Euston tube station
Entrance to the Underground station within mainline station
Location of Euston in Central London
|Local authority||London Borough of Camden|
|Managed by||London Underground|
|Number of platforms||6|
|London Underground annual entry and exit|
|1968||Opened (Victoria line)|
|Lists of stations|
|London Transport portalCoordinates:|
Euston is a London Underground station served by the Victoria line and both branches of the Northern line. It directly connects with the Euston mainline station above it. The station is in Travelcard Zone 1.
The station has six platforms, four for the Northern line and two for the Victoria line. On the Northern line's Bank branch the station is between Camden Town and King's Cross St Pancras. On the Charing Cross branch it is between Mornington Crescent and Warren Street. On the Victoria line it is between Warren Street and King's Cross St. Pancras.
An underground station at Euston was first proposed by the Hampstead, St Pancras & Charing Cross Railway (HStP&CCR) in 1891. The HStP&CCR planned a route to run from Heath Street in Hampstead to Strand in Charing Cross with a branch diverging from the main route to run under Drummond Street to serve Euston, St Pancras and King's Cross stations. Following parliamentary review of the proposals and a change in name to the Charing Cross, Euston and Hampstead Railway (CCE&HR), permission was granted for the route in 1893, although the branch line was only permitted as far as Euston.
For the remainder of the 1890s, the CCE&HR struggled unsuccessfully to raise the capital it needed to fund the construction. Whilst it did so it continued to develop its route proposals. In 1899, parliamentary permission was obtained to modify the route so that the Euston branch was extended northwards to connect to the main route at the south end of Camden High Street. The section of the main route between the two ends of the loop was omitted.[note 1] In 1900, the CCE&HR was taken over by a consortium led by American financier Charles Yerkes which raised the money for construction.
Also in 1900, a proposal was presented to parliament by the Islington and Euston Railway (I&ER) for an extension of the City and South London Railway (C&SLR) from Angel to Euston. At the time, the C&SLR was in the process of constructing an extension to Angel from its recently opened terminus at Moorgate Street.[note 2] The extension plan was initially permitted in 1901, but delays in the parliamentary process meant that it had to be re-submitted in 1902. The second submission was opposed by the Metropolitan Railway, which saw the extension as competition to its service between King's Cross and Moorgate, and the plan was rejected. A third attempt, presented to parliament in November 1902 by the C&SLR itself, was successful and approved in 1903.
Construction and opening
With funding obtained, tunnelling for the CCE&HR was carried out between September 1903 and December 1905, after which the station buildings and fitting-out of the tunnels commenced. The C&SLR's Euston extension was constructed at the same time from the newly opened Angel station and opened on 12 May 1907, with the station building designed by Sidney Smith located on the east side of Eversholt Street. The CCE&HR opened on 22 June 1907, its building, designed by Leslie Green, was located at the corner of Drummond Street and Melton Street.
Although built and initially operated as two separate stations by the two companies, the C&SLR and the CCE&HR platforms were sufficiently close together that a deep level interchange was constructed between the passages of the two stations with a small ticket office for passengers changing between the lines. Another passage led to lifts that surfaced within the mainline station itself. With the entrance within the mainline station able to serve both sets of platforms satisfactorily, the separate station buildings were unneeded and they both closed on 30 September 1914. The CCE&HR building remains (converted for use as an electrical substation), but the C&SLR's building was demolished in 1934 to enable the construction of Euston House for the London, Midland and Scottish Railway.
Reconstruction and extension
Most of the C&SLR's route had been constructed with tunnels 10 feet 2 inches (3.10 m) or 10 feet 6 inches (3.20 m) in diameter, smaller than the 11 feet 6 inches (3.51 m) diameter that had been adopted as the standard for the CC&EHR and other deep level tube lines.[note 3] The smaller tunnel size restricted the capacity of the C&SLR's trains and, in 1912, the C&SLR published a bill for the enlargement of its tunnels. A separate bill was published at the same time by the London Electric Railway (LER),[note 4] that included plans to construct tunnels to connect the C&SLR at Euston to the CCE&HR's station at Camden Town. Together, the works proposed in these bills would enable trains of each company to run over the route of the other, effectively combining the two separate railways. The reconstruction and extension works were postponed during the World War I and did not begin until 1922. The C&SLR platforms and the tunnels between Euston and Moorgate were closed for the reconstruction on 8 August 1922. They reopened on 20 April 1924 along with the new link to Camden Town.
