The evil eye is a curse believed to be cast by a malevolent glare, usually given to a person when they are unaware. Many cultures believe that receiving the evil eye will cause misfortune or injury. Talismans created to protect against the evil eye are also frequently called "evil eyes".
The "evil eye" is also known in Arabic as ʿayn al-ḥasūd (عين الحسود), in Hebrew as ʿáyin hā-ráʿ (עַיִן הָרַע), in Kurdish çaw e zar (eye of evil/sickness), in Persian as chashm zakhm (چشم زخم eye-caused injury) or chashm e bad (bad eye), in Turkish as Nazar (nazar is from Arabic نَظَر Nadhar, which means eye vision or eyesight), similarly in Urdu/Hindi/Punjabi the word Nazar or Boori Nazar (bad eye/look) is used, in Amharic buda, in Pashto cheshim mora, and also "Nazar", in Greek as to máti (το μάτι), in Albanian as syni keq (or "syri i keq"), in Spanish as mal de ojo, in Italian as malocchio, in Portuguese mau-olhado ("act of giving an evil/sick look"), in Swedish as "ge onda ögat" (to give an evil look), and in Hawaiian it is known as "stink eye" or maka pilau meaning "rotten eyes".
The idea expressed by the term causes many different cultures to pursue protective measures against it. The concept and its significance vary widely among different cultures, primarily the Middle East. The idea appears several times in translations of the Old Testament. It was a widely extended belief among many Mediterranean and Asian tribes and cultures. Charms and decorations featuring the eye are a common sight across Turkey, Iran, and Afghanistan and have become a popular choice of souvenir with tourists.
- 1 History
- 2 Around the world
- 3 Protective talismans and cures
- 4 Names in various languages
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 Further reading
- 8 External links
Belief in the evil eye dates back to Classical antiquity. It is referenced by Hesiod, Callimachus, Plato, Diodorus Siculus, Theocritus, Plutarch, Heliodorus, Pliny the Elder, and Aulus Gellius. Peter Walcot's Envy and the Greeks (1978) listed more than one hundred works by these and other authors mentioning the evil eye.
Classical authors attempted to offer explanations for the evil eye. Plutarch's scientific explanation stated that the eyes were the chief, if not sole, source of the deadly rays that were supposed to spring up like poisoned darts from the inner recesses of a person possessing the evil eye (Quaest. Conv. 5.7.2–3=Mor.80F-81f). Plutarch treated the phenomenon of the evil eye as something seemingly inexplicable that is a source of wonder and cause of incredulity.
The belief in the evil eye during antiquity varied across different regions and periods. The evil eye was not feared with equal intensity in every corner of the Roman Empire. There were places in which people felt more conscious of the danger of the evil eye. In the Roman days not only were individuals considered to possess the power of the evil eye but whole tribes, especially those of Pontus and Scythia, were believed to be transmitters of the evil eye. The phallic charm called fascinum in Latin, from the verb fascinare, "to cast a spell" (the origin of the English word "fascinate"), was used against the evil eye.
The spreading in the belief of the evil eye towards the East is believed to have been propagated by the Empire of Alexander the Great, which spread this and other Greek ideas across his empire.
Around the world
Belief in the evil eye is strongest in the Middle East, Latin America, East and West Africa, Central America, South Asia, Central Asia, and Europe, especially the Mediterranean region; it has also spread to areas, including northern Europe, particularly in the Celtic regions, and the Americas, where it was brought by European colonists and Middle Eastern immigrants.
Belief in the evil eye is found in the Islamic doctrine, based upon the statement of Muhammad, "The influence of an evil eye is a fact..." [Sahih Muslim, Book 26, Number 5427]. Authentic practices of warding off the evil eye are also commonly practiced by Muslims: rather than directly expressing appreciation of, for example, a child's beauty, it is customary to say Masha'Allah, that is, "God has willed it", or invoking God's blessings upon the object or person that is being admired. A number of beliefs about the evil eye are also found in folk religion, typically revolving around the use of amulets or talismans as a means of protection.
