Evergreen Cemetery (Adams County, Pennsylvania)
|Evergreen Cemetery (Adams County, Pennsylvania)|
|Citizen's Cemetery |
|Part of||Gettysburg Battlefield|
|Landform||SSE slope of Cemetery Hill|
|Location||799 Baltimore Pike |
|17.65 acres (7.1 ha) 
0 acres (0 ha)
|Incorporated||1854 March 3 |
|- Gatehouse||1855 |
|- Lodge||1885 |
|- ACW memorials||1901: Jennie Wade
1904: John L. Burns
2002: Women's Memorial 
|Presidents||1854: David McConaughy
1869: J. L. Schick 
1880: Robt. G. McCreary 
1885: Dr. J. A. Swope
|1862: Peter Thorn 
1863: Elizabeth Thorn
1973: Howard Kitzmiller
1980: Arthur L. Kennell 
1991: Brian Kennell
|Find A Grave CRid||44774 (19 famous interments)|
Evergreen Cemetery is a 29.12 acre, private, historic, rural cemetery on a ridge in Gettysburg Borough and Cumberland Township, Adams County, Pennsylvania. Founded nine years before the Battle of Gettysburg and the adjacent Soldiers' National Cemetery, Evergreen became the eponym for Cemetery Hill, a landform most noted as the keystone of the Union position during the epic Battle. The dedication address at Evergreen (known at the time as Ever Green) was given by Revered J.H.C. Dosh in 1855. Dosh asked about the cemetery, "could a more lovely spot have been chosen?"
Contributing ground to an "inevitable artillery platform" and receiving Confederate artillery fire in return, Evergreen experienced three days as battlefield, and its temporary condition inspired a Union officer to lament: "A beautiful cemetery it was, but now is trodden down, laid a waste, desecrated. The fences are all down, the many graves have been run over, beautiful lots with iron fences and splendid monuments have been destroyed or soiled, and our infantry and artillery occupy those sacred grounds where the dead are sleeping. It is enough to make one mourn." Four and a half months later, the Gettysburg Address was delivered from a platform in Evergreen Cemetery.
Following a November 29, 1853, meeting to establish the Evergreen Cemetery Association of Gettysburg, the members' 1st payments were due April 3, 1854. Opening ceremonies on November 7, 1854, included the "Sale of Lots" (118) after the 1st interment on October 29. The association managed the property and oversaw selection of its caretakers (the gatehouse was the caretaker residence.)
During the Battle of Gettysburg, "Federal soldiers in the Cemetery laid many of the tombstones on the ground" to limit damage, and some of the XI Corps batteries and infantry used the grave monuments "for shelter from the enemy's fire". Two Confederates mortally wounded during the battle were buried in Evergreen cemetery, and the speaker's platform that was used by President Abraham Lincoln to deliver his Gettysburg Address at the Consecration of the National Cemetery at Gettysburg was located on the grounds of the Evergreen Cemetery. From 1893 to 1916, the Gettysburg Electric Railway operated along the east and south of the cemetery. After the trolley railway was razed in 1917, Evergreen Cemetery expanded southward.[specify]
In 1972, the "Evergreen Cemetery archway house" was designated an historic district contributing structure by the Gettysburg council (1 of 38 outside of the borough). Civilian remains in 1992 at the site of the 1804 Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church cemetery were reinterred at Evergreen Cemetery.
The only published photographic analysis places the site of the platform for the Gettysburg Address at the graves of George Kitzmiller, Israel Yount and John Koch.
Ginnie Wade, lone civilian casualty of the Battle of Gettysburg
John L. Burns, geriatric civilian combatant at the Battle of Gettysburg
David Wills organized and executed the adjacent National Cemetery.
- "General Gettys' Grandson Here" (Google News Archive). The Gettysburg Times. September 5, 1923. Retrieved 2012-02-26.
- Skelly, Daniel Alexander (1999 John Heiser transcription @NPS.gov) [1932 booklet]. A Boy's Experiences During the Battle of Gettysburg. Archived from the original on c. 2010. Retrieved 2012-03-06. "Reaching the Citizens Cemetery we found a battery of artillery posted there… The soldiers stopped us and would not let us pass."
- Historical Marker Database. "Army of the Potomac Artillery Reserve Second Volunteer Brigade Fifth New York Light Artillery". Retrieved December 15, 2012.
- 799 Evergreen Cemetery Est. 1854. Retrieved 2011-07-16 (image of sign).
- "Public Cemetery" (Google News Archive). The Star and Sentinel. April 22, 1880. Retrieved 2012-01-18.
