Evenki language

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Evenki
Эвэды̄ турэ̄н[1]
ᠧᠠᠩᠬᠢ
Native to China, Mongolia, Russia
Region Inner Mongolia and Heilongjiang in China; Selenge Province in Mongolia; Krasnoyarsk Krai in Russia
Ethnicity Evenks
Native speakers
17,000  (2007–2010)[2]
Tungusic
  • Northern
    • Evenki group
      • Evenki
Cyrillic, Latin, Mongolian
Language codes
ISO 639-3 evn
Glottolog even1259[3]
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters.

Evenki /ˈvɛnki/,[4] formerly known as Tungus,[5] is the largest member of the northern group of Tungusic languages, a group which also includes Even, Negidal, and (the more closely related) Oroqen language. It is spoken by Evenks in Russia, Mongolia, and China.

In certain areas the influences of the Yakut and the Buryat languages are particularly strong. The influence of Russian in general is overwhelming (in 1979, 75.2% of the Evenkis spoke Russian, rising to 92.7% in 2002). The Evenki language varies considerably among its dialects which are divided into three large groups: the northern, the southern and the eastern dialects. These are further divided into minor dialects. A written language was created for Evenkis in the Soviet Union in 1931, first using a Latin alphabet, and from 1937 a Cyrillic one.[6] In China, Evenki is written experimentally in the Mongolian script.[7] The language is generally considered endangered.[8]

Genetic affiliation[edit]

Evenki is a member of the Tungusic family. Its similarity to Manchu, the best-documented member of the family, was noted hundreds of years ago, first by botanist P. S. Pallas in the late 18th century, and then in a more formal linguistic study by M. A. Castren in the mid-19th century, regarded as a "pioneer treatise" in the field of Tungusology.[9] The exact internal structure of the Tungusic family is a matter of some debate. Some scholars propose two sub-families: one for Manchu, and another for all the other Tungusic languages, including Evenki.[10] SIL International's Ethnologue divides Tungusic into two sub-families Northern and Southern, with Evenki alongside Even and Negidal in the Northern sub-family, and the Southern family itself subdivided into Southwestern (among which Manchu) and Southeastern (Nanai and others).[11] Others propose three or more sub-families, or at the extreme a continuum with Manchu at one end and Evenki at the other.[10]

Dialects[edit]

Bulatova enumerated 14 dialects and 50 sub-dialects within Russia, spread over a wide geographical area ranging from the Yenisei River to Sakhalin. These may be divided into three major groups primarily on the basis of phonology:[12]

  1. Northern (spirant)
    1. Ilimpeya: Ilimpeya, Agata and Bol'shoi, Porog, Tura, Tutonchany, Dudinka/Khantai
    2. Yerbogachon: Yerbogachon, Nakanno
  2. Southern (sibilant)
    1. Hushing
      1. Sym: Tokma or Upper Nepa, Upper Lena or Kachug, Angara
      2. Northern Baikal: Northern Baikal, Upper Lena
    2. Hissing
      1. Stony Tunguska: Vanavara, Kuyumba, Poligus, Surinda, Taimura or Chirinda, Uchami, Chemdal'sk
      2. Nepa: Nepa, Kirensk
      3. Vitim-Nercha/Baunt-Talocha: Baunt, Talocha, Tungukochan, Nercha
  3. Eastern (sibilant-spirant)
    1. Vitim-Olyokma dialect: Barguzin, Vitim/Kalar, Olyokma, Tungir, Tokko
    2. Upper Aldan: Aldan, Upper Amur, Amga, Dzheltulak, Timpton, Tommot, Khingan, Chul'man, Chul'man-Gilyui
    3. Uchur-Zeya: Uchur, Zeya
    4. Selemdzha-Bureya-Urmi: Selemdzha, Bureya, Urmi
    5. Ayan-Mai: Ayan, Aim, Mai, Nel'kan, Totti
    6. Tugur-Chumikan: Tugur, Chumikan
    7. Sakhalin (no subdialects)

Evenki in China also speak several dialects. According to Ethnologue, the Hihue or Hoy dialect is considered the standard; Haila’er, Aoluguya (Olguya), Chenba’erhu (Old Bargu), and Morigele (Mergel) dialects also exist. Ethnologue reports these dialects differ significantly from those in Russia.