In the Aegean Region and other areas where light-colored eyes are relatively rare, people with green eyes, and especially blue eyes, are thought to bestow the curse, intentionally or unintentionally. This belief may have arisen because people from cultures not used to the evil eye, such as Northern Europe, are likely to transgress local customs against staring or praising the beauty of children. Thus, in Greece and Turkey amulets against the evil eye take the form of blue eyes, and in the painting by John Phillip, below, we witness the culture-clash experienced by a woman who suspects that the artist's gaze implies that he is looking at her with the evil eye.
Among those who do not take the evil eye literally, either by reason of the culture in which they were raised or because they simply do not believe in such things, the phrase, "to give someone the evil eye" usually means simply to glare at the person in anger or disgust. The term has entered into common usage within the English language. Within the broadcasting industry it refers to when a presenter signals to the interviewee or co-presenter to stop talking due to a shortage of time.
Protective talismans and cures
Attempts to ward off the curse of the evil eye has resulted in a number of talismans in many cultures. As a class, they are called "apotropaic" (Greek for "prophylactic" or "protective", literally: "turns away") talismans, meaning that they turn away or turn back harm.
Disks or balls, consisting of concentric blue and white circles (usually, from inside to outside, dark blue, light blue, white, dark blue) representing an evil eye are common apotropaic talismans in the Middle East, found on the prows of Mediterranean boats and elsewhere; in some forms of the folklore, the staring eyes are supposed to bend the malicious gaze back to the sorcerer.
A blue or green eye can also be found on some forms of the hamsa hand, an apotropaic hand-shaped talisman against the evil eye found in the Middle East. The word hamsa, also spelled khamsa and hamesh, means "five" referring to the fingers of the hand. In Jewish culture, the hamsa is called the Hand of Miriam; in some Muslim populated cultures, the Hand of Fatima. Though condemned as superstition by doctrinaire Muslims, it is almost exclusively among Muslims in the Near East and Mediterranean that the belief in envious looks containing destructive power or the talismanic power of a nazar to defend against them. To adherents of other faiths in the region, the nazar is an attractive decoration.
Evil eye, Isabat al-’ayn, is a common belief that individuals have the power to look at people, animals or objects to cause them harm. It is tradition among many Muslims that if a compliment is to be made one should say "Masha'Allah" (ما شاء الله) ("God has willed it.") and also "Tabarakallah" (تبارك الله) ("Blessings of God") to ward off the evil eye. Reciting Sura Ikhlas, Sura Al-Falaq and Sura Al-Nas from the Qur'an, three times after Fajr and after Maghrib is also used as a means of personal protection against the evil eye. Other Muslims employ charms such as the Hamsa—known as the Hand of Fatima in Islam—or the Nazar as a means to ward off the Evil Eye. Still in Islam, Cheikh Ahmadou Bamba Founder of Muridism in Senegal, wrote a Qassida (prayers and duah) called "As Sindidi" ("The Generous Chief"), on which He praises God with these words against evil eye: "Be He, who will protect me against the evil of the Jealous, the mischief of the evil whisperer, from the mischief of the envier when he envies. O Allah! Be my refuge against the evil of the magic, against the evil of the Jinn, and other venomous creatures. O Allah!" (in Arabic transcript: )
Assyrians are also strong believers in the evil eye. They will usually wear a blue/turquoise bead around a necklace to be protected from the evil eye. Also, they might pinch the buttocks, comparable to Armenians. It is said that people with green or blue eyes are more prone to the evil eye effect.[clarification needed] A simple and instant way of protection in European Christian countries is to make the sign of the cross with your hand and point two fingers, the index finger and the little finger, towards the supposed source of influence or supposed victim as described in the first chapter of Bram Stoker's novel Dracula published in 1897:
When we started, the crowd round the inn door, which had by this time swelled to a considerable size, all made the sign of the cross and pointed two fingers towards me. With some difficulty, I got a fellow passenger to tell me what they meant. He would not answer at first, but on learning that I was English, he explained that it was a charm or guard against the evil eye.