Plans for the route that eventually became the Victoria line date from the 1940s. A proposal for a new underground railway line linking north-east London with the centre was included in the County of London Plan in 1943. Between 1946 and 1954, a series of routes were proposed by different transport authorities to connect various places in south and north or north-east London. Each of these connected the three mainline termini at King's Cross, Euston and Victoria.[note 5] A route was approved in 1955 with future extensions to be decided later, though funding for the construction was not approved by the government until 1962.
At Euston, major reconstruction works were undertaken to incorporate the new Victoria line platforms so that cross-platform interchanges could be provided with the Northern line's Bank branch - the former C&SLR route to King's Cross and Bank. Unlike the former CCE&HR platforms, which were in separate tunnels with side platforms, the Bank branch tracks served an island platform in a single large tunnel. These platforms suffered from dangerous overcrowding at peak times. To provide a cross platform interchange, a new section of tunnel was constructed for northbound Bank branch trains, which were diverted to a new platform some way to the south of the original alignment.[note 6] The redundant northbound track bed in the station tunnel was filled in to form a wider southbound platform. The new Victoria line platforms were excavated between and parallel to the original and the new Bank branch tunnels. Each pair of platforms was linked via a concourse served by escalators.[note 7]
In conjunction with the reconstruction of the mainline station above, a new ticket hall was excavated below the concourse with two sets of escalators replacing the lifts. The escalators provide access to and from an intermediate circulation level, which, in turn, gives access to the Northern line Charing Cross branch platforms and two further sets of escalators; one set each serving the northbound and southbound Victoria and Northern line Bank branch platforms. Interchanges between the northbound and southbound Victoria and Northern Bank Line platforms are made via a passageway at the lower level so as to avoid the need to use the escalators. An emergency stair to the intermediate interchange level is located midway along the passageway. The Victoria line platforms came into use on 1 December 1968 when the second section of the line was opened between Highbury & Islington and Warren Street. Disused passages remain with some converted for engineering and signalling uses.
Unlike its neighbour, King's Cross St. Pancras, and most of the other London mainline termini, Euston is not served by the Circle line. Euston Square tube station is just 250 m away and is served by the Circle, Hammersmith & City and Metropolitan lines. In December 2005 Network Rail announced plans to create a subway link between the station and Euston station as part of the re-development of Euston station. This will create a direct link for users of mainline rail services which terminate at Euston. These plans would also be pursued during a rebuilding for High Speed 2. Some[which?] plans see a direct connection being made as part of a new transport interchange project (though alternative plans have Euston Square connecting to Warren Street, which is also nearby).
There are also plans to rebuild the interchange level as part of a mobility impairment accessibility project, possibly restoring use of some of the disused lower level interchange passageways.
If the High Speed 2 line, which would terminate at Euston, goes ahead then Transport for London (TfL) plan to change the safeguarded route for the proposed Chelsea–Hackney line ("Crossrail 2") to include Euston between Tottenham Court Road and Kings Cross St. Pancras.
There is a bus station directly connected to the station offering London Buses services.
Notes and references
- A separate proposal in 1899 by the Baker Street and Waterloo Railway for a branch from its planned line near Regent's Park to Euston was rejected by Parliament. The station building would have been located in Cardington Street.
- The C&SLR was suffering from a poor financial reputation at the time due to what was seen as the wasteful abandonment of its original terminal at King William Street when the extension to Moorgate was built. The I&ER was constituted as a nominally separate company to avoid this poor reputation, though it shared a chairman with the C&SLR.
- The only section of the C&SLR's tunnels constructed with 11 ft 6 in diameter tunnels was the section between Bank and Moorgate.
- The LER was formed by the Underground Group in 1910 through a merger of the CCE&HR with its two other deep level railways, the Baker Street and Waterloo Railway and the Great Northern, Piccadilly and Brompton Railway.