Some works focused on individual Russian dialects include Gortsevskaya 1936 (Barguzin), Andreeva 1988 (Tommot), and Bulatova 1999 (Sakhalin).

Phonology[edit]

The Evenki language typically has CV syllables but other structures are possible.[13] Bulatova and Grenoble list Evenki as having 11 possible vowel phonemes; a classical five-vowel system with distinctions between long and short vowels (except in /e/) and the addition of a long and short /ə/,[14] while Nedjalkov claims that there are 13 vowel phonemes.[15] Evenki has a moderately small consonant inventory; there are 18 consonants (21 according to Nedjalkov 1997) in the Evenki language and it lacks glides or semivowels.[14]

Consonants[edit]

Below are tables of Evenki consonant phonemes, including those identified by Nedjalkov (1997) in italics.[16][17]

Evenki consonants
Labial Dental Palatal Alveolar Velar
Nasal m n ɲ ŋ
Plosive voiceless p t k
voiced b d , ɡ
Fricative voiceless f s x
voiced β, v ɣ
Approximant w l j
Trill r

The phoneme (/β/) has a word-final allophone, [f], as well as an intervocalic variant, [w]. Likewise, some speakers pronounce intervocalic /s/ as [h]. Speakers of some dialects also alternate /b/ and /β/).[16] Consonant inventories given by researchers working on dialects in China are largely similar. The differences noted: Chaoke and Kesingge et al. give /h/ instead of /x/ and lack /β/, /ɣ/, or /ɲ/; furthermore, Kesingge et al. give /dʐ/ instead of /dʒ/.[18][19]

Vowels[edit]

Below is a chart of Evenki vowels found among Russian dialects, including those identified by Nedjalkov (1997) in italics.[16][17]

Evenki vowels (Russian dialects)
Front Back
unrounded unrounded rounded
Close i,
ɪ, ɪː

ɯ
u,
ʊ, ʊː
Middle
je, jeː
ǝ, ǝː
ɛ, ɛː
o,
Open a,

The Evenki vowel inventory of Chinese dialects, however, is markedly different (Chaoke, 1995, 2009):[20]

Evenki vowels (Chinese dialects)
Front Central vowel Back
unrounded rounded unrounded rounded
Close i, ʉ, ʉː u,
Middle e, ɵ, ɵː ǝ, ǝː o,
Open a,

Like most Tungusic languages, Evenki employs vowel harmony—suffix vowels are matched to the vowel in the root. However, some vowels, /i/, /iː/, /u/, /uː/ and certain suffixes do not adhere to the rules of vowel harmony.[14] Knowledge of the rules of vowel harmony is fading, as vowel harmony is a complex topic for elementary speakers to grasp, the language is severely endangered (Janhunen), and many speakers are multilingual.[14]

Syllable structure[edit]

Possible syllable structures include V, VC, VCC, CV, CVC, and CVCC.[21] In contrast to dialects in Russia,[citation needed] dialects in China do not have /k/, /ŋ/, nor /r/ in word-initial position.[18]

Alphabets[edit]

Russia[edit]

The Cyrillic script is used by Evenks living in Russia. The script has one additional letter, ӈ, to indicate /ŋ/; it is used only inconsistently in printed works, due to typographical limitations.[22] Boldyrev's dictionary uses ң instead.[23] Other sounds found in Evenki but not Russian, such as /dʒ/, lack devoted letters. Instead "д" stands in for both /d/ and /dʒ/; when the latter pronunciation is intended, it is followed by one of Cyrillic's iotified letters, similar to the way those letters cause palatalization of the preceding consonant in Russian. However orthographic decisions like these have resulted in some confusion and transfer of Russian phonetics to Evenki among younger speakers. For example, the spellings "ди" and "ды" were intended to record [dʒi] and [di] (i.e. the same vowel sound). However in Russian "и" and "ы" are respectively two different vowels /i/ and /ɨ/.[24] Long vowels are indicated with macrons.