The evil eye is mentioned several times in the classic Pirkei Avot (Ethics of Our Fathers). In Chapter II, five disciples of Rabbi Yochanan ben Zakai give advice on how to follow the good path in life and avoid the bad. Rabbi Eliezer says an evil eye is worse than a bad friend, a bad neighbor, or an evil heart. Judaism believes that a "good eye" designates an attitude of good will and kindness towards others. Someone who has this attitude in life will rejoice when his fellow man prospers; he will wish everyone well. An "evil eye" denotes the opposite attitude. A man with "an evil eye" will not only feel no joy but experience actual distress when others prosper, and will rejoice when others suffer. A person of this character represents a great danger to our moral purity. Many Observant Jews avoid talking about valuable items they own, good luck that has come to them and, in particular, their children. If any of these are mentioned, the speaker and/or listener will say "b'li ayin hara" (Hebrew), meaning "without an evil eye", or "kein eina hara" (Yiddish; often shortened to "kennahara"), "no evil eye". It has also been suggested the 10th commandment: "do not covet anything that belongs to your neighbor" is a law against bestowing the evil eye on another person.
In North India, the evil eye is called Buri Nazar. A charm bracelet, tattoo or other object ((Nazar battu)), or a slogan (Chashme Baddoor (slogan)), may be used to ward-off the evil eye. Some truck owners write the slogan to ward off the evil eye: "buri nazar wale tera muh kala" ("O evil-eyed one, may your face turn black").
In South India (Andhra Pradesh), people call it as 'Disti' or 'Drusti'. To remove Disti people follow several methods based on their culture/area. Items used to remove Disti either Rock salt or Red chilies or Oiled cloth. Taking one of this item, people remove Disti by rotating their hand with one of the item above around the person who affected by Disti and they will burn the item.
Belief in the evil eye, or buda (var. bouda), is widespread in Ethiopia. Buda is generally believed to be a power held and wielded by those in a different social group, for example among the Beta Israel or metalworkers.:20–21 Some Ethiopian Christians carry an amulet or talisman, known as a kitab, or will invoke God's name, to ward off the ill effects of buda. A debtera, who is either an unordained priest or educated layperson, will create these protective amulets or talismans.
The evil eye, known as μάτι (mati), "eye", as an apotropaic visual device, is known to have been a fixture in Greece dating back to at least the 6th century BC, when it commonly appeared on drinking vessels. In Greece, the evil eye is cast away through the process of xematiasma (ξεμάτιασμα), whereby the "healer" silently recites a secret prayer passed over from an older relative of the opposite sex, usually a grandparent. Such prayers are revealed only under specific circumstances, for according to superstition those who reveal them indiscriminately lose their ability to cast off the evil eye. There are several regional versions of the prayer in question, a common one being: "Holy Virgin, Our Lady, if [insert name of the victim] is suffering of the evil eye, release him/her of it." Evil repeated three times. According to custom, if one is indeed afflicted with the evil eye, both victim and "healer" then start yawning profusely. The "healer" then performs the sign of the cross three times, and emits spitting-like sounds in the air three times. A very similar ritual can be found in neighboring Bulgaria.
Another "test" used to check if the evil eye was cast is that of the oil: under normal conditions, olive oil floats in water, as it is less dense than water. The test of the oil is performed by placing one drop of olive oil in a glass of water, typically holy water. If the drop floats, the test concludes there is no evil eye involved. If the drop sinks, then it is asserted that the evil eye is cast indeed. Another form of the test is to place two drops of olive oil into a glass of water. If the drops remain separated, the test concludes there is no evil eye, but if they merge, there is. There is also a third form where in a plate full of water the "healer" places three or nine drops of oil. If the oil drops become larger and eventually dissolve in the water there is evil eye. If the drops remain separated from water in a form of a small circle there isn't. The first drops are the most important and the number of drops that dissolve in water indicate the strength of the evil eye.
There is another form of the "test" where the "healer" sets on fire using as a matchstick a clove. which is then thrown in water. If the clove "explodes" upon touching water the evil eye was cast. If it burns out silently it wasn't.
All of the above methods are usually performed by an old lady, who is known for her healing, or a grandparent.
The Greek Fathers accepted the traditional belief in the evil eye, but attributed it to the Devil and envy. In Greek theology, the evil eye or vaskania (βασκανία) is considered harmful for the one whose envy inflicts it on others as well as for the sufferer. The Greek Church has an ancient prayer against vaskania from the Megan Hieron Synekdemon book of prayers (Μέγαν Ιερόν Συνέκδημον).