- In 1946, the Railway (London Plan) Committee published a report including "Route 8 - South to North link from East Croydon to Finsbury Park", a mainline service running between Norbury and Hornsey in tunnel via Streatham Hill, Brixton, Vauxhall, Victoria, Bond Street, Euston, King's Cross and Finsbury Park. In 1947, the London Passenger Transport Board produced a plan for a similar route for a tube line running into north-east London. This ran between Coulsdon North or Sanderstead and Walthamstow (Hoe Street) or Waltham Cross. These plans were reviewed by the British Transport Commission in 1949 and a feasibility study was recommended. This became a combined route, "Route C" running between Walthamstow and Victoria.
- The diversion took place on Sunday 15 October 1967.
- This arrangement results in an unusual feature of the station: a passenger changing between the Victoria line and Northern line Bank branch will find that trains on adjacent platforms travel in opposite directions even though both are either northbound or southbound.
- "Out of Station Interchanges" (MICROSOFT EXCEL). Transport for London. May 2011. Archived from the original on 20 October 2012.
- "Multi-year station entry-and-exit figures" (XLS). London Underground station passenger usage data. Transport for London. 2014. Retrieved 27 July 2014.
- The London Gazette: . 24 November 1891. Retrieved 22 March 2015.
- Badsey-Ellis 2005, p. 58.
- The London Gazette: . 25 August 1893. Retrieved 22 March 2015.
- Badsey-Ellis 2005, p. 118.
- The London Gazette: . 22 November 1898. Retrieved 22 March 2015.
- The London Gazette: . 11 August 1899. Retrieved 22 March 2015.
- The London Gazette: . 23 November 1900. Retrieved 23 March 2015.
- Badsey-Ellis 2005, p. 96.
- Badsey-Ellis 2005, p. 139.
- Day & Reed 2010, p. 47.
- Wolmar 2005, p. 185.
- Rose 1999.
- Connor 2006, p. 125.
- Badsey-Ellis 2005, pp. 55-56.
- The London Gazette: . 22 November 1912. Retrieved 6 April 2015.
- The London Gazette: . 22 November 1912. Retrieved 6 April 2015.
- Day & Reed 2010, p. 143.
- Day & Reed 2010, p. 153.
- Day & Reed 2010, p. 160.
- Day & Reed 2010, p. 168.
- alwaystouchout.com - Euston redevelopment
- Transport Select Committee, 28 June 2011, House of Commons
- HS2 fuels Crossrail 2 business case
- Badsey-Ellis 2005, p. 84.
- Badsey-Ellis 2005, p. 86.
- Railway (London Plan) Committee 1946
- "Victoria Line - History". Clive's Underground Line Guides. 11 November 2014. Retrieved 6 April 2015.
- Day & Reed 2010, p. 148.
- "Euston (poster image)". Abandonedstations.org.uk. Retrieved 12 April 2015.
- Badsey-Ellis, Antony (2005). London's Lost Tube Schemes. Capital Transport. ISBN 185414-293-3.
- Connor, J.E. (2006) . London's Disused Underground Stations (2nd ed.). Capital Transport. ISBN 1-85414-250-X.
- Day, John R; Reed, John (2010) . The Story of London's Underground (11th ed.). Capital Transport. ISBN 978-1-85414-341-9.
- Railway (London Plan) Committee (1946). Report to the Minister of War Transport. HMSO.
- Rose, Douglas (1999) . "The London Underground, A Diagrammatic History" (7th ed.). Douglas Rose/Capital Transport. ISBN 1-85414-219-4.
- Wolmar, Christian (2005) . The Subterranean Railway: How the London Underground Was Built and How It Changed the City Forever. Atlantic Books. ISBN 1-84354-023-1.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Euston tube station.|
- Clive's Underground Lines Guide - Northern Line, section on King's cross Loop
- London Transport Museum Photographic Archive
- Charing Cross, Euston & Hampstead Railway station building, 1915
- City & South London Railway station building
- Station entrance from mainline platform, 1915
- Station entrance from mainline platform, 1932
- Station entrance from mainline platform, 1951
- Victoria line Platform tiling showing Euston Arch motif, 1969
- 2007 Photo gallery of disused tunnels at Euston tube Station
- More photos of this station
|Preceding station||London Underground||Following station|
Charing Cross branch
towards Walthamstow Central