А а Б б В в Г г Д д Е е Ё ё Ж ж
З з И и Й й К к Л л М м Н н Ӈ ӈ
О о П п Р р С с Т т У у Ф ф Х х
Ц ц Ч ч Ш ш Щ щ Ъ ъ Ы ы Ь ь Э э
Ю ю Я я

China[edit]

In China, Evenki is written in the Latin script and experimentally in the Mongolian script. Evenki scholars made an attempt in the 1980s to create standard written forms for their language, using both Mongolian script and a pinyin-like Latin spelling. They published an Evenki–Mongolian–Chinese dictionary (Kesingge et al. 1983) with Evenki words spelled in IPA, a pinyin-like orthography, and Mongolian script, as well as a collection of folk songs in IPA and Mongolian script (and Chinese-style numbered musical notation).[25]

The orthographic system developed by Chinese Evenki scholars reflects differences between Evenki and Mongol phonology. It uses both ᠬ) and ᠭ (usually romanised from Mongolian as "q" and "ɣ") for /g/.[26] The system uses double letters in both Mongolian and Latin to represent most long vowels; however for /ɔː/ "ao" is written instead of "oo." The same scholars' collection of songs has some orthographic differences from the table below; namely, long vowels are occasionally written not just doubled but also with an intervening silent ᠭ ("ɣ"), showing clear orthographic influence from the Mongolian language. In medial and final positions, "t" is written in the Manchu script form .[27] "Evenki" itself is spelled /eweŋki/, although Mongolian orthography usually prohibits the letter combination /ŋk/. The vowel inventory of this system is also rather different from that of Chaoke (1995, 2009).


a
/a/

e
/ə/

y*, i
/i/

o
/ʊ/

o
/ɔ/

u
/o/

u
/u/
*
e
/ə/

n
/n/

ng
/ŋ/

b
/b/

p
/p/

g
/g/

g
/g/

m
/m/

l
/l/

s
/s/

x, sh
/ʃ/

t
/t/

d
/d/

q, ch
/tʃ/

j, zh
/dʐ/

y
/j/

r
/r/

w
/w/

f
/f/

k
/k/

h
/h/
* used only word-initially

Du (2007) uses a different version of Latin script, which distinguishes certain vowels and consonants more clearly than the system of Kesingge et al.:

A a
/a/
B b
/b/
C c
/ts/
D d
/d/
E e
/ə/
Ē ē
/e/
F f
/f/
G g
/ɡ/

/ɣ/
H h
/x. h/
I i
/i/
J j
/dʒ/
K k
/k/
L l
/l/
M m
/m/
N n
/n/
Ng ng
/ŋ/, /ˠ/
Ō ō
/ɔ/
O o
/ʊ/
P p
/p/
Q q
/tʃ/
R r
/r/
S s
/s/
T t
/t/
U u
/u/
V v
/ɵ/
W w
/w/
X x
/ʃ/
Y y
/j/
Z z
/dz/

Morphology[edit]

Evenki is highly agglutinating, suffixing, and not flexive. Each morpheme is easily recognizable and carries only one piece of meaning. Evenki pronouns distinguish between singular and plural as well as inclusive and exclusive in the first person.[28] The Evenki language has a rich case system—13 cases, though there is some variation among dialects—and it is a nominative–accusative language.[29] Evenki differentiates between alienable and inalienable possession:[30] alienable possession marks the possessor in the nominative case and the possessum in the possessed case, while inalienable possession is marked by personal indices.[31]

Evenki personal indices
Singular Plural
First person -v -vun (exclusive)
-t (inclusive)
Second person -s, -si, -ni -sun
Third person -n, -in -tyn

Below is a table of cases and suffixes in Evenki, following Nedjalkov (1997):