Italy and Sicily
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The cornicello, "little horn", is also called the cornetto (little horn) or cornetti (plural), is a long, gently twisted horn-shaped amulet. Cornicelli are usually carved out of red coral or made from gold or silver. The type of horn they are intended to copy is not a curled-over sheep horn or goat horn but rather like the twisted horn of an African eland or something similar.
One idea that the ribald suggestions made by sexual symbols distract the witch from the mental effort needed to successfully bestow the curse. Another is that since the effect of the eye was to dry up liquids, the drying of the phallus (resulting in male impotence) would be averted by seeking refuge in the moist female genitals. Among the ancient Romans and their cultural descendants in the Mediterranean nations, those who were not fortified with phallic charms had to make use of sexual gestures to avoid the eye. Such gestures include the fig sign; a fist with the thumb pressed between the index and middle fingers, representing the phallus within the vagina. In addition to the phallic talismans, statues of hands in these gestures, or covered with magical symbols, were carried by the Romans as talismans. In Latin America, carvings of the fist with the thumb pressed between the index and middle fingers continue to be carried as good luck charms.
The wielder of the evil eye, the jettatore, is described as having a striking facial appearance, high arching brows with a stark stare that leaps from his black eyes. He often has a reputation for clandestine involvement with dark powers and is the object of gossip about dealings in magic and other forbidden practices. Successful men having tremendous personal magnetism quickly gain notoriety as jettatori. Pope Pius IV was dreaded for his evil eye, and a whole cycle of stories about the disasters that happened in his wake were current in Rome during the latter decades of the 19th century. Public figures of every type, from poets to gangsters, have had their specialized abilities attributed to the power of their eyes.
Spain and Latin America
The evil eye or 'Mal de Ojo' has been deeply embedded in Spanish popular culture throughout its history and Spain is the origin of this superstition in Latin America.
In Mexico and Central America, infants are considered at special risk for the evil eye (see mal de ojo, above) and are often given an amulet bracelet as protection, typically with an eye-like spot painted on the amulet. Another preventive measure is allowing admirers to touch the infant or child; in a similar manner, a person wearing an item of clothing that might induce envy may suggest to others that they touch it or some other way dispel envy.
One traditional cure in rural Mexico involves a curandero (folk healer) sweeping a raw chicken egg over the body of a victim to absorb the power of the person with the evil eye. The egg is later broken into a glass with water and placed under the bed of the patient near the head. Sometimes it is checked immediately because the egg appears as if it has been cooked. When this happens it means that the patient did have Mal De Ojo. Somehow the Mal De Ojo has transferred to the egg and the patient immediately gets well. (Fever, vomiting/diarrhea, nausea and pain goes away instantly) In the traditional Hispanic culture of the Southwestern United States and some parts of Mexico, the egg may be passed over the patient in a cross-shaped pattern all over the body, while saying the Lord's Prayer. The egg is also placed in a glass with water, under the bed and near the head, sometimes it is examined right away or in the morning and if the egg looks like it has been cooked then it means that they did have Mal de Ojo and the patient will start feeling better. Sometimes if the patient starts getting ill and someone knows that they had stared at patient, usually a child, if the person who stared goes to the child and touches them, the child's illness goes away immediately so the Mal De Ojo energy is released.
In some parts of South America the act of ojear, which could be translated as to give someone the evil eye, is an involuntary act. Someone may ojear babies, animals and inanimate objects just by staring and admiring them. This may produce illness, discomfort or possibly death on babies or animals and failures on inanimate objects like cars or houses. It's a common belief that since this is an involuntary act made by people with the heavy look, the proper way of protection is by attaching a red ribbon to the animal, baby or object, in order to attract the gaze to the ribbon rather than to the object intended to be protected.
Brazilians generally will associate mal-olhado, mau-olhado ("act of giving a bad look") or olho gordo ("fat eye" i.e. "gluttonous eye") with envy or jealousy on domestic and garden plants (that, after months or years of health and beauty, will suddenly weaken, wither and die, with no apparent signs of pest, after the visitation of a certain friend or relative), attractive hair and less often economic or romantic success and family harmony.
