Dead arm of grapevine
|Dead arm of grapevine|
|Common names||grape canker
Fruit rot disease
|Causal agents||Eutypa lata and Phomopsis viticola|
|Hosts||Vine, Prunus, apples, pears, walnuts, pistachios|
Dead-arm, sometimes grape canker, is a disease of grapes caused by a deep-seated wood rot of the arms or trunk of the grapevine. As the disease progresses over several years, one or more arms may die, hence the name "deadarm". Eventually the whole vine will die. In the 1970s, dead-arm was identified as really being two diseases, caused by two different fungi, Eutypa lata and Phomopsis viticola (syn. Cryptosporella viticola).
Use in wines
Although the dead-arm disease is usually looked upon as a malignant disease that often cripples one or more vines, some wine estates have discovered that the arms that are still alive when dead-arm has struck yield a very flavorful wine. One such vineyard belonging to Australian wine producer d'Arenberg have marketed this "Dead Arm" Shiraz, which has received high wine ratings among various wine critics.
Eutypa dieback is caused by Eutypa lata (synonym: Eutypa armeniacae) which infects fresh pruning wounds when there is adequate moisture on the vine, such as just after a rain. The fungus also attacks many other hosts such as cherry trees, most other Prunus species, as well as apples, pears and walnuts.
Phomopsis leaf, also called Cane spot or Fruit rot disease, is caused by Phomopsis viticola.
Black dead arm
- Lecomte P, Péros JP, Blancard D, Bastien N, Délye C (October 2000). "PCR assays that identify the grapevine dieback fungus Eutypa lata". Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66 (10): 4475–80. doi:10.1128/AEM.66.10.4475-4480.2000. PMC 92327. PMID 11010901.
- "An Online Guide to Plant Disease Control: Grape: Eutypa Dieback" Oregon State University Extension;
- Ramsdell DC (October 1994). "Common Diseases of the Grapevine in Michigan". MSUE Fruit IPM Extension Bulletin. E-1732.
- "Eutypa Dieback of Grape" Ohio State University Extension Fact Sheet HYG-3203-95;
- Munkvold, G. P. (2001) "Eutypa dieback of grapevine and apricot" Plant Health Progress Online doi:10.1094/PHP-2001-0219-01-DG;
- EPPO Standards: Good plant protection practice: Grapevine PP 2/23(1), 2002, Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin 32: pp. 367-392;
- Winter, Mick, (July 2000). Wine Business Monthly "Eutypa Dieback: The Next Grapevine Threat is Already Here"