Evenki cases and suffixes
Case Suffix Example Meaning
Nominative - asatkan the girl
Accusative indefinite -ja e-ja what?
definite -va, -ma bi kete-ve himmikte-ve tevle-che-v
I much-ACD cowberry-ACD gather-PST-1SG
I gathered much cowberry
reflexive-genitive definite -vi (sg.), -ver (pl.) hute-kle-vi
child-LOCDIR-REF
to/for [her] own child
"Old genitive" unproductive -ngi e:kun-ngi
who-GEN
whose?
Ablative -duk e:kun-duk
who-ABL
from whom/where?
Locative Locative-Directive -kle, ikle hute-kle
child-LOCDIR
for the child
Dative-Locative -du, -tu tatkit-tu
school-DAT
at/in school
Allative-Locative -tki, -tyki agi-tki
forest-ALLLOC
(in)to the forest
Allative -la d'u-la
house-ALL
[enter] into the house
Elative -ditk oron-ditk
reindeer-ELA
from the reindeer
Prolative -li, -duli nadalla-li
week-PRO
singilgen-duli
snow-PRO
in a week's time

in the snow
Instrumental -t, -di pektyre:vun-di
gun-INS
with the gun
Possessed -gali, -chi, -lan, -tai muri-chi beje
horse-POS man
a man with a horse; a horseman
Semblative case -ngachin, -gechin lang-ngachin
trap-SEM
like a trap

Plurals are marked with -il-, -l-, or -r- before the case marker, if any: tyge-l-ve (cup-PL-ACD) "the cups (accusative);" Ivul-ngi oro-r-in (Ivul-GEN reindeer-PL-3SG-POS), "the reindeer (pl.) of Ivul."[32]

Syntax[edit]

Evenki is a subject–object–verb and head-final language. The subject is marked according to the nominative case, and the object is in the accusative. In Evenki, the indirect object precedes the direct object.

Literary traditions[edit]

The Evenki did not have their own writing system until the introduction of the Latin script in 1931 and the subsequent change to Cyrillic in 1936-7.[33] The literary language was first based on the Nepa dialect of the Southern subgroup, but in the 1950s was redesigned with the Stony Tunguska dialect as its basis.[6] Ethnographer S. M. Shirokogoroff harshly criticised the "child-like" literary language, and in a 1930s monograph predicted it would quickly go extinct.[34] Although textbooks through the 8th grade have been published, "Literary Evenki has not yet achieved the status of a norm which cut across dialects and is understood by speakers of some dialects with great difficulty".[33] However, despite its failure to gain widespread acceptance, within its dialectal base of roughly 5,000 people, it survived and continues in use up to the present.[35] Since the 1930s, "folklore, novels, poetry, numerous translations from Russian and other languages", textbooks, and dictionaries have all been written in Evenki.[36] In Tura (former administrative center of the Evenk Autonomous Okrug), the local newspaper includes a weekly supplement written in Evenki.[35]

Language shift and multilingualism[edit]

There is a large quantity of Russian loan words in Evenki, especially for technologies and concepts that were introduced by the Russian pioneers in Siberia. "Evenki is spoken in regions with heavy multilingualism. In their daily life the people come into contact with Russian, Buriat and Yakut, and each of these languages had had an impact on the Evenki language. Russian is the lingua franca of the region ... part of the Evenki population is bilingual, and part trilingual. All Evenki know Russian relatively well."[33] In 1998 there were approximately 30,000 ethnic Evenkis living in Russia and about 1/3 of them spoke the language. Even a decade ago Bulatova was trying to warn speakers and linguists alike: "There is widespread loss of Evenki and the language can be considered seriously endangered".[33] According to the 2002 Russian census, there are 35,527 citizens of the Russian Federation who identify themselves as ethnically Evenki, but only 7,580 speakers of the language.[37]

In China, there is an ethnic population of 30,500 but only 19,000 are fluent in Evenki and there are only around 3,000 people who are monolingual in Evenki.[37] Juha Janhunen investigated multilingualism in Hulunbuir (northern Inner Mongolia) and the adjoining section of Heilongjiang (e.g. Qiqihar) in 1996. He found that most Solons still spoke Evenki, and about half knew Daur language as well.[38] Furthermore, Mongolian functioned as a lingua franca among members of all minority groups there, as they tended to do their education in Mongolian-medium schools. The only Evenki-speakers whom Janhunen knew not to speak Mongolian as a second language were the Reindeer Evenki (sometimes called "Yakut") in the northern part of Hulunbuir, who used Russian as their "language of intercultural communication".[39] Janhunen predicted that all of these languages, including Mongolian, were likely to lose ground to Chinese in coming years.[40] However Chaoke noted more than a decade later that the usage rate of Evenki remained quite high, and that it was still common to find Evenki-speakers who were proficient in three, four, or even five languages.[41]