Unlike in most cultures mal-olhado is not seen to be something that risks young babies. "Pagans" or non-baptized children are instead assumed to be at risk from bruxas (witches), that have malignant intention themselves rather than just mal-olhado. It probably reflects the Galician folktales about the meigas or Portuguese magas, (witches), as Colonial Brazil was primarily settled by portuguese people ), in numbers greater than all Europeans to settle pre-independence United States. Those bruxas are interpreted to took the form of moths, often very dark, that disturb children at night and take their energy. For that reason, Christian Brazilians often have amulets in the form of crucifixes around, aside or inside beds where children sleep.
Nevertheless, older children, especially boys, that fulfill the cultural ideals of behaving extremely well (for example, having no problems whatsoever in eating well a great variety of foods, being obedient and respectful toward adults, kind, polite, studious, and demonstrating no bad blood with other children or their siblings) who unexpectedly turn into problematic adolescents or adults (for example lacking good health habits, extreme laziness or lacking motivation towards their life goals, having eating disorders, or being prone to delinquency), are said to have been victims of mal-olhado coming from parents of children whose behavior was not as admirable.
Amulets that protect against mal-olhado tend to be generally resistant, mildly to strongly toxic and dark plants in specific and strategic places of a garden or the entry to a house. Those include comigo-ninguém-pode ("against-me-nobody-cans"), Dieffenbachia (the dumbcane), espada-de-são-jorge ("St. George's sword"), Sansevieria trifasciata (the snake plant or mother-in-law's tongue) and guiné ("Guinea"), among various other names, Petiveria alliacea (the guinea henweed). For those lacking in space or wanting to "sanitize" specific places, they may all be planted together in a single sete ervas ("seven [lucky] herbs") pot, that will also include arruda (common rue), pimenteira (Capsicum annuum), manjericão (basil) and alecrim (rosemary). (Though the last four ones should not be used for their common culinary purposes by humans.)
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Mal ojo often occurs without the dimension of envy, but insofar as envy is a part of ono[disambiguation needed], it is a variant of this underlying sense of insecurity and relative vulnerability to powerful, hostile forces in the environment. In her study of medical attitudes in the Santa Clara Valley of California, Margaret Clark arrives at essentially the same conclusion: "Among the Spanish-speaking folk of Sal si Puedes, the patient is regarded as a passive and innocent victim of malevolent forces in his environment. These forces may be witches, evil spirits, the consequences of poverty, or virulent bacteria that invade his body. The scapegoat may be a visiting social worker who unwittingly 'cast the evil eye' ... Mexican folk concepts of disease are based in part on the notion that people can be victimized by the careless or malicious behavior of others".
Another aspect of the mal ojo syndrome in Ixtepeji is a disturbance of the hot-cold equilibrium in the victim. According to folk belief, the bad effects of an attack result from the "hot" force of the aggressor entering the child's body and throwing it out of balance. Currier has shown how the Mexican hot-cold system is an unconscious folk model of social relations upon which social anxieties are projected. According to Currier, "the nature of Mexican peasant society is such that each individual must continuously attempt to achieve a balance between two opposing social forces: the tendency toward intimacy and that toward withdrawal. [It is therefore proposed] that the individual's continuous preoccupation with achieving a balance between 'heat' and 'cold' is a way of reenacting, in symbolic terms, a fundamental activity in social relations."
In 1946, the American magician Henri Gamache published a text called Terrors of the Evil Eye Exposed! (later reprinted as Protection against Evil), which offers directions to defend oneself against the evil eye. Also known as "mean mugging" or "mad dogging" among urban youths.
In some cultures overcomplimenting cast a curse. So does envy. Since ancient times such maledictions have been collectively called the evil eye. According to the book The Evil Eye by folklorist Alan Dundes, the belief's premise is that an individual can cause harm simply by looking at another's person or property. But in protection is easy to come by with talismans that can be worn, carried, or hung in homes, most often incorporating the contours of a human eye. In Aegean countries people with light-colored eyes are thought to be particularly powerful, and amulets in Greece and Turkey are usually blue orbs. Indians, Muslims, and Jews use charms with palm-forward hands with an eye in the center; Italians employ horns, phallic shapes meant to distract spell casters.
