opened Angel station and opened on 12 May 1907,[14] with the station building designed by Sidney Smith located on the east side of Eversholt Street.[15] The CCE&HR opened on 22 June 1907,[14] its building, designed by Leslie Green, was located at the corner of Drummond Street and Melton Street.[15]

Although built and initially operated as two separate stations by the two companies, the C&SLR and the CCE&HR platforms were sufficiently close together that a deep level interchange was constructed with a small ticket office for passengers interchanging between the lines. Another passage led to lifts that surfaced within the mainline station itself. With the shared entrance within the mainline station able to serve both sets of platforms satisfactorily, the separate station buildings were unneeded and they both closed on 30 September 1914.[15] The CCE&HR building remains (converted for use as an electrical substation, but the C&SLR's building was demolished in 1934 to enable the construction of Euston House for the London, Midland and Scottish Railway.[15]

In 1913 the two lines came under joint ownership when the Underground Group, already owners of the CCE&HR, took over the C&SLR. Plans were made before World War I to extend both lines and provide additional connections at Camden Town and Kennington so that trains could run from either of the two northern termini via either branch to the southern terminus.

Works to modernise and enlarge the C&SLR tunnels which had been originally constructed to a smaller diameter than the CCE&HR closed the line between Moorgate and Euston from 8 August 1922 to 20 April 1924. The new link to Camden Town was opened with the rebuilt C&SLR tunnels. The extensions to Edgware in 1923/24 and to Morden in 1926 lead to the combined line adopting the name Morden-Edgware Line. This changed to the Northern line in 1937.

To the east of Euston is a connecting tunnel from the northbound Bank branch (formerly known as the City branch, after the City & South London Railway) to the northbound Piccadilly line tunnel just south of King's Cross St. Pancras. Via this connection, called the "King's Cross Loop", a train in the northbound Piccadilly line platform at King's Cross St. Pancras can run south and enter the northbound Bank branch platform at Euston. Alternatively, via a junction, called the "Euston Loop", between the old section of the northbound Bank branch and the southbound Bank branch, trains can enter the southbound platform.

This exchange between lines can be operated in both directions and was created when the C&SLR became part of the Underground group in 1913 to facilitate train stock transfers. At that time the C&SLR had no surface depot and train carriages were lowered into the subterranean depot at Stockwell by a large lift. Originally the junctions concerned were controlled from a signal cabin sited over the headwall of platform 6 (southbound Northern line on the Bank branch); this cabin still exists, but is now operated remotely as an interlocking machine room from the Northern line control centre at Cobourg Street though facilities remain for manual control of the signals. Presently the junctions are used during train reversals and to facilitate the passage of engineering trains between the Northern and Piccadilly lines.

Use of the Kings Cross and Euston Loops is considered a movement into and out of sidings according to the London Underground Working Reference Manual, and as such is done without passengers on board. However, until relatively recently, trains terminating northbound at Euston did carry passengers from Kings Cross to Euston via the loop line. Now, any such trains detrain passengers at Kings Cross, and then proceed empty to Euston. This may also have been done to prevent passenger confusion, as the northbound terminating train would arrive in the southbound platform at Euston, having passed through the loop. The northbound and southbound platforms on the city branch are not adjacent at Euston, and so any passenger wishing to continue northbound would have to endure a lengthy walk to reach the northbound platform. When there is a scheduled service suspension north of Euston, trains do still proceed to Euston via the loop with passengers, since this is still a passenger signalled move. Once at Euston, they can change to other services.

Victoria line[edit]

In 1967, in line with the opening of the Victoria line, and the construction of the new Euston main line railway station above, the station was substantially expanded and remodelled to cope with the increase in passenger numbers. The route of the Victoria line was designed to provide the maximum number of connections to existing services and to relieve some of the pressure on those other lines by giving an alternative route through central London. As such, interchanges were designed to facilitate quick transfers between lines by the use of cross-platform interchanges where possible. At Euston the single island platform on the Northern line Bank branch was suffering from dangerous congestion, so a new Bank branch northbound platform was constructed some way to the south and the old northbound track was removed to provide a wider southbound platform. Two new platforms for the Victoria line were excavated between and parallel to the original and the new Bank branch tunnels to which they were directly linked. This arrangement results in an unusual feature of the station: a passenger changing from the Victoria line to Northern line Bank branch or vice versa will find that trains on adjacent platforms travel in opposite directions even though both are either northbound or southbound.