There is a small population of ethnic Evenki speakers in Mongolia as well, numbering around 1,000.[37]

There is little information regarding revival efforts or Evenki's status now. In 1998, the language was taught in preschools and primary schools and offered as an option in 8th grade. Instruction as a second language is also available in the Institute of the Peoples of the North at Herzen University (the former St. Petersburg State Pedagogical University).[36] In the 1980s, Christian missionaries working in Siberia translated the Bible into Evenki and a Christian group called the Global Recordings Network records Christian teaching materials in Evenki.[42]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Boldyrev 1994, p. 494
  2. ^ Evenki at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  3. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Evenki". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  4. ^ Also spelled Ewenki, Ewenke, or Owenke and previously conflated with Solon or Suolun
  5. ^ The people speaking Evenki were also called "Tungusy". According to Nedjalkov 1997, p. xix, "Tungus" could be a Chinese exonym.
  6. ^ a b Atknine 1997, p. 117
  7. ^ Kara 2006, p. 146
  8. ^ Grenoble; Janhunen
  9. ^ Atknine 1997, p. 111
  10. ^ a b Whaley, Grenoble & Li 1999, p. 286
  11. ^ Lewis 2009, [1]
  12. ^ Atknine 1997, p. 116
  13. ^ Nedjalkov 1997, p. 314
  14. ^ a b c d Bulatova & Grenoble 1999, p. 4
  15. ^ Nedjalkov 1997, p. 309
  16. ^ a b c Nedjalkov 1997, pp. 310–311
  17. ^ a b Campbell 2000, p. 548
  18. ^ a b Dular 2009, p. 339
  19. ^ Kesingge et al. 1983, p. 6
  20. ^ Dular 2009, pp. 330–332
  21. ^ Dular 2009, p. 348
  22. ^ Grenoble & Whaley 2003, p. 116
  23. ^ E.g. the entry for кто; Boldyrev 1994, p. 173
  24. ^ Grenoble & Whaley 2003, p. 117
  25. ^ Kara 2006, p. 133
  26. ^ Kara 2006, p. 142
  27. ^ Kara 2006, pp. 139–142
  28. ^ Bulatova & Grenoble 1999, pp. 6, 21
  29. ^ Bulatova & Grenoble 1999, pp. 7–8
  30. ^ Bulatova & Grenoble 1999, p. 13
  31. ^ Nedjalkov 1997, pp. 82, 158
  32. ^ Nedjalkov 1997, p. 229
  33. ^ a b c d Bulatova & Grenoble 1999, p. 3
  34. ^ Inoue 1991, pp. 35–37
  35. ^ a b Atknine 1997, p. 118
  36. ^ a b Nedjalkov 1997, p. xxi
  37. ^ a b c Lewis 2009, [2]
  38. ^ Janhunen 1996, p. 828
  39. ^ Janhunen 1996, p. 833
  40. ^ Janhunen 1996, p. 834
  41. ^ Dular 2009, p. 6
  42. ^ Global Recordings Network 2011

References[edit]