- History and Directory of the Boroughs of Gettysburg, Oxford, Littlestown, York Springs, Berwick, and East Berlin, Adams County, Pa: With Historical Collections. J.E. Wible, printer. 1880.
- "Cemetery" (Google News Archive). Gettysburg Compiler. June 30, 1885. Retrieved 2011-07-16. "Dr. J. A. Swope, in his report as President of Evergreen Cemetery Association… The gateway is to be thoroughly repaired and a brick lodge built for the keeper and family."
- Beitel, Calvin Gustavus (1874). A Digest of Titles of Corporations Chartered by the Legislature… (Google books). J. Campbell & son. Retrieved 2011-11-22.
For the Senate bill committed earlier, see "Ever Green Cemetery" (Google News Archive). The Adams Sentinel. February 6, 1854. Retrieved 2011-07-16. "On Tuesday last, in the Senate of Pa., Mr. McClintock, from the Committee on Corporations, reported, as committed, the bill to incorporate the Ever Green Cemetery Association of Gettysburg"
- Kennell, Brian A. "Gatehouse Miniatures". EvergreenCemetery.org. Retrieved 2011-10-12.
- Jorgensen, Kathryn. "Gettysburg Civil War Women's Memorial Dedication Nov. 16" (transcription). The Civil War News. Retrieved 2012-03-02.
- "All famous names: Evergreen Cemetery". FindAGrave.com. Retrieved 2011-05-07.
- Adams County. "Public Interactive GIS Mapping". Parcel ID: 09F13-0150---000. Retrieved 1 July 2012.
- "East Cemetery Hill – Gettysburg, PA". American Guide Series on Waymarking.com. Retrieved 2012-02-26.
- Pfanz, Harry (1993). Gettysburg-Culp's Hill & Cemetery Hill. Chapel Hill, North Carolina: The University of North Carolina Press. p. 263. ISBN 978-0-8078-2118-3.
- Alfred L. Brophy, "These Great and Beautiful Republics of the Dead": Public Constitutionalism and the Antebellum Cemetery
- Barnett, Bert H. ""Our Position Was Finely Adapted To Its Use"-The Guns of Cemetery Hill". Gettysburg Seminars. National Park Service. Retrieved March 9, 2013.
- Pfanz, Harry (1993). Gettysburg-Culp's Hill & Cemetery Hill. Chapel Hill, North Carolina: The University of North Carolina Press. pp. 263–283. ISBN 978-0-8078-2118-3.
- Historical Marker Database. "The Gettysburg Address". Retrieved 5 May 2013.
- National Park Service. "National Cemetery Walking Tour". Retrieved 5 May 2013.
- "Battle of Gettysburg" (Google News Archive). The Compiler. July 20, 1863. Retrieved 2012-02-26.
- Haskell, Frank A. (2006 reprint) . The Battle of Gettysburg (Google books). Kessinger Publishing. p. 22. ISBN 978-1-4286-6012-0. Retrieved 2012-03-08. "The Eleventh Corps…was posted at the Cemetery, some of its batteries and troops, actually among the graves and monuments, which they used for shelter from the enemy's fire … rifled guns in the Cemetery, at the left of the Eleventh Corps, opened fire—almost the first shots of any kind this morning…at a Rebel line of skirmishers"
- National Park Service. "National Cemetery Walking Tour". Retrieved December 15, 2012.
- "Borough of Gettysburg …historic crossroads". Borough Office. Retrieved 2011-04-11.
- "List 38 More Properties In Historic Area" (Google News Archive). The Gettysburg Times. April 15, 1972. Retrieved 2012-03-18.
- "Chapter XXX: Cumberland Township". History of Cumberland and Adams Counties, Pennsylvania: Part III, History of Adams County. Chicago: Warner, Beers & Co. 1886. pp. 236–247. Retrieved 2012-03-05. Unknown parameter
- Bartlett, Joanne (June 10, 1995). "Remains from 16 old graves on Ice House Property reburied". Gettysburg Times. Retrieved 2012-02-25. "The remains included six adults, nine children [only a finger bone of one] and one adult. …discovered in the spring of 1992 when at the former church site."
- Frassanito, William A. (1995). Early Photography at Gettysburg. Gettysburg, PA: Thomas Publications. pp. 160–167. ISBN 0939631865.
- Evergreen Cemetery Tour is a seventeen-part, comprehensive, audio-visual introduction to this subject by Debra A. Novotny, who has served both as a Licensed Battlefield Guide and as a boardmember of the Evergreen Cemetery Association.