Names in various languages
In most languages, the name translates literally into English as "bad eye", "evil eye", "evil look", or just "the eye". Some variants on this general pattern from around the world are:
- In Albanian it is known as "syri i keq" (Standart and Tosk), or as "syni keq" (Gheg) meaning "bad eye". Also "mësysh" is used commonly, meaning "cast an evil eye".
- In Arabic, ʿayn al-ḥasūd, عين الحسود, "the eye of envy". ʿAyn ḥārrah (عين حارّة) is also used, literally translating to "hot eye".
- In Armenian, char atchk (չար աչքն) "evil eye" or "bad eye". Regarding the act of giving an evil gaze, it is said (directly translated), "to give with the eye" or in Armenian, "atchkov tal".
- In Azerbaijani, "Göz dəyməsi" – translating as being struck by an eye
- In Chinese it is called 邪眼 (xieyan, literally "evil eye")
- In German, it is called "böser Blick", literally "evil gaze".
- In Greek, to matiasma (μάτιασμα) or mati (μάτι) someone refers to the act of casting the evil eye (mati being the Greek word for eye); also: vaskania (βασκανία, the Greek word for jinx)
- In Hebrew, ʿáyin hā-ráʿ (עַיִן הָרַע, "evil eye")
- In Hindi and other languages of North India, nazar (नज़र); nazar lagna (नज़र लगना) means to be afflicted by the evil eye.
- In Hungarian, gonosz szem means "evil eye", but more widespread is the expression szemmelverés (lit. "beating with eye"), which refers to the supposed/alleged act of harming one by an evil look
- In Italian, the word malocchio refers to the evil eye.
- In Japanese it is known as "邪視" ("jashi").
- In Kannada, it is called "drishti". (But cf. "Drishti (yoga)".)
- In Macedonian it is known as урокливо око.
- In Malayalam it is known as kannu veykkuka – to cast an evil eye while "kannu peduka" means to be on the receiving end of the malefic influence. "kannu dosham" refers to a bad effect caused by an evil eye.
- In Persian it is known as "چشم زخم" (injurious look/eyes causing injury) or "چشم شور" (omen eye) "Cheshmeh Hasood", meaning Jealous eye, or "Cheshme Nazar" meaning evil eye.
- In Polish it is known as "złe oko" or "złe spojrzenie".
- In Portuguese, it is called "mau olhado", ou "olho gordo" (literally "fat eye"). The first expression is used in Portugal and second one is more common in Brazil.
- In Romanian, it is known as "deochi", meaning literally "of eye".
- In Russian, "дурной глаз" (durnoy glaz) means "bad/evil eye"; "сглаз" (sglaz) literally means "from eye".
- In Sanskrit, an ancient Indian language, it is called "drishti dosha" (दृष्टि दोष) meaning malice caused by evil eye. (But cf. "drishti (yoga)".)
- In Serbian, Croatian, Bosnian and Montenegrin, it is called Urokljivo oko (Cyr. Урокљиво око). First word is adjective of the word urok/урок, which means spell or curse, and the second one means eye.
- In Somali, it is called "il", or "Ilaaco" or "Qumayo" ( first word literally meaning "eye" and the other two words meaning envy eye)
- In Spanish, mal de ojo literally means "evil from the eye" as the name does not refer to the actual eye but to the evil that supposedly comes from it. Casting the evil eye is then echar mal de ojo, i.e. "to cast evil from the eye".
- In Tamil, "கண் படுதல்" (kan padudhal) literally means "casting an eye" (with an intention to cause harm). "கண்ணூறு" (kannooru) "harm from the eye"
- In Turkish "nazar boncuğu" looking with kem göz meaning looking with evil eye
- In Urdu nazar; nazar lagna means to be afflicted by the evil eye.
- The Evil Eye Documentary
- Balor of the Evil Eye – a character in Irish legend
- Basilisk Death glance/petrifying glance
- Cockatrice Death glance/petrifying glance
- Eye of Horus – an Ancient Egyptian symbol of protection and power against evil.
- Eye of Providence – a symbol showing an eye surrounded by rays of light or a glory, and usually enclosed by a triangle.
- Eye of Sauron – a fictional eye from The Lord of the Rings by J. R. R. Tolkien
- Matthew 6:23 "If thine eye be evil" – The evil eye as ungenerosity of spirit, hence darkness / blindness / evil itself. (A saying of Jesus.)
- Medusa and Gorgon Petrification glance (Stone glance), picture also used on as protection from evil eye.
- Mirror armour, which is believed as protection not from only cold steel and arrows, but also from evil eye
- Nazar Battu – from North India and Pakistan
- Red string (Kabbalah)
- Sign of the horns – horned hand gesture used for warding off the Evil Eye and other purposes
- Thousand mile stare – a relatively common phenomenon that may be mistaken for the evil eye.
- Usog – a Filipino version.
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- Maloney, Clarence. The Evil Eye. New York: Columbia UP, 1976. p. 184. ISBN 0-231-04006-7.
- Gamache, Henri (1946) Terrors of the Evil Eye Exposed Raymond Publishing, New York, OCLC 9989883; reprinted in 1969 as Protection Against Evil Dorene, Dallas, Texas, OCLC 39132235
- Dundes, Alan (ed.) (1992) The Evil Eye: A Casebook University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, Wisconsin, ISBN 0-299-13334-6; originally published in 1981 by Garland Publishing, New York
- Rizzo, Johnna (April 2013) National Geographic Magazine
- Vaskania (Βασκανία) in Εγκυκλοπαιδικό Λεξικό Ελευθερουδάκη, (Encyclopedic Lexicon Eleftheroudakis) ed. 1928
- loghatnaameh.com. "Dictionary of Dehkhoda – لغتنامه دهخدا". Loghatnaameh.com.
- "Hakim Bey: Urokljivo oko (evil eye)". Kontrapunkt. February 7, 2006. Retrieved 3 January 2011.
- "Real Academia Española de la Lengua. Diccionario Usual" (in Spanish). Buscon.rae.es.
- Borthwick, E. Kerr (2001) "Socrates, Socratics, and the Word ΒΛΕΠΕΔΑΙΜΩΝ" The Classical Quarterly New Series, 51(1): pp. 297–301
- Dickie, Mathew W. (January 1991) "Heliodorus and Plutarch on the Evil Eye" Classical Philology 86(1): pp. 17–29
- Elworthy, Frederick Thomas (1895) The Evil Eye. An Account of this Ancient & Widespread Superstition John Murray, London, OCLC 2079005; reprinted in 2004 as: The Evil Eye: The Classic Account of an Ancient Superstition Dover Publications, Mineola, New York, ISBN 0-486-43437-0 (online text)
- Gifford, Edward S. (1958) The Evil Eye: Studies in the Folklore of Vision Macmillan, New York, OCLC 527256
- Jones, Louis C. (1951) "The Evil Eye among European-Americans" Western Folklore 10(1): pp. 11–25
- Limberis, Vasiliki (April 1991) "The Eyes Infected by Evil: Basil of Caesarea's Homily" The Harvard Theological Review 84(2): pp. 163–184
- Lykiardopoulos, Amica (1981) "The Evil Eye: Towards an Exhaustive Study" Folklore 92(2): pp. 221–230
- Meerloo, Joost Abraham Maurits (1971) Intuition and the Evil Eye: The Natural History of a Superstition Servire, Wassenaar, Netherlands, OCLC 415660
- Slone, Kathleen Warner and Dickie, M.W. (1993) "A Knidian Phallic Vase from Corinth" Hesperia 62(4): pp. 483–505
|Look up evil eye in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Evil Eye.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Evil eye.|
- The Evil Eye Beads in Turkey
- A Discourse on the Worship of Priapus by Richard Payne Knight (1786), mentions phallic charms against the Evil Eye in ancient Rome.
- The Evil Eye at Fortean Times
- The Evil Eye by Frederick Thomas Elworthy
- Evil Eye by Hakim Bey
- What is an "Ayin Hara" (evil eye)? – "Ask the Rabbi" at Ohr Somayach