  • Atknine, Victor (1997), "The Evenki Language from the Yenesei to Sakhalin", in Shōji, Hiroshi; Janhunen, Juha, Northern Minority Languages: Problems of Survival, Senri Ethnological Studies, pp. 109–121, OCLC 37261684 
  • Boldyrev, B. V. (1994), Русско-эвенкийский словарь: около 20 000 слов, Novosibirsk: Institute of Philology, Russian Academic of Sciences, ISBN 5-02-029805-0 
  • Bulatova, Nadezhda; Grenoble, Lenore (1999), Evenki, Munich: Lincom Europa, ISBN 3-89586-222-3 
  • Campbell, George L. (2000), "Evenki", Compendium of the World's Languages: Abaza to Kurdish 1 (2, revised ed.), Taylor & Francis, ISBN 0-415-20298-1 
  • Dular, O. Chaoke (2009), 《鄂温克语参考语法》, 北京: 中国社会科学出版社, ISBN 978-7-5004-8143-0 
  • 杜·道尔基 [Du Dao'erji], ed. (2007), 《鄂温克地名考》 [On Evenki Placenames], Beijing: Nationalities Publishing House, ISBN 978-7-105-08286-5, OCLC 289003364 
  • Grenoble, Lenore A.; Whaley, Lindsay J. (2003), "Evaluating the impact of literacy: the case of Evenki", in Joseph, Brian D., When languages collide: perspectives on language conflict, language competition, and language coexistence, Ohio State University Press, pp. 109–121, ISBN 978-0-8142-0913-4 
  • Inoue, Koichi (1991), "Tungus Literary Language", Asian Folklore Studies 50 (1): 35–66, doi:10.2307/1178185, JSTOR 1178185 
  • Janhunen, Juha (1996), "Mongolic languages as idioms of intercultural communication in Northern Manchuria", in Wurm, Stephen Adolphe; Mühlhäusler, Peter; Tryon, Darrell T., Atlas of languages of intercultural communication in the Pacific, Asia and the Americas, Walter de Gruyter, pp. 827–835, ISBN 978-3-11-013417-9 
  • Kara, György (2006), "Solon Ewenki in Mongolian Script", in Pozzi, Alessandra, Tumen jalafun jecen akū: Manchu studies in honour of Giovanni Stary, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, pp. 133–148, ISBN 978-3-447-05378-5 
  • Kesingge; Cidaltu; Alta (authors); Norbu (reviewer) (1983), "Eweŋki Moŋɣol Kitad Kelen-ü Qaričaɣoloɣsan Üges-ün Tegübüri", 《鄂温克语蒙汉对照词汇》, Beɣejing: Ündüsüten-ü Keblel-ün Qoriy-a, 民族出版社, OCLC 43657472, Unknown ID:M9049(2)10 
  • Nedjalkov, Igor (1997), Evenki, London: Routledge, ISBN 0-415-02640-7 
  • Whaley, Lindsay J.; Grenoble, Lenore A.; Li, Fengxiang (June 1999), "Revisiting Tungusic Classification from the Bottom up: A Comparison of Evenki and Oroqen", Language 75 (2): 286–321, doi:10.2307/417262, JSTOR 417262 
  • Global Recordings Network (2011), Words of Life 1 – Evenki, retrieved 2011-04-22 

Further reading[edit]

  • Andreeva, T. E. (1988). Звуковой строй томмотского говора эвенкийского языка: Экспериментально-фонетическое исследование [Sound structure of the Tommot dialect of Evenki: an experimental phonetic study]. Novosibirsk: Nauka. ISBN 978-5-02-029187-4. OCLC 21826474. 
  • Bulatova, N. (1999). Язык сахалинских эвенков [Language of the Sakhalin Evenki]. St. Petersburg: North Without Conflicts Fund. ISBN 5-88925-009-4. 
  • Chaoke, D. O.; Tsumugari, Toshiro; Kazama, Shinjiro (1991). ソロン語基本例文集 [Solon Basic Sentences]. Sapporo: Faculty of Letters, Hokkaido University. NDL 95049777. 
  • Gortsevskaya, V. A. (1936). Характеристика говоров баргузинских эвенков: По материалам Н. Н. Поппе [Characteristics of Barguzin Evenki dialects: Based on NN Poppe]. Moscow-Leningrad: Gosudarstvennoye Uchebno-Pedagogicheskoye Izdatel'stvo. OCLC 41824692. 
  • Myreeva, A. N. (2004). Эвенкийско-русский словарь: около 30 000 слов [Evenki–Russian dictionary: about 30,000 words]. Novosibirsk: Nauka. ISBN 978-5-02-030684-4. OCLC 61282240. 

External links[edit]