A new ticket hall was constructed below the concourse of the mainline station with two sets of escalators replacing the lifts. The escalators provide access to and from an intermediate circulation level which, in turn, gives access to the Northern line Charing Cross branch platforms and two further sets of escalators; one set each serving the northbound and southbound Victoria and Northern line Bank branch platforms. Interchanges between the northbound and southbound Victoria and Northern Bank Line platforms are made via a passageway at the lower level so as to avoid the need to use the escalators. An emergency stair to the intermediate interchange level is located midway along it. On 1 December 1969 the whole new interchange system was opened and the old passages were closed off. Many of the old passages remain in use as ventilation shafts.

Future Proposals[edit]

Unlike its neighbour, King's Cross St. Pancras, and most of the other London mainline termini, Euston is not served by the Circle line. Euston Square tube station is just 250 m away and is served by the Circle, Hammersmith & City and Metropolitan lines. In December 2005 Network Rail announced plans[16] to create a subway link between the station and Euston station as part of the re-development of Euston station. This will create a direct link for users of mainline rail services which terminate at Euston. These plans would also be pursued during a rebuilding for High Speed 2.[17] Some[who?] plans see a direct connection being made as part of a new transport interchange project (though alternative plans have Euston Square connecting to Warren Street, which is also nearby).

There are also plans to rebuild the interchange level as part of a mobility impairment accessibility project, possibly restoring use of some of the disused lower level interchange passageways.

The planned segregation of Northern line services into two separate lines could help reduce confusion between the two Northern line platforms by renaming one (or both) of the lines (e.g. giving a "Northern line" and a "City & Southern line").

If the High Speed 2 line, which would terminate at Euston, goes ahead then Transport for London (TfL) plan to change the safeguarded route for the proposed Chelsea–Hackney line ("Crossrail 2") to include Euston between Tottenham Court Road and Kings Cross St. Pancras.[18]

Connections[edit]

Main article: Euston bus station

There is a bus station directly connected to the station offering London Buses services.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Out of Station Interchanges" (Microsoft Excel). Transport for London. May 2011. Archived from the original on 2012-10-20. 
  2. ^ a b c d "Multi-year station entry-and-exit figures" (XLS). London Underground station passenger usage data. Transport for London. 2014. Retrieved 27 July 2014. 
  3. ^ The London Gazette: no. 26226. pp. 6324–6326. 24 November 1891. Retrieved 22 March 2015.
  4. ^ Badsey-Ellis 2005, p. 58.
  5. ^ The London Gazette: no. 26435. p. 4825. 25 August 1893. Retrieved 22 March 2015.
  6. ^ a b Badsey-Ellis 2005, p. 118.
  7. ^ The London Gazette: no. 27025. pp. 7134–7136. 22 November 1898. Retrieved 22 March 2015.
  8. ^ The London Gazette: no. 27107. pp. 5011–5012. 11 August 1899. Retrieved 22 March 2015.
  9. ^ The London Gazette: no. 27249. pp. 7482–7483. 23 November 1900. Retrieved 23 March 2015.
  10. ^ Badsey-Ellis 2005, p. 96.
  11. ^ Badsey-Ellis 2005, p. 139.
  12. ^ Day & Reed 2010, p. 47.
  13. ^ Wolmar 2005, p. 185.
  14. ^ a b Rose 1999.
  15. ^ a b c d Connor 2006, p. 125.
  16. ^ alwaystouchout.com - Euston redevelopment
  17. ^ Transport Select Committee, 28 June 2011, House of Commons
  18. ^ HS2 fuels Crossrail 2 business case

Bibliography[edit]

  • Badsey-Ellis, Antony (2005). London's Lost Tube Schemes. Capital Transport. ISBN 185414-293-3. 
  • Connor, J.E. (2006) [1999]. London's Disused Underground Stations (2nd ed.). Capital Transport. ISBN 1-85414-250-X. 
  • Day, John R; Reed, John (2010) [1963]. The Story of London's Underground (11th ed.). Capital Transport. ISBN 978-1-85414-341-9. 
  • Rose, Douglas (1999) [1980]. The London Underground, A Diagrammatic History (7th ed.). Douglas Rose/Capital Transport. ISBN 1-85414-219-4. 
  • Wolmar, Christian (2005) [2004]. The Subterranean Railway: How the London Underground Was Built and How It Changed the City Forever. Atlantic Books. ISBN 1-84354-023-1. 

External links[edit]

Preceding station   Underground no-text.svg London Underground   Following station
Northern line
Bank branch
towards Morden (via Bank)
towards Kennington or Morden (via Charing Cross)
Northern line
Charing Cross branch
towards Brixton
